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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410002

RESUMO

Rhodamine B (RhB) is used in various industries and its effluent must be effectively treated because of its harmful and carcinogenic nature. In this work, ionothermally synthesized Cu-doped Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Cu-Fe3O4 MNPs) were found to be a highly efficient heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst for complete decolorization of the RhB solution with H2O2 at pH ~ 7 and 25 °C. The effects of the catalyst loading, initial concentrations of RhB and H2O2, co-existing natural organic matter and inorganic salts, reaction temperature, and radical scavengers on the catalytic performance of Cu-Fe3O4 were investigated. Monte-Carlo simulations revealed that copper dopants facilitated the activation of H2O2 via adopting a terminal end-on adsorption mode and increased collision frequency by bringing the RhB molecules closer to H2O2 and the magnetite surface. These theoretical calculations provide new insight into the promotional effect of copper dopants in magnetite at molecular level.

3.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(2): 546-556, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449619

RESUMO

Silk fibroin films are used in tissue engineering due to their biocompatibility, optical clarity, and slow biodegradability. However, the relatively smooth surface and low permeability of these systems may limit some applications; thus, here, a method was developed to generate nano-pores in methanol or ethanol-treated silk fibroin films. The first step was to induce the formation of nanoparticles (50-300 nm diam.) in silk fibroin solutions by autoclaving. After drying in air, the films formed were treated to induce silk ß-sheet structures, which condense the bulk silk phase and nanoparticles and phase separation and enlarge the space of bulk silk phase and nanoparticles. These films were then extracted with water to allow the condensed nanoparticles to escape, leaving homogeneous nano-pores (50-300 nm) in the silk fibroin matrix. The introduction of nano-pores resulted in enhanced permeability and minimized loss of the mechanical properties of the nano-porous silk fibroin films (NSFs) when compared to the un-autoclaving-treated silk fibroin films. NSFs promoted cell (human fibroblasts) proliferation and oxygen/nutrition perfusion and significantly enhanced the complete skin-thickness wound healing in a rat model, suggesting the potential use in tissue regeneration or as wound dressing biomaterials for clinical applications.

4.
Nano Lett ; 20(10): 7594-7599, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936650

RESUMO

Non-Hermitian systems, with symmetric or antisymmetric Hamiltonians under the parity-time (PT) operations, can have entirely real or imaginary eigenvalues. This fact has led to surprising discoveries such as loss-induced lasing and topological energy transfer. A merit of anti-PT systems is free of gain, but in recent efforts on making anti-PT devices, nonlinearity is still required. Here, counterintuitively, we show how to achieve anti-PT symmetry and its spontaneous breaking in a linear device by spinning a lossy resonator. Compared with a Hermitian spinning device, significantly enhanced optical isolation and ultrasensitive nanoparticle sensing are achievable in the anti-PT-broken phase. In a broader view, our work provides a new tool to study anti-PT physics, with such a wide range of applications as anti-PT lasers, anti-PT gyroscopes, and anti-PT topological photonics or optomechanics.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(20): 23340-23346, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348113

RESUMO

Magnetic nanostructures with conical shape are highly desired for pursuing extraordinary magnetic properties and microwave absorption. However, the fabrication of such nanostructures with controlled shape and size uniformities and alignment is not yet realized. Accordingly, the magnetic properties and their application as microwave absorber are not well understood. Here, we report on the first demonstration of controlled fabrication of soft magnetic nickel nanocone arrays with sharp geometry, large aspect ratio, uniform size, and parallel alignment. The imaginary part of the relative complex permeability shows multiband absorption in the 2-17 GHz range. Such an exceptional microwave absorption results from the uniform conical shape and size and the parallel alignment. The absorption mechanisms are discussed under the framework of natural resonance and exchange resonance. The natural resonance is dependent on the shape anisotropy and facilitated by the conical geometry. The exchange resonance is well explained by the observation of the bulk spin waves with exchange coupling at the tip of nanocones using the inelastic light scattering and is consistent with exchange theory predictions for the quantization of bulk spin waves. We expect that our work will shed light on the physical insights into the magnetic properties of nanocones and find great potential in applications of microwave absorption.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085613

RESUMO

The black layer (BL) is traditionally used as an indicator for kernel harvesting in maize, as it turns visibly dark when the kernel reaches physiological maturity. However, the molecular roles of BL in kernel development have not been fully elucidated. In this work, microscopy images showed that BL began to appear at a growth stage earlier than 10 days after pollination (DAP), and its color gradually deepened to become dark as the development period progressed. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that BL is a tissue structure composed of several layers of cells that are gradually squeezed and compressed during kernel development. Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) was used to sample BL and its neighboring inner tissue, basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL), and outer tissue, inner epidermis (IEP), from 20 DAP of kernels. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiling (MALDI-TOF MS profiling) detected 41, 104, and 120 proteins from LCM-sampled BL, BETL, and IEP, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the 41 BL proteins were primarily involved in the response to stress and stimuli. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis found that the BL proteins were enriched in several defense pathways, such as the ascorbate and aldarate metabolic pathways. Among the 41 BL proteins, six were BL-specific proteins that were only detected from BL. Annotations of five BL-specific proteins were related to stress responses. During kernel development, transcriptional expression of most BL proteins showed an increase, followed by a decrease, and reached a maximum zero to 20 DAP. These results suggest a role for BL in stress responses for protecting filial tissue against threats from maternal sides, which helps to elucidate the biological functions of BL.


Assuntos
Microdissecção e Captura a Laser , Proteômica , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Zea mays/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Genoma de Planta , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Coloração e Rotulagem , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Opt Express ; 27(20): 27649-27662, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684529

RESUMO

We propose how to mechanically control photon blockade (PB) and photon-induced tunneling (PIT) in an optomechanical system. We show that single-photon blockade (1PB) and two-photon blockade (2PB) can emerge by tuning mechanical driving parameters. Moreover, by varying the strength of mechanical driving, PIT can be converted into 1PB or 2PB, or vice versa, with the constant optical frequency. We refer to this effect as PIT-1PB or PIT-2PB switch. In addition, the switch between 1PB and 2PB can also be realized with this strategy. This mechanical engineering of quantum optical effects can be understood from the shifts of energy levels induced by external mechanical pumping. Our results not only pave the way towards devising new schemes for quantum light switch but also, on a more fundamental level, could shed light on the nonclassicality of the few-photon states.

8.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527535

RESUMO

The study reported on the isolation of a metalloprotease named EH2 from Pseudoalteromonas sp. H2. EH2 maintained more than 80% activity over a wide pH range of 5-10, and the stability was also nearly independent of pH. Over 65% activity was detected at a wide temperature range of 20-70 °C. The high stability of the protease in the presence of different surfactants and oxidizing agents was also observed. Moreover, we also investigated the antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates generated from porcine and salmon skin collagen by EH2. The results showed that salmon skin collagen hydrolysates demonstrated higher DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) (42.88% ± 1.85) and hydroxyl radical (61.83% ± 3.05) scavenging activity than porcine skin collagen. For oxygen radical absorbance capacity, the hydrolysates from porcine skin collagen had higher efficiency (7.72 ± 0.13 µmol·TE/µmol). Even 1 nM mixed peptides could effectively reduce the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. The two types of substrates exerted the best antioxidant activity when hydrolyzed for 3 h. The hydrolysis time and type of substrate exerted important effects on the antioxidant properties of hydrolysates. The hydrolyzed peptides from meat collagens by proteases have good antioxidant activity, which may have implications for the potential application of marine proteases in the biocatalysis industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Peptídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Pseudoalteromonas/enzimologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática , Estabilidade Enzimática , Espaço Extracelular , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450603

RESUMO

Our project examines the association between percent African American and smoke pollution in the form of prescribed burn-sourced, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the U.S. state of Georgia for 2018. (1) Background: African Americans constitute 32.4% of Georgia's population, making it the largest racial/ethnic minority group in the state followed by Hispanic Americans at 9.8%. African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and lower wealth groups are more likely than most middle and upper income White Americans to be exposed to environmental pollutants. This is true because racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to live in urban areas where pollution is more concentrated. As a point of departure, we examine PM2.5 concentrations specific to prescribed fire smoke, which typically emanates from fires occurring in rural or peri-urban areas. Two objectives are specified: a) examine the association between percent African American and PM2.5 concentrations at the census tract level for Georgia, and b) identify emitters of PM2.5 concentrations that exceed National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for the 24-h average, i. e., >35 µg/m3. (2) Methods: For the first objective, we estimate a spatial Durbin error model (SDEM) where pollution concentration (PM2.5) estimates for 1683 census tracts are regressed on percent of the human population that is African American or Hispanic; lives in mobile homes; and is employed in agriculture and related occupations. Also included as controls are percent evergreen forest, percent mixed evergreen/deciduous forest, and variables denoting lagged explanatory and error variables, respectively. For the second objective, we merge parcel and prescribed burn permit data to identify landowners who conduct prescribed fires that produce smoke exceeding the NAAQS. (3) Results: Percent African American and mobile home dweller are positively related to PM2.5 concentrations; and government and non-industrial private landowners are the greatest contributors to exceedance levels (4) Conclusions: Reasons for higher PM2.5 concentrations in areas with higher African American and mobile home percent are not clear, although we suspect that neither group is a primary contributor to prescribed burn smoke but rather tend to live proximate to entities, both public and private, that are. Also, non-industrial private landowners who generated prescribed burn smoke exceeding NAAQS are wealthier than others, which suggests that African American and other environmental justice populations are less likely to contribute to exceedance levels in the state.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Exposição Ambiental , Fogo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fumaça , Florestas , Georgia , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , População Rural
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261860

RESUMO

Short-term exposure to fire smoke, especially particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), is associated with adverse health effects. In order to quantify the impact of prescribed burning on human health, a general health impact function was used with exposure fields of PM2.5 from prescribed burning in Georgia, USA, during the burn seasons of 2015 to 2018, generated using a data fusion method. A method was developed to identify the days and areas when and where the prescribed burning had a major impact on local air quality to explore the relationship between prescribed burning and acute health effects. The results showed strong spatial and temporal variations in prescribed burning impacts. April 2018 exhibited a larger estimated daily health impact with more burned areas compared to Aprils in previous years, likely due to an extended burn season resulting from the need to burn more areas in Georgia. There were an estimated 145 emergency room (ER) visits in Georgia for asthma due to prescribed burning impacts in 2015 during the burn season, and this number increased by about 18% in 2018. Although southwestern, central, and east-central Georgia had large fire impacts on air quality, the absolute number of estimated ER asthma visits resulting from burn impacts was small in these regions compared to metropolitan areas where the population density is higher. Metro-Atlanta had the largest estimated prescribed burn-related asthma ER visits in Georgia, with an average of about 66 during the reporting years.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fogo , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Biológico , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estações do Ano
11.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 94(3): 1664-1671, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108011

RESUMO

Rivaroxaban (RIV) is a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) targeting activated coagulation factor X (FXa). An earlier study reported the F174A mutant of FXa resistant to a RIV-like inhibitor, Apixaban. In current study, the detailed molecular mechanism of the resistance has been explored by molecular dynamics simulations on the impaired interactions between RIV and FXa in the damaged S4 pocket of F174A mutant. Besides, an unexpected relative stable binding mode of S1'S1 was revealed, which required dynamic motions of Gln192 and Gln61 to allow the morpholinone moiety of RIV to shift into the S1' pocket and form strong interactions. These dynamic motions of RIV and critical residues might be important in drug design for direct inhibitors of coagulation factors.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/química , Fator X/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores do Fator Xa/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas Mutantes/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/química , Piridonas/química , Rivaroxabana/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Desenho de Fármacos , Fator X/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
R Soc Open Sci ; 6(3): 181500, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032008

RESUMO

An asymmetrical two-dimensional Ising model with a zigzag surface, created by diagonally cutting a regular square lattice, has been developed to investigate the thermodynamics and phase transitions on surface by the methodology of recursive lattice, which we have previously applied to study polymers near a surface. The model retains the advantages of simple formulation and exact calculation of the conventional Bethe-like lattices. An antiferromagnetic Ising model is solved on the surface of this lattice to evaluate thermal properties such as free energy, energy density and entropy, from which we have successfully identified a first-order order-disorder transition other than the spontaneous magnetization, and a secondary transition on the supercooled state indicated by the Kauzmann paradox.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206275, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346976

RESUMO

A sodium carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC)/chitosan (CS) composite sponge as drug carrier was prepared, and its structure and functions were investigated. Samples with different CMC/chitosan ratios and under different pH conditions were synthesized via a freeze-drying method. The microstructure of the dried sponges was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Molecule interactions between polymers were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and Thermal gravimetric analyze (TGA). The swelling degree, weight loss, in vitro drug release behavior and antibacterial property of the sponges were determined as well. The results showed that the CMC/chitosan ratio and the pH value significantly affected the appearance of the blending solution and the microstructure of the final product, and also affected the sponge's degradation behavior, drug-loading capacity and the antibacterial activity. Gentamicin (GEN) as a hydrophilic model drug was remarkably superior to the other two hydrophobic drugs, ibuprofen (IBU) and roxithromycin (ROX), with respect to in vitro releasing. Moreover, higher CMC content and lower pH value of the sponge were confirmed to lead a larger loading for GEN. The bacteriostatic experiment showed a strong antimicrobial ability of GEN-loaded sponges on inhibiting Escherichia coli.


Assuntos
Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Quitosana/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Bandagens , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Liofilização , Gentamicinas/química , Gentamicinas/metabolismo , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ibuprofeno/química , Ibuprofeno/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Roxitromicina/química , Roxitromicina/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Viscosidade
14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(15): 153601, 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362805

RESUMO

We propose how to create and manipulate one-way nonclassical light via photon blockade in rotating nonlinear devices. We refer to this effect as nonreciprocal photon blockade (PB). Specifically, we show that in a spinning Kerr resonator, PB happens when the resonator is driven in one direction but not the other. This occurs because of the Fizeau drag, leading to a full split of the resonance frequencies of the countercirculating modes. Different types of purely quantum correlations, such as single- and two-photon blockades, can emerge in different directions in a well-controlled manner, and the transition from PB to photon-induced tunneling is revealed as well. Our work opens up a new route to achieve quantum nonreciprocal devices, which are crucial elements in chiral quantum technologies or topological photonics.

15.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(6)2018 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861478

RESUMO

For the sake of environmental protection and circular economy, cement reduction and cement substitutes have become popular research topics, and the application of green materials has become an important issue in the development of building materials. This study developed green pervious concrete using water-quenched blast-furnace slag (BFS) and co-fired fly ash (CFFA) to replace cement. The objectives of this study were to gauge the feasibility of using a non-cement binder in pervious concrete and identify the optimal binder mix design in terms of compressive strength, permeability, and durability. For filled percentage of voids by cement paste (FPVs) of 70%, 80%, and 90%, which mixed with CFFA and BFS as the binder (40 + 60%, 50 + 50%, and 60 + 40%) to create pervious concrete with no cement. The results indicate that the complete (100%) replacement of cement with CFFA and BFS with no alkaline activator could induce hydration, setting, and hardening. After a curing period of 28 days, the compressive strength with different FPVs could reach approximately 90% that of the control cement specimens. The cementless pervious concrete specimens with BFS:CFFA = 7:3 and FPV = 90% presented better engineering properties and permeability.

16.
IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst ; 29(1): 208-217, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300697

RESUMO

In this paper, the problem of path following for underactuated snake robots is investigated by using approximate dynamic programming and neural networks (NNs). The lateral undulatory gait of a snake robot is stabilized in a virtual holonomic constraint manifold through a partial feedback linearizing control law. Based on a dynamic compensator and Line-of-Sight guidance law, the path-following problem is transformed to a regulation problem of a nonlinear system with uncertainties. Subsequently, it is solved by an infinite horizon optimal control scheme using a single critic NN. A novel fluctuating learning algorithm is derived to approximate the associated cost function online and relax the initial stabilizing control requirement. The approximate optimal control input is derived by solving a modified Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. The conventional persistence of excitation condition is relaxed by using experience replay technique. The proposed control scheme ensures that all states of the snake robot are uniformly ultimate bounded which is analyzed by using the Lyapunov approach, and the tracking error asymptotically converges to a residual set. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

17.
Acta Biomater ; 57: 498-510, 2017 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28499633

RESUMO

NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) capped with long-chain carboxylic acid were synthesized and then conjugated with chitosan (CS) in the aid of N-hydroxysuccinimide. The resultant nanocompound was integrated with doxorubicin (DOX) and Roussin's black salt (RBS), a photosensitive nitric oxide (NO) donor to produce stimuli-responsive UCNPs(DOX)@CS-RBS nanospheres as nanocarriers for controllable drug delivery. On the one hand, the encapsulated UCNPs can efficiently absorb NIR photons and convert them into visible photons to trigger NO release. On the other hand, the entrapped DOX can be released at lowered pH from the swollen nanospheres caused by stretched oleoyl-CS chains under acidic conditions. The UCNPs(DOX)@CS-RBS nanospheres exhibit great therapeutic efficacy, which is attributable to the combination of NO and DOX releases based on NO dose-dependent mechanisms. This study highlights the controllable release of NO and DOX from the same nanocarriers and the synergistic therapeutic effect on tumors, which could give new insights into improving cancer nanotherapeutics. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In this paper, core-shell structured UCNPs(DOX)@CS-RBS nanospheres have been designed and synthesized via a step-by-step procedure. The stimuli-responsive UCNPs(DOX)@CS-RBS nanospheres act as nanocarriers for controllable drug delivery towards cancer therapy. The encapsulated UCNPs can efficiently absorb NIR photons and convert them into visible light to trigger NO release. Meanwhile, the entrapped DOX can be released from the swollen nanospheres caused by stretched oleoyl-CS chains at lowered pH typical of intracellular environment. Synergistic cancer therapy will be achieved through the combination of NO and DOX releases based on NO dose-dependent mechanisms. This study provides new drug nanocarriers with high antitumor efficacy for synergistic cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Doxorrubicina , Nanosferas , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Óxido Nítrico , Animais , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacocinética , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanosferas/química , Nanosferas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/química , Óxido Nítrico/farmacocinética , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 200: 209-227, 2017 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28219727

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Many Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs) have changed over centuries of use, particularly in terms of their botanical identity and processing methods. In some cases, these changes have important implications for safety and efficacy in modern clinical practice. As most previous research has focused on clarifying the evolution of CMMs by analyzing traditional Chinese materia medica ("bencao") literature, assessments of historical collections are needed to validate these conclusions with material evidence. AIM OF THE STUDY: Historical collections of Chinese medicines reveal the market materials in circulation at a given moment in time, and represent an underexploited resource for analyzing the evolution of Chinese herbal medicines. This study compares specimens from a rare collection of CMMs from the 1920s with contemporary market materials; by highlighting examples of changes in botanical identity and processing that remain relevant for safe clinical practice in the modern era, this work aims to stimulate further research into previously unexplored historical collections of Chinese medicines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 620 specimens of CMMs that were collected from Chinese pharmacies in the Malay peninsula in the 1920s were examined macroscopically and compared with current pharmacopoeia specifications and authentic contemporary samples. These historical specimens, which are stored in the UK in the Economic Botany Collections (EBC) of Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, were morphologically examined, photographed, and compared to authentic CMMs stored at the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Chinese Medicines Center at Hong Kong Baptist University, as well as authentic herbarium-vouchered specimens from the Leon Collection (LC) at the Kew EBC. Case studies were selected to illustrate examples of historical changes in botanical identity, used plant parts, and processing methods. RESULTS: This investigation confirmed that confusion due to shared common names and regional variations in the botanical identity of certain CMMs has been a persistent issue over time. Additionally, historical changes in processing methods and the plant parts used were observed for some CMMs. In some cases, these changes have direct implications for the safe clinical practice of Chinese medicine. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary assessment illustrated the significant potential of collections for clarifying historical changes in CMMs. More research is needed to investigate pre-modern collections of CMMs, including a more comprehensive assessment of the holdings in the Kew EBC and other European collections that have not yet been explored from the perspective of Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/classificação , Etnobotânica/classificação , Etnobotânica/tendências , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/tendências , Fitoterapia/classificação , Fitoterapia/tendências , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/economia , Etnobotânica/economia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/economia , Fitoterapia/economia
19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 157: 325-334, 2017 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27987935

RESUMO

As a naturally-abundant biopolymer, chitosan (CS) exhibit pH-sensitive structural transformation within a narrow pH range. Integrating hydrophobic groups to CS molecules gives modified CS polymers with more adjustable pH responsiveness. In this paper, near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescent Ag2S QDs capped by long-chain carboxylic acid were synthesized and then conjugated with CS via esterification reaction. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) has an affinity for the hydrophobic oleoyl groups and was entrapped by them to produce Ag2S(DOX)@CS nanospheres. A variety of experiments were performed to characterize the nanospheres. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that the nanospheres can release DOX at lowered pH in tumor cells and have high antitumor efficacy. In addition, the strong NIR signal derived from the encapsulated Ag2S QDs makes real-time monitoring of the nanosphere distribution in a body possible. This study provides a new CS-based nanocomposite drug carrier for efficient cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Quitosana/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Raios Infravermelhos , Imagem Óptica
20.
Appl Opt ; 55(9): 2393-8, 2016 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27140579

RESUMO

Yarn tension is an important parameter for assuring textile quality. In this paper, an optical method to measure microtension of moving yarn automatically in the winding system is proposed. The proposed method can measure microtension of the moving yarn by analyzing the captured images. With a line laser illuminating the moving yarn, a linear array CCD camera is used to capture the images. Design principles of yarn microtension measuring equipment based on computer vision are presented. A local border difference algorithm is used to search the upper border of the moving yarn as the characteristic line, and Fourier descriptors are used to filter the high-frequency noises caused by unevenness of the yarn diameter. Based on the average value of the characteristic line, the captured images were classified into sagging images and vibration images. The average value is considered a sag coordinate of the sagging images. The peak and trough coordinates of the vibration are obtained by change-point detection. Then, according to axially moving string and catenary theory, we obtain the microtension of the moving yarn. Experiments were performed and compared with a resistance strain sensor, and the results prove that the proposed method is effective and of high accuracy.

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