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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 717: 137190, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062279

RESUMO

Sulfate and nitrate from secondary reactions remain as the most abundant inorganic species in atmospheric particle matter (PM). Their formation is initiated by oxidation (either in gas phase or particle phase), followed by neutralization reaction primarily by NH3, or by other alkaline species such as alkaline metal ions if available. The different roles of NH3 and metal ions in neutralizing H2SO4 or HNO3, however, are seldom investigated. Here we conducted semi-continuous measurements of SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and their gaseous precursors, as well as alkaline metal ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) in wintertime Beijing. Analysis of aerosol acidity (estimated from a thermodynamic model) indicated that preferable sulfate formation was related to low pH conditions, while high pH conditions promote nitrate formation. Data in different mass fraction ranges of alkaline metal ions showed that in some ranges the role of NH3 was replaced by alkaline metal ions in the neutralization reaction of H2SO4 and HNO3 to form particulate SO42- and NO3-. The relationships between mass fractions of SO42- and NO3- in those ranges of different alkaline metal ion content also suggested that alkaline metal ions participate in the competing neutralization reaction of sulfate and nitrate. The implication of the current study is that in some regions the chemistry to incorporate sulfur and nitrogen into particle phase might be largely affected by desert/fugitive dust and sea salt, besides NH3. This implication is particularly relevant in coastal China and those areas with strong influence of dust storm in the North China Plain (NCP), both of which host a number of megacities with deteriorating air quality.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 267, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937772

RESUMO

The ability to detect low numbers of microbial cells in food and clinical samples is highly valuable but remains a challenge. Here we present a detection system (called 'APC-Cas') that can detect very low numbers of a bacterial pathogen without isolation, using a three-stage amplification to generate powerful fluorescence signals. APC-Cas involves a combination of nucleic acid-based allosteric probes and CRISPR-Cas13a components. It can selectively and sensitively quantify Salmonella Enteritidis cells (from 1 to 105 CFU) in various types of samples such as milk, showing similar or higher sensitivity and accuracy compared with conventional real-time PCR. Furthermore, APC-Cas can identify low numbers of S. Enteritidis cells in mouse serum, distinguishing mice with early- and late-stage infection from uninfected mice. Our method may have potential clinical applications for early diagnosis of pathogens.

3.
Curr Microbiol ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897665

RESUMO

Phosphatidylserine synthase (Pss) is involved in the metabolic pathway in phospholipid synthesis in different organisms. In this study, Pss expression in Vibrio parahaemolyticus was verified through liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. To analyze the characteristics of Pss, the recombinant Pss was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli. The optimum temperature and pH of Pss were 40 °C and 8, respectively. When reacting with divalent metal, Pss activity decreased. In addition, Pss could not only use cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG, 16:0), but also CDP-DAG (18:1) as a substrate to produce cytidine 5'-monophosphate. Furthermore, the 3D structure of Pss was predicted, and the results revealed that histidine and lysine of the two HKD motifs were present in the catalytic site. Moreover, CDP-DAG (16:0) was docked with the Pss model. To investigate whether the two HKD motifs in Pss are important to its activity, site-directed mutagenesis of histidine was performed. The results revealed that the activities of both H131A and H352A were diminished. Little is known regarding the catalytic site of type I Pss. This is the first report on the biochemical characterization of Pss in V. parahaemolyticus.

4.
Acta Biomater ; 102: 458-467, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783141

RESUMO

Engineering of materials consisting of hypertrophic cartilage, as physiological template for de novo bone formation through endochondral ossification (ECO), holds promise as a new class of biological bone substitutes. Here, we assessed the efficiency and reproducibility of bone formation induced by the combination of ceramic granules with fractionated human adipose tissue ("nanofat"), followed by in vitro priming to hypertrophic cartilage. Human nanofat was mixed with different volumetric ratios of ceramic granules (0.2-1 mm) and cultured to sequentially induce proliferation (3 weeks), chondrogenesis (4 weeks), and hypertrophy (2 weeks). The resulting engineered constructs were implanted ectopically in nude mouse. The presence of ceramic granules regulated tissue formation, both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, their dispersion in nanofat at a ratio of 1:16 led to significantly increased cell number and glycosaminoglycan accumulation in vitro, as well as amount and inter-donor reproducibility of bone formation in vivo. Our findings outline a strategy for efficient utilization of nanofat for bone regeneration in an autologous setting, which should now be tested at an orthotopic site. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we assessed the efficiency and reproducibility of bone formation by a combination of ceramic granules and fractionated human adipose tissue, also known as nanofat, in vitro primed into hypertrophic cartilage. The resulting engineered cartilaginous constructs, when implanted ectopically in nude mouse, resulted in bone and bone marrow formation, more reproducibly and strongly that nanofat alone. This project evaluates the impact of ceramic granules on the functionality and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors inside their native adipose tissue niche and outlines a novel strategy for an efficient application of nanofat for bone regeneration in an autologous setting.

5.
Biofactors ; 46(1): 100-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587376

RESUMO

Obesity is a public health problem that has raised concerns worldwide and is often associated with hepatic steatosis. Hepassocin is a novel hepatokine that causes hepatic steatosis and induces insulin resistance (IR). However, the role of hepassocin in obesity remains obscure. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between hepassocin levels and obesity. In total, 371 subjects who had a normal weight (NW), were overweight, or were obese were enrolled. We found that hepassocin levels in subjects who were overweight (6,705 ± 1,707 pg/ml) or obese (7,335 ± 2,077 pg/ml) were significantly higher than those of subjects with a NW (5,767 ± 1,500 pg/ml) (p < .001, test for trend). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that the body-mass index, waist circumference, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and homeostatic model assessment of IR were independently associated with hepassocin after adjusting for age, sex, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, log triglycerides, alanine transaminase, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate. This study provides evidence that subjects who were overweight or obese had significantly higher hepassocin levels than those with a NW. Hepassocin may be a useful biomarker in managing obesity and its related metabolic dysregulation.

6.
Food Chem ; 310: 125977, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837527

RESUMO

To improve the survivability of probiotics under the harsh conditions, a novel double-layered vehicle, which was developed by a one-step coaxial electrospinning procedure, was here used to encapsulate the probiotics. The morphology characterization analysis revealed that the electrospun fiber had a beaded morphology and core-shell structure. Probiotic cells were successfully encapsulated in the fibers (107 CFU/mg) and exhibited an oriented distribution along the fiber. Additionally, the encapsulation of core-shell fiber mat enhanced the tolerance of probiotic cells to simulated gastrointestinal conditions and no significant loss of viability was found (p > 0.05). Besides that, the encapsulated cells exhibited better thermal stability under heat moisture treatment, lower loss of viability (0.32 log CFU/mL) was occurred when compared with the free cells or encapsulated cells in uniaxial fiber mat. In conclusion, this double-layered vehicle presents a great potential in probiotic encapsulation and improving their resistant ability to the harsh conditions.

7.
Clin Plast Surg ; 47(1): 81-89, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739901

RESUMO

In this article the authors introduce a compartment-based fat graft for facial contouring, focusing on the anatomy of temporal region and midface, the 3L3M integrated fat transfer technique, and the facial compartment-based fat injection in the face. This article includes details of pre-evaluation methods, results of cases, and postoperation care. Readers will have a clear view of how to do facial contouring fat graft in the face after reading this article. There seldom are complications while using the 3L3M technique for fat grafting. The targeted fat grafting can lead to steady and efficient results.

8.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 8895-8904, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802901

RESUMO

Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. As a high-risk factor for CRC, ulcerative colitis (UC) has been demonstrated to lead to epithelial dysplasia, DNA damage, and eventually cancer. There are approximately 18% of patients with UC may develop CRC. Patients and methods: The gene expression profiles were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery was employed to conduct gene annotations. Protein-protein interaction network was constructed by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes, and further analysed by the Molecular Complex Detection. The correlation between TIMP1 and prognosis was evaluated by the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis. To predict the potential functions of TIMP1, the GeneMANIA, Coremine, and FunRich were employed. After transfection with small interfering RNA targeting TIMP1, cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis were determined by CCK-8, scratch wound, and Annexin V-FITC/PI assays, respectively. Results: TIMP1, consistently overexpressed in the initiation and progression of UC-associated CRC (ucaCRC), was identified to be a potential biomarker for the prognosis of patients with CRC. Experimental results showed knockdown of TIMP1 could increase the migration, while did not affect the proliferation and apoptosis of RKO cells. The role of TIMP1 in the malignant transformation of ucaCRC was confirmed by using the protein/gene interactions and biological process annotation and validated by analysing the transcription factors targeting TIMP1. Conclusion: TIMP1 is consistently upregulated in the pathological process of ucaCRC and can be a potential biomarker for the worse prognosis of CRC.

9.
Urol Int ; : 1-10, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805567

RESUMO

Urolithiasis is one of the most common urologic diseases in industrialized societies. More than 80% of renal stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and small changes in urinary oxalate concentrations affect the risk of stone formation. Elucidation of the source of oxalate and its mechanism of transport is crucial for understanding the etiology of urolithiasis. Sources of oxalate can be both endogenous and exogenous. With regard to oxalate transport, tests were carried out to prove the function of solute-linked carrier 4 (SLC4) and SLC26. The molecular mechanism of urolithiasis caused by SLC4 and SLC26 is still unclear. The growing number of studies on the molecular physiology of SLC4 and SLC26, together with knockout genetic mouse model experiments, suggest that SLC4 and SLC26 may be a contributing element to urolithiasis. This review summarizes recent research on the sources of oxalate and characterization of the oxalate transport ionic exchangers SLC4 and SLC26, with an emphasis on different physiological defects in knockout mouse models including kidney stone formation. Furthermore, SLC4 and SLC26 exchangers provide new insight into urolithiasis and may be a novel therapeutic target for modification of urinary oxalate excretion.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15691, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666565

RESUMO

Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute intestinal virus infectious disease which is one of major public health problems in mainland China. Previous studies indicated that HFMD was significantly influenced by climatic factors, but the associated factors were different in different areas and few study on HFMD forecast models was conducted. Here, we analyzed epidemiological characteristics of HFMD in Yiwu City, Zhejiang Province and constructed three forecast models. Overall, a total of 32554 HFMD cases were reported and 12 cases deceased in Yiwu City, Zhejiang Province. The incidence of HFMD peaked every other year and the curve of HFMD incidence had an approximately W-shape. The majority of HFMD cases were children and 95.76% cases aged ≤5 years old from 2008 to 2016. Furthermore, we constructed and compared three forecast models using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, negative binomial regression model (NBM), and quasi-Poisson generalized additive model (GAM). All the three models had high agreements between predicted values and observed values, while GAM fitted best. The exposure-response curve of monthly mean temperature and HFMD was approximately V-shaped. Our study explored epidemiological characteristics of HFMD in Yiwu City and provided accurate methods for early warning which would be great importance for the control and prevention of HFMD.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(44): 41482-41489, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597432

RESUMO

The field of neuromorphic computing systems has been through enormous progress in recent years, whereas some issues are still remaining to be solved. One of the biggest challenges in neuromorphic circuit designing is the lack of a robust device with functions comparable to or even better than the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) used in traditional integrated circuits. In this work, we demonstrated a MoS2 neuristor using a dual-gate transistor structure. An ionic top gate is designed to control the migration of ions, while an electronic back gate is used to control electronic migration. By applying different driving signals, the MoS2 neuristor can be programmed as a neuron, a synapse, or an n-type MOSFET, which can be seen as a fundamental building block in the neuromorphic circuit design. The MoS2 neuristor provides viable solutions for future reconfigurable neuromorphic systems and can be a promising candidate for future neuromorphic computing.

12.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(4): 835-844, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative hypertrophic scarring of the medial canthal area is a common phenomenon and deterrent for patients considering epicanthoplasty. Botulinum toxin type A has been reported for hypertrophic scar and keloid treatment. However, there is a lack of high-level evidence regarding the effects of botulinum toxin type A in the medial canthal area. METHODS: In this split-face, double-blind, randomized trial, 43 consecutive consenting patients undergoing Park Z-epicanthoplasty were randomized to receive 5 U of botulinum toxin type A or the same volume of saline injections at days 6 to 7 postoperatively. Scars were assessed independently using the Vancouver Scar Scale, the visual analogue scale, and patient satisfaction rating at the 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-ups. RESULTS: Overall, 30 patients completed this trial. The botulinum toxin type A-treated side achieved significantly improved Vancouver Scar Scale scores. The most obvious improvements were observed at the 3-month follow-up visit. Among the four subscores of the Vancouver Scar Scale, the most significantly improved subscores were the height and pliability. The visual analogue scale scores also decreased significantly on the botulinum toxin type A-treated side at all three follow-up visits. Approximately 86.7 percent of the patients were satisfied with the scar and epicanthoplasty outcomes. No severe complications were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Early postoperative botulinum toxin type A injection in the medial canthal region efficiently reduces hypertrophic scarring and improves the outcome of epicanthoplasty. Therefore, botulinum toxin type A injection can be used as a routine method to prevent hypertrophic scarring and improve the outcome of epicanthoplasty. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, II.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/prevenção & controle , Aparelho Lacrimal/cirurgia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12506-12518, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536707

RESUMO

Highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) play an important role in the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). However, the abundance of HOMs in different environments and their relation to the oxidative potential of fine particulate matter (PM) are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the relative HOM abundance and radical yield of laboratory-generated SOA and fine PM in ambient air ranging from remote forest areas to highly polluted megacities. By electron paramagnetic resonance and mass spectrometric investigations, we found that the relative abundance of HOMs, especially the dimeric and low-volatility types, in ambient fine PM was positively correlated with the formation of radicals in aqueous PM extracts. SOA from photooxidation of isoprene, ozonolysis of α- and ß-pinene, and fine PM from tropical (central Amazon) and boreal (Hyytiälä, Finland) forests exhibited a higher HOM abundance and radical yield than SOA from photooxidation of naphthalene and fine PM from urban sites (Beijing, Guangzhou, Mainz, Shanghai, and Xi'an), confirming that HOMs are important constituents of biogenic SOA to generate radicals. Our study provides new insights into the chemical relationship of HOM abundance, composition, and sources with the yield of radicals by laboratory and ambient aerosols, enabling better quantification of the component-specific contribution of source- or site-specific fine PM to its climate and health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerossóis , Pequim , China , Finlândia
14.
Women Health ; : 1-15, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488046

RESUMO

The present study investigated factors associated with health literacy in community-dwelling Taiwanese women, particularly focusing on those associated with prevalent unhealthy behaviors. This cross-sectional study recruited 353 community-dwelling women aged 39-89 years from February to October 2015 in urban, suburban, and rural areas. Variables investigated included physical activity, community activity, tobacco usage, alcohol consumption, and betel-nut chewing. Degree of health literacy was evaluated using the Chinese-language version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire. Most respondents had inadequate (17.6%), or problematic (49.3%), general health literacy. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that low educational attainment was closely associated with inadequate or problematic general health literacy. Women who did not engage in regular physical activity or direct community activity were more likely to have inadequate and problematic general health literacy, respectively. Selected unhealthy behaviors (tobacco usage, alcohol consumption, betel-nut chewing) were not associated with health literacy. Low health literacy was prevalent among participants. Lower educational attainment and a lack of physical or community activity were associated with low health literacy. Health literacy should be considered during the process of delivering health information, and health education programs must enhance health literacy tailored to address individuals' lifestyles.

15.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 835, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447641

RESUMO

Simulating human brain with hardware has been an attractive project for many years, since memory is one of the fundamental functions of our brains. Several memory models have been proposed up to now in order to unveil how the memory is organized in the brain. In this paper, we adopt spatio-temporal memory (STM) model, in which both associative memory and episodic memory are analyzed and emulated, as the reference of our hardware network architecture. Furthermore, some reasonable adaptations are carried out for the hardware implementation. We finally implement this memory model on FPGA, and additional experiments are performed to fine tune the parameters of our network deployed on FPGA.

16.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412540

RESUMO

Pathogenic bacterial contamination greatly threats human health and safety. Rapidly biosensing pathogens in the early stage of infection would be helpful to choose the correct drug treatment, prevent transmission of pathogens, as well as decrease mortality and economic losses. Traditional techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, are accurate and effective, but are greatly limited because they are complex and time-consuming. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensors combine the advantages of both electrochemical and photoluminescence analysis and are suitable for high sensitivity and simple pathogenic bacteria detection. In this review, we summarize recent advances in ECL sensors for pathogenic bacteria detection and highlight the development of paper-based ECL platforms in point of care diagnosis of pathogens.

18.
Sci Adv ; 5(6): eaau3194, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245534

RESUMO

As a strong candidate for future electronics, atomically thin black phosphorus (BP) has attracted great attention in recent years because of its tunable bandgap and high carrier mobility. Here, we show that the transport properties of BP device under high electric field can be improved greatly by the interface engineering of high-quality HfLaO dielectrics and transport orientation. By designing the device channels along the lower effective mass armchair direction, a record-high drive current up to 1.2 mA/µm at 300 K and 1.6 mA/µm at 20 K can be achieved in a 100-nm back-gated BP transistor, surpassing any two-dimensional semiconductor transistors reported to date. The highest hole saturation velocity of 1.5 × 107 cm/s is also achieved at room temperature. Ballistic transport shows a record-high 36 and 79% ballistic efficiency at room temperature and 20 K, respectively, which is also further verified by theoretical simulations.

19.
Health Soc Care Community ; 27(5): e724-e733, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215097

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between health literacy and hospice knowledge, attitude and decision in community-dwelling elderly participants. This cross-sectional study enrolled 990 community-dwelling elderly participants in three residential areas, with a mean age of 71.53 ± 7.22 years. Health literacy was assessed using the Mandarin version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire. Knowledge, attitude and decision towards hospice care were assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Partial least squares were used for data analysis. More than half of the respondents had sufficient knowledge of hospice care (60.7%) and a positive attitude (77.3%) and positive decision (85%) towards hospice care. In the structural equation model, general health literacy positively predicted knowledge (ß = 0.73, p <0.001), attitude (ß = 0.06, p = 0.038) and decision (ß = 0.14, p < 0.001) towards hospice care. General health literacy had a greater overall effect on hospice decision (ß = 0.57) than hospice knowledge (ß = 0.54). In addition, disease prevention health literacy also demonstrated a higher level of influence on hospice decision (ß = 0.59) than hospice knowledge (ß = 0.53). Health literacy was associated with hospice knowledge, attitude and decision. Incorporating health literacy interventions into hospice promotion strategies is recommended.

20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(11): 6192-6202, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083926

RESUMO

Organosulfates (OSs) have been observed as substantial constituents of atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) in a wide range of environments; however, the chemical composition, sources, and formation mechanism of OSs are still not well understood. In this study, we first created an "OS precursor map" based on the elemental composition of previous OS chamber experiments. Then, according to this "OS precursor map", we estimated the possible sources and molecular structures of OSs in atmospheric PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) samples, which were collected in urban areas of Beijing (China) and Mainz (Germany) and analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. On the basis of the "OS precursor map", together with the polarity information provided by UHPLC, OSs in Mainz samples are suggested to be mainly derived from isoprene/glyoxal or other unknown small polar organic compounds, while OSs in Beijing samples were generated from both isoprene/glyoxal and anthropogenic sources (e.g., long-chain alkanes and aromatics). The nitrooxy-OSs in the clean aerosol samples were mainly derived from monoterpenes, while much fewer monoterpene-derived nitrooxy-OSs were obtained in the polluted aerosol samples, showing that nitrooxy-OS formation is affected by different precursors in clean and polluted air conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Sulfatos , Aerossóis , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Alemanha , Espectrometria de Massas
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