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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041065

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether contralateral cervical lymph node dissection is needed in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) with contralateral cervical cN0. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and Cochrane Library databases up to August 14, 2021 for studies examining the contralateral neck occult metastasis rate of patients with ipsilateral clinical neck-negative (cN0) OPSCC and the contralateral neck occult metastasis rate of patients with ipsilateral clinical neck-positive (cN1, cN2a, cN2b) OPSCC. This rate is used to determine whether patients with contralateral cN0 OPSCC need contralateral cervical lymph node dissection. RESULTS: A total of 14 articles, including 532 cases, were included in the analysis. When studying the rate of ipsilateral cervical occult metastasis in patients with ipsilateral cN0, 163 cases were included in 11 studies. The results showed that the rate of contralateral cervical occult lymph node metastasis in patients with ipsilateral cN0 was 0.6816% (95% CI 0.0000-4.4880 (P = 0.3005)). In the study of ipsilateral cN+ (cN1, cN2a, cN2b), a total of 369 cases of 10 articles were included in the analysis. The results showed that the rate of contralateral cervical occult lymph node metastasis in patients with ipsilateral cN+ was 11.4920% [95% CI 7.8944-15.5223 (P = 0.0000)]. CONCLUSION: For cancer treatment, the ultimate goal is to achieve the best control of cancer and the lowest complications. It seems unnecessary to intervene in the contralateral neck of patients with OPSCC with ipsilateral cN0. For OPSCC with ipsilateral cN+ , this index is a factor that cannot be ignored when making clinical decisions.

2.
J Pers Med ; 11(11)2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834585

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate genetic risk factors for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by investigating not previously studied genetic risk variants and further examining previously reported genetic associations. A genome-wide study (GWAS) was conducted in genetically estimated Europeans in a discovery cohort of cisplatin-treated adults from Toronto, Canada, followed by a candidate gene approach in a validation cohort from the Netherlands. In addition, previously reported genetic associations were further examined in both the discovery and validation cohorts. The outcome, nephrotoxicity, was assessed in two ways: (i) decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula (CKD-EPI) and (ii) increased serum creatinine according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03 for acute kidney injury (AKI-CTCAE). Four different Illumina arrays were used for genotyping. Standard quality control was applied for pre- and post-genotype imputation data. In the discovery cohort (n = 608), five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached genome-wide significance. The A allele in rs4388268 (minor allele frequency = 0.23), an intronic variant of the BACH2 gene, was consistently associated with increased risk of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in both definitions, meeting genome-wide significance (ß = -8.4, 95% CI -11.4--5.4, p = 3.9 × 10-8) for decreased eGFR and reaching suggestive association (OR = 3.9, 95% CI 2.3-6.7, p = 7.4 × 10-7) by AKI-CTCAE. In the validation cohort of 149 patients, this variant was identified with the same direction of effect (eGFR: ß = -1.5, 95% CI -5.3-2.4, AKI-CTCAE: OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.5). Findings of our previously published candidate gene study could not be confirmed after correction for multiple testing. Genetic predisposition of BACH2 (rs4388268) might be important in the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, indicating opportunities for mechanistic understanding, tailored therapy and preventive strategies.

3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 777617, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778094

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers (BTCs), including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and gallbladder cancer (GC), are malignancies originating from the biliary tract with poor prognosis. In the early stage of BTCs, surgery is the only choice for cure. Unfortunately, most patients with BTC are diagnosed at an advanced stage and lose the opportunity for surgery. For many advanced solid tumors, antiangiogenic therapy has achieved encouraging results. While most clinical studies on antiangiogenic therapy in advanced BTCs have shown an excellent disease control rate (DCR), the improvement in overall survival (OS) is controversial. Understanding how the relevant signaling molecules influence the angiogenic response and the functional interaction is necessary for the formulation of new treatment regimens and the selection of enrolled patients. In this review, we aim to summarize and discuss the latest advances in antiangeogenesis for BTCs, mainly focusing on the molecular mechanism of angiogenesis in BTCs and the therapeutic effects from clinical trials. Furthermore, the horizon of antiangiogenesis for BTCs is highlighted.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118091, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488157

RESUMO

Decision-making related to nitrogen (N) fertilization is a crucial step in agronomic practices because of its direct interactions with agronomic productivity and environmental risk. Here, we hypothesized that soil apparent N balance could be used as an indicator to determine the thresholds of N input through analyzing the responses of the yield and N loss to N balance. Based on the observations from 951 field experiments conducted in rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping systems of China, we established the relationships between N balance and ammonia (NH3) volatilization, yield increase ratio, and N application rate, respectively. Dramatical increase of NH3 volatilizations and stagnant increase of the rice yields were observed when the N surplus exceeded certain levels. Using a piecewise regression method, the seasonal upper limits of N surplus were determined as 44.3 and 90.9 kg N ha-1 under straw-return and straw-removal scenarios, respectively, derived from the responses of NH3 volatilization, and were determined as 53.0-74.9 and 97.9-112.0 kg N ha-1 under straw-return and straw-removal scenarios, respectively, derived from the maximum-yield consideration. Based on the upper limits of N surplus, the thresholds of N application rate suggested to be applied in single, middle-MLYR, middle-SW, early, and late rice types ranged 179.0-214.9 kg N ha-1 in order to restrict the NH3 volatilization, and ranged 193.3-249.8 kg N ha-1 in order to achieve the maximum yields. If rice straw was returned to fields, on average, the thresholds of N application rate could be theoretically decreased by 17.5 kg N ha-1. This study provides a robust reference for restricting the N surplus and the synthetic fertilizer N input in rice fields, which will guide yield goals and environmental protection.


Assuntos
Oryza , Agricultura , Amônia/análise , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo
5.
Biomark Res ; 9(1): 45, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although some studies have demonstrated that lncRNAs are dysregulated in hematopoietic malignancies and may regulate the progression of leukemia, the detailed mechanism underlying tumorigenesis is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate lncRNAs that are differentially expressed in childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and their potential roles in the progression of childhood ALL. METHODS: Microarrays were used to detect differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs. Several aberrantly expressed lncRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Leukemia-free survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method with a log-rank test. The co-expression correlations of lncRNAs and mRNAs were determined by Spearman's correlation coefficient. CCK-8 assays and flow cytometry were performed to measure cell proliferation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We revealed that many lncRNAs were abnormally expressed in B-ALL and T-ALL. LncRNA/mRNA co-expression and the gene locus network showed that dysregulated lncRNAs are involved in diverse cellular processes. We also assessed the diagnostic value of the differentially expressed lncRNAs and confirmed the optimal combination of TCONS_00026679, uc002ubt.1, ENST00000411904, and ENST00000547644 with an area under the curve of 0.9686 [95 % CI: 0.9369-1.000, P < 0.001], with 90.7 % sensitivity and 92.19 % specificity, at a cut-off point of -0.5700 to distinguish childhood B-ALL patients from T-ALL patients, implying that these specific lncRNAs may have potential to detect subsets of childhood ALL. Notably, we found that the 8-year leukemia-free survival of patients with high TCONS_00026679 (p = 0.0081), ENST00000522339 (p = 0.0484), ENST00000499583 (p = 0.0381), ENST00000457217 (p = 0.0464), and ENST00000451368 (p = 0.0298) expression levels was significantly higher than that of patients with low expression levels of these lncRNAs, while patients with high uc002ubt.1 (p = 0.0499) and ENST00000547644 (p = 0.0451) expression levels exhibited markedly shorter 8-year leukemia-free survival. In addition, some lncRNAs were found to play different roles in cell proliferation and apoptosis in T-ALL and B-ALL. CONCLUSIONS: Dysregulated lncRNAs involved in different regulatory mechanisms underlying the progression of childhood T-ALL and B-ALL might serve as novel biomarkers to distinguish ALL subsets and indicate poor outcomes.

6.
Phytomedicine ; 84: 153524, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) has been reported as a hallmark of hepatic fibrosis. Ginseng Rg1(G-Rg1) is a characterized bioactive component isolated from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Ginseng) that used in China widely. However, the anti-hepatic fibrosis property of G-Rg1 and the underlying mechanisms of action are poorly reported. PURPOSE: Here, we researched the effect of G-Rg1 on experimental liver fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We applied a CCL4-induced liver fibrosis in mice (wild-type and those overexpressing IDO1 by in vivo AAV9 vector) and HSC-T6 cells to detect the anti-hepatic fibrosis effect of G-Rg1 in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: We found that G-Rg1 reduced serum levels of AST and ALT markedly. Histologic examination indicated that G-Rg1 dramatically improved the extent of liver fibrosis and suppressed the hepatic levels of fibrotic marker α-SMA in vivo and in vitro. The proliferation of HSC-T6 was significantly inhibited by G-Rg1 in vitro. Both TUNEL staining and flow cytometry demonstrated that G-Rg1 attenuated the levels of hepatocyte apoptosis in fibrotic mice. Additionally, G-Rg1 up-regulated the maturation of hepatic DCs via reducing the expression level of hepatic IDO1, which played an inverse role in the maturation of DCs. Furthermore, oral administration of G-Rg1 ameliorated IDO1 overexpression-induced worsen liver fibrosis as well as IDO1 overexpression-mediated more apparent inhibition of maturation of DCs. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that G-Rg1, which exerts its antifibrotic properties via alleviating IDO1-mediated the inhibition of DCs maturation, may be a potential therapeutic drug in treating liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Panax/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 616409, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716743

RESUMO

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has become a heavy burden on health worldwide. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), extracted from Panax quinquefolium L., has protective effects on many diseases, but the effect and mechanisms of GRb1 on ALD remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of GRb1 on ALD and to discover the potential mechanisms. Zebrafish larvae were exposed to 350 mM ethanol for 32 h to establish a model of acute alcoholic liver injury, and the larvae were then treated with 6.25, 12.5, or 25 µM GRb1 for 48 h. The human hepatocyte cell line was stimulated by 100 mM ethanol and meanwhile incubated with 6.25, 12.5, and 25 µM GRb1 for 24 h. The lipid changes were detected by Oil Red O staining, Nile Red staining, and triglyceride determination. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by fluorescent probes in vivo, and the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were detected by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that GRb1 alleviated lipid deposition in hepatocytes at an optimal concentration of 12.5 µM in vivo. GRb1 reversed the reactive oxygen species accumulation caused by alcohol consumption and partially restored the level of glutathione. Furthermore, GRb1 ameliorated liver inflammation by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration in the liver parenchyma and downregulating the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B pathway-associated proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß. This study revealed that GRb1 has a protective effect on alcohol-induced liver injury due to its resistance to lipid deposition as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. These findings suggest that GRb1 may be a promising candidate against ALD.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 6592-6605, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707345

RESUMO

Acute hepatic damage is a severe condition characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress, which is a serious threat to people's life and health. But there are few effective treatments for acute liver injury. Therefore, safe and effective therapeutic approaches for preventing acute liver damage are urgently needed. Lupeol is a natural compound, which has significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in liver disease. However, the protective mechanism of lupeol against acute liver injury remains unclear. Here, zebrafish and mutant mice were utilized to investigate the protective effects of lupeol against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/ D-galactosamine(D-GalN) -induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms. We found that pretreatment with lupeol attenuated the LPS/D-GalN-induced liver injury by decreasing the infiltration of inflammatory cells and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines. We also demonstrated that lupeol could protect injured liver from oxidative stress by downregulating the expression of TGFß1 and upregulating Nrf2. Notably, our experimental results provided the support that lupeol effectively protected against LPS/D-GalN-induced acute liver injury via suppression of inflammation response and oxidative stress, which were largely dependent on the upregulation of the Nrf2 pathway via downregulating TGFß1.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Galactosamina/toxicidade , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima , Peixe-Zebra
9.
J Environ Manage ; 282: 111956, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445139

RESUMO

Excessive fertilizer consumption, poor management, and intense pollution currently restrict sustainable agriculture in China. To address these problems, two 9-year experiments involving typical maize production systems in Northcentral China (summer maize) and Northeast China (spring maize) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Nutrient Expert (NE) management, a Nutrient Decision Support System which combines 4 R nutrient management with improved varieties and optimized plant density, on reducing carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) footprints. The mean grain yields under NE were 7.4 and 11.5 tons ha-1, which were 3.9% and 6.9% higher than those of local farmers' practices (FP) in the summer and spring maize systems, respectively; the N-derived (affected by N fertilization) yield accounted for 21.7% and 73.5% of the total yield under NE, respectively. Compared with FP, NE achieved 21.8% and 16.0% lower reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses, 18.4% and 20.9% lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 24.8% and 21.4% smaller N footprints (9.1 and 2.3 kg N ton-1 grain), and 21.5% and 26.0% smaller C footprints (436 and 206 kg CO2 eq ton-1 grain) in summer and spring maize, respectively. NE reduced the N-derived N and C footprints by 30.3% and 27.2% in summer maize and 22.9% and 28.0% in spring maize, respectively, as a result of greater yields and optimal N management. Moreover, compared with summer maize, spring maize showed significantly smaller N-derived N (12.6-fold) and C (7.2-fold) footprints. The results demonstrated the ability of long-term NE management to sustain maize yields, reduce Nr losses and GHG emissions, and cut C and N footprints, indicating its potential suitability as an alternative management for sustainable agriculture. Moreover, the summer maize system still had considerable potential for environmental footprints reduction even when current NE management practices were adopted.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Zea mays , Agricultura , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Solo
10.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(1): 16, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414436

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a course of chronic liver dysfunction, can develop into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Inflammatory insult owing to pathogenic factors plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) can affect the infiltration of immune cells in many pathology processes of diseases, but its role in liver fibrosis has not been elucidated completely. Here, the markedly elevated protein IDO1 in livers was identified, and dendritic cells (DCs) immune-phenotypes were significantly altered after BDL challenge. A distinct hepatic population of CD11c+DCs was decreased and presented an immature immune-phenotype, reflected by lower expression levels of co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, MHCII). Frequencies of CD11c+CD80+, CD11c+CD86+, CD11c+MHCII+, and CD11c+CD40+ cells in splenic leukocytes were reduced significantly. Notably, IDO1 overexpression inhibited hepatic, splenic CD11c+DCs maturation, mature DCs-mediated T-cell proliferation and worsened liver fibrosis, whereas above pathological phenomena were reversed in IDO1-/- mice. Our data demonstrate that IDO1 affects the process of immune cells recruitment via inhibiting DCs maturation and subsequent T cells proliferation, resulting in the promotion of hepatic fibrosis. Thus, amelioration of immune responses in hepatic and splenic microenvironment by targeting IDO1 might be essential for the therapeutic effects on liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/enzimologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Animais , Ductos Biliares/enzimologia , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(1)2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35009793

RESUMO

With the rise of deep learning, using deep learning to segment lesions and assist in diagnosis has become an effective means to promote clinical medical analysis. However, the partial volume effect of organ tissues leads to unclear and blurred edges of ROI in medical images, making it challenging to achieve high-accuracy segmentation of lesions or organs. In this paper, we assume that the distance map obtained by performing distance transformation on the ROI edge can be used as a weight map to make the network pay more attention to the learning of the ROI edge region. To this end, we design a novel framework to flexibly embed the distance map into the two-stage network to improve left atrium MRI segmentation performance. Furthermore, a series of distance map generation methods are proposed and studied to reasonably explore how to express the weight of assisting network learning. We conduct thorough experiments to verify the effectiveness of the proposed segmentation framework, and experimental results demonstrate that our hypothesis is feasible.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biológicos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
12.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 166, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276803

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, RNA sequencing has significantly progressed, becoming a paramount approach for transcriptome profiling. The revolution from bulk RNA sequencing to single-molecular, single-cell and spatial transcriptome approaches has enabled increasingly accurate, individual cell resolution incorporated with spatial information. Cancer, a major malignant and heterogeneous lethal disease, remains an enormous challenge in medical research and clinical treatment. As a vital tool, RNA sequencing has been utilized in many aspects of cancer research and therapy, including biomarker discovery and characterization of cancer heterogeneity and evolution, drug resistance, cancer immune microenvironment and immunotherapy, cancer neoantigens and so on. In this review, the latest studies on RNA sequencing technology and their applications in cancer are summarized, and future challenges and opportunities for RNA sequencing technology in cancer applications are discussed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/genética , RNA/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Transcriptoma , Microambiente Tumoral
13.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 160: 178-190, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771520

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis can develop into liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma substantially without effective available treatment currently due to rarely characterized molecular pathogenesis. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1(IDO1) can be detected on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and modulates various immune responses. However, the role of IDO1 in the regulation of dendritic cells (DCs) during liver fibrosis is rarely reported. Here, we found that hepatic IDO1 was up-regulated during CCL4-induced liver fibrosis, which accompanied by a significant decrease in the frequencies of CD11c+CD80+, CD11c+CD86+, CD11c+CD40+ and CD11c+MHCII+ cells and a reduction in the subsequent T cell proliferation rate, whereas these changes were reversed significantly in IDO1-/- mice. Overexpressing IDO1 by adeno-associated viral vector serotype 9 (AAV9) significantly inhibited the maturation status of DCs, worsened fibrosis. In vitro studies showed that significantly elevated CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHCII expression were observed in BMDCs derived from IDO1-/- mice. Moreover, the maturation of BMDCs derived from WT mice were significantly increased after stimulated with IDO1 inhibitor (1-methyl- D -tryptophan). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key regulator of the cellular adaptive response to oxidative insults and inflammation, exhibited a markedly decrease in the liver of WT fibrotic mice, nevertheless, knockout of IDO1 enhanced the protein level of Nrf2. Moreover, the expression of IDO1 and Nrf2 exhibited inverse colocalization pattern suggesting that ectopically expressed IDO1 down-regulated Nrf2. Additionally, up-regulation of IDO1 was also observed in the livers of Nrf2-/- fibrotic mice. Taken together, these data uncovered mutual antagonism between IDO1 and Nrf2 on the maturation status of DCs during hepatic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase , Cirrose Hepática , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Animais , Células Dendríticas , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/genética , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Triptofano
14.
Microorganisms ; 8(8)2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764443

RESUMO

Shifts in soil bacterial diversity and community composition are suggested to be induced by elevated input of nitrogen (N) fertilization with implications for soil quality, and consequently production. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of recommended fertilization (RF) and conventional fertilization (CF) on soil chemical properties, crop yield, bacterial diversity, and community composition from two long-term experiments conducted in fluvo-aquic soil and black soil of China. Each site comprised of four treatments, i.e., RF N-, RF N+, CF N-, CF N+. No N fertilization was indicated by N- and N fertilization was indicated by N+. Across both sites, N fertilization significantly increased crop yield compared with no N fertilization and RF successfully enhanced crop yield over CF. Interestingly, the RF maintained bacterial diversity, while CF depressed bacterial diversity in the two soils. Microbial taxa performing important ecological roles such as order Rhodospirillales and Bacillales were significantly enhanced in the RF approach, while Rhizobiales declined under CF. Furthermore, the results of partial least square path modeling revealed that soil available phosphorus (AP) negatively affected bacterial diversity while it positively affected bacterial community structure in fluvo-aquic soils. In contrast, soil pH was positively linked with both bacterial diversity and community structure in black soil. Overall, our study demonstrated that RF is an environmentally friendly approach which not only maintained above ground plant productivity, but also preserved belowground microbial populations and important soil variables regulating bacterial communities varied in different soil types.

15.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110929, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721354

RESUMO

Excessive synthetic nitrogen (N) applications, high mineral N accumulation and low N use efficiency (NUE) are current issues in intensively cultivated winter wheat production system impeding the sustainable development of agriculture in China. To solve these problems, soil accumulated N in the top 1 m of the soil profile before sowing (Nsoil), returned straw-N from the previous maize crop (Nstraw) and fertilizer N application (Nfertilizer) should be comprehensively considered N supply sources in N management. As such, the objective of this research was to determine the optimal total N supply (TNsupply) level needed to meet crop requirements while minimizing environmental impacts. A 9-year on-farm experiment was conducted in accordance with a split-plot design involving two different fertilizer management systems (main treatments) and three N application strategies (sub treatments). Extensive TNsupply levels (ranging from 61 kg ha-1 to 813 kg ha-1) were detected, and relative yield (RY), N input and N output in response to the TNsupply were measured. The relationships between TNsupply and RY, N input, and N output strongly fit linear-plateau, linear, and linear-plateau models, respectively. The minimum TNsupply levels needed to achieve the maximum RY and N output were 325 and 392 kg ha-1, respectively. On the basis of N supply capacity, the TNsupply was removed from the growing system by 61% (N input). As the N input increased past 209 kg ha-1, the NUE declined, at which point the TNsupply reached 433 kg ha-1. Therefore, the suitable TNsupply should range from 325 kg ha-1 (ensuring a total N supply for high yield and N uptake) to 433 kg ha-1 (obtaining a relatively higher NUE and less N loss to the environment). The TNsupply was highlighted to be an indicator for use in N management recommendations. Considering the average high N accumulation in winter wheat production systems, N management should essentially take into account the consumption of Nsoil, the levels of Nstraw and the minimum application of Nfertilizer to obtain high yields while minimizing environmental impacts under suitable TNsupply levels.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/análise , Triticum , Agricultura , China , Fertilizantes , Solo
16.
Oral Oncol ; 107: 104710, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have proved that periodontitis is an independent risk factor of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) epidemiologically. Along with the important role of microbiota in the cancer process and the specific anatomical position, our study explored the microbial composition and functions in periodontitis and gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: GSCC patients (n = 10), matched periodontitis patients (n = 15), and healthy individuals (n = 15) were recruited. Saliva, subgingival plaque, tongue dorsum, buccal mucosa, cancerous tissue, and paracancerous tissue samples were collected. 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing and functional prediction were applied for the taxonomic analysis. RESULTS: Periodontal pathogens occupied 46% in GSCC. Besides, the mutual operational taxonomy unites (OTU) generated from the subgingival plaque occupied 38.36% and 44.13% from saliva. Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, and Prevotella were more abundant in cancerous tissues, while Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Haemophilus were more enriched in saliva or soft mucosa. PCoA exhibited similar cluster between tongue dorsum and saliva in GSCC. GSCC showed lower richness than periodontitis. In saliva and subgingival plaque, Atopobium was more prevalent in GSCC than periodontitis and controls in descending order. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis increased in subgingival plaque of GSCC compared with the other two groups. CONCLUSION: Periodontal pathogens were abundant in GSCC. Cancerous tissues harbor enriched periodontal pathogens while saliva or soft mucosa harbored more periodontal health related bacteria. A high level of Atopobium in saliva and LPS biosynthesis have the potential for increasing the risk of suffering from GSCC in individuals with periodontitis, which needs more evidence to clarify it.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/microbiologia , Gengiva/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0223026, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568535

RESUMO

Tremendous amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizer have been added to arable lands, often resulting in substantial effects on terrestrial ecosystems, including soil acidification, altered enzyme activities and changes in microbial community composition. Soil microbes are the major drivers of soil carbon (C) and N cycling; therefore, understanding the response of microbial communities to elevated N inputs is of significant importance. This study was carried out to investigate the influences of different N fertilization rates (0, 182, and 225 kg ha-1 representing control, low, and high N supply for each crop season for summer maize and winter wheat) on soil biochemical attributes, extracellular enzyme activities, and the microbial community composition in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation cropping system in north-central China. The results showed that N addition significantly decreased the soil pH in both the wheat and maize seasons. Microbial biomass N (MBN) decreased following N fertilization in the wheat season, while the opposite trend in MBN was observed in the maize season. Response ratio analysis showed that the activities of enzymes involved in C, N, and phosphorus cycling were significantly enhanced under N enrichment in both the wheat and maize seasons, and higher enzyme activities were noted in the high N addition treatment than in the low N addition treatment. A linear increase in fungal abundance with the N addition gradient was observed in the wheat season, whereas the fungal abundance increased and then decreased in the maize season. The bacterial abundance showed an increased and then decreased trend in response to the N addition gradient in both the wheat and maize crop seasons. Moreover, the partial least squares path model (PLS-PM) analysis showed that soil pH and soil organic carbon (SOC) were the most important soil variables, causing shifts in the soil bacteria. Furthermore, compared with the N-cycling enzymes, the C-cycling enzymes were significantly affected by the soil pH and SOC. Taken together, these results suggest that the effect of N addition on enzyme activities was consistent in both crop seasons, while the effects on MBN and microbial community composition to N addition were highly variable in the two crop seasons. Moreover, N fertilization-induced changes in the soil chemical properties such as soil acidity and SOC played a substantial role in shaping the microbial community.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/análise , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Solo/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Agricultura/métodos , Carbono/química , Carbono/metabolismo , China , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Microbiota/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/química , Fósforo/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
18.
Exp Eye Res ; 186: 107712, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254514

RESUMO

Crystallins are structural proteins in the lens that last a lifetime with little turnover. Deviant in crystallins can cause rare but severe visual impairment, namely, congenital cataracts. It is reported that several mutations in the acidic ß-crystallin 4 (CRYBA4) are related to congenital cataracts. However, the pathogenesis of these mutants is not well understood at molecular level. Here we evaluate the biochemical properties of wild type CRYBA4 (CRYBA4WT) and a pathogenic G64W mutant (CRYBA4G64W) including protein folding, polymerization state and protein stability. Furthermore, we explore the differences in their interactions with α-crystallin A (CRYAA) and basic ß-crystallin 1 (CRYBB1) via yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assay in vitro, through which we find that G64W mutation leads to protein misfolding, decreases protein stability, blocks its interaction with CRYBB1 but maintains its interaction with CRYAA. Our results deepen our understanding of the pathogenesis of congenital cataracts.


Assuntos
Catarata , Cristalino/metabolismo , Dobramento de Proteína , Cadeia A de beta-Cristalina/genética , beta-Cristalinas/química , Catarata/congênito , Catarata/genética , Catarata/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação
19.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 47(6): 915-921, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Parotidectomy is the most classic and unequivocal intervention for parotid neoplasm. The operative outcomes and postoperative complications of parotidectomy between harmonic scalpel and electrocautery gained more prominence in physician. In spite of much research work within the past years, there was an obvious lack of randomized controlled trial to resolve this question. Hence, a quantitative and qualitative meta-analysis was essential to evaluate the differences in these two types of hemostasis method. METHOD: The major electronic databases, including Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane library, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Scientific and Technological Journal databases were using the key words "electrocautery", "electrocoagulation", "harmonic scalpel", "ultrasonic scalpel", "ultrasonic dissector", "parotidectomy" and "parotid surgery". 9 articles were included in our systematic review and meta-analysis. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, salivary fistula and transient facial nerve paralysis were the outcome measures. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were employed to evaluate the effect size for categorical outcomes and mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. RESULTS: In our meta-analysis, there was a significant reduction in operation time [mean difference: -20.97; 95%CI=(-24.02,-17.92); P < 0.00001], intraoperative blood loss [mean difference: -20.75, 95%CI=(-22.32,-19.18); P < 0.00001], hospital stay [mean difference: -0.83; 95%CI=(-1.10,-0.57); P < 0.00001], salivary fistula [ORs: 0.30, 95%CI=(0.08,1.14)] and transient facial nerve paralysis [OR:0.33, 95%CI=(0.19,0.58),P = 0.0001] in harmonic scalpel group compared with electrocautery group. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis indicated that compared with electrocautery, harmonic scalpel (HS)was transcendent in the aspects of operative time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, salivary fistula and transient facial nerve paralysis. The harmonic scalpel, as an efficient and useful instrument, was advocated in parotidectomy.


Assuntos
Eletrocoagulação , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , China , Humanos , Duração da Cirurgia
20.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 285, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024229

RESUMO

Aim: Brain tumors are among the most fatal cancers worldwide. Diagnosing and manually segmenting tumors are time-consuming clinical tasks, and success strongly depends on the doctor's experience. Automatic quantitative analysis and accurate segmentation of brain tumors are greatly needed for cancer diagnosis. Methods:This paper presents an advanced three-dimensional multimodal segmentation algorithm called nested dilation networks (NDNs). It is inspired by the U-Net architecture, a convolutional neural network (CNN) developed for biomedical image segmentation and is modified to achieve better performance for brain tumor segmentation. Thus, we propose residual blocks nested with dilations (RnD) in the encoding part to enrich the low-level features and use squeeze-and-excitation (SE) blocks in both the encoding and decoding parts to boost significant features. To prove the reliability of the network structure, we compare our results with those of the standard U-Net and its transmutation networks. Different loss functions are considered to cope with class imbalance problems to maximize the brain tumor segmentation results. A cascade training strategy is employed to run NDNs for coarse-to-fine tumor segmentation. This strategy decomposes the multiclass segmentation problem into three binary segmentation problems and trains each task sequentially. Various augmentation techniques are utilized to increase the diversity of the data to avoid overfitting. Results: This approach achieves Dice similarity scores of 0.6652, 0.5880, and 0.6682 for edema, non-enhancing tumors, and enhancing tumors, respectively, in which the Dice loss is used for single-pass training. After cascade training, the Dice similarity scores rise to 0.7043, 0.5889, and 0.7206, respectively. Conclusion: Experiments show that the proposed deep learning algorithm outperforms other U-Net transmutation networks for brain tumor segmentation. Moreover, applying cascade training to NDNs facilitates better performance than other methods. The findings of this study provide considerable insight into the automatic and accurate segmentation of brain tumors.

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