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1.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459063

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To investigate the protective effect of VX-765 on human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) in stroke and its mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouse models of ischemic stroke were established using the distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) method. The dMCAO mice were accordingly transplanted with HUMSCs, VX-765-treated HUMSCs, or VX-765 + MHY185-treated HUMSCs. The HUMSCs were inserted with green fluorescent protein (GFP) for measurement of transplantation efficiency which was determined by immunofluorescence assay. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was applied to mimic ischemic environment in vitro experiments, and the HUMSCs herein were transfected with AMPK inhibitor Compound C or autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. MTT assay was used to test the toxicity of VX-765. TUNEL staining and ELISA were applied to measure the levels of apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-10), respectively. The expressions of autophagy-associated proteins, AMPK, and mTOR were detected by Western blotting. TTC staining was applied to reveal the infarct lesions in the brain of dMCAO mice. RESULTS: The pro-inflammatory cytokines, TUNEL-positive cells, and p-mTOR were decreased while the anti-inflammatory cytokine, autophagy-related proteins, and p-AMPK were increased in HUMSCs treated with VX-765 under OGD condition. Different expression patterns were found with the above factors after transfection of 3-MA or Compound C. The pro-inflammatory cytokines, TUNEL-positive cells, and infarct sections were decreased while the anti-inflammatory cytokine and autophagy-related proteins were increased in dMCAO mice transplanted with VX-765-treated HUMSCs compared to those transplanted with HUMSCs only. The autophagy was inhibited while p-mTOR was up-regulated after transfection of MHY. CONCLUSION: VX-765 protects HUMSCs against stroke-induced apoptosis and inflammatory responses by activating autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246149

RESUMO

As the outbreak of COVID-19 has spread globally, determining how to prevent the spread is of paramount importance. We reported the effectiveness of different responses of four affected cities in preventing the COVID-19 spread. We expect Wenzhou anti-COVID-19 measures may provide experience for cities around the world that are experiencing this epidemic.

4.
Bioresour Technol ; 309: 123304, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289657

RESUMO

In China, Dolichospermum flos-aquae is one of the most prevalent bloom-forming cyanobacteria and thus a major challenge for the concerned catchment area. To solve this problem and turn it into an opportunity for heavy metal remediation, we investigated the potential of D. flos-aquae for production algal biochar, and constructed a microbe-algal biochar composite. The microbe-biochar composite (biochar immobilized Proteus mirabilis PC801) showed superior hexavalent chromium removal capacity. It produced 100% Cr(VI) (150 mg/L) removal efficiency, with 87.7% total Cr immobilized in/on the particles and only 12.3% Cr(III) left in solution. Furthermore, Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy and antioxidase activity results showed that Cr(VI) reduction mainly occurred outside the cells, and the biochar can effectively protect P. mirabilis YC801 from the direct toxicity of chromium, thereby promoting the removal efficiency. Overall, this study provides a promising approach by utilizing this harmful algae for the bio-remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater in practical application.


Assuntos
Cromo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , China
5.
Acad Radiol ; 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238303

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Noncontrast CT-based radiomics signature has shown ability for detecting hematoma expansion (HE) in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We sought to compare its predictive performance with clinical risk factors and develop a clinical-radiomics nomogram to assess the risk of early HE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 1153 patients with ICH who underwent baseline cranial CT within 6 hours and follow-up scans within 72 hours of stroke onset were enrolled, of whom 864 (75%) were assigned to the derivation cohort and 289 (25%) to the validation cohort. Based on LASSO algorithm or stepwise logistic regression analysis, three models (clinical model, radiomics model, and hybrid model) were constructed to predict HE. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) and likelihood ratio test (LRT) were used for comparing the goodness of fit of the three models, and the AUC was used to evaluate their discrimination ability for HE. RESULTS: The hybrid model (AIC = 681.426; χ2= 128.779) was the optimal model with the lowest AIC and highest chi-square values compared to the radiomics model (AIC = 767.979; χ2 = 110.234) or the clinical model (AIC = 753.757; χ2 = 56.448). The radiomics model was superior in the prediction of HE to the clinical model in both derivation (p = 0.009) and validation (p = 0.022) cohorts. In both datasets, the clinical-radiomics nomogram showed satisfactory discrimination and calibration for detecting HE (AUC = 0.771, Sensitivity = 87.0%; AUC = 0.820, Sensitivity = 88.1%; respectively). CONCLUSION: Among patients with acute ICH, noncontrast CT-based radiomics model outperformed the clinical-only model in the prediction of HE, and the established clinical-radiomics nomogram with favorable performance can offer a noninvasive tool for the risk stratification of HE.

7.
Front Neurol ; 10: 1164, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736868

RESUMO

Background/Objective: Hematoma expansion (HE) predicts poor outcome and is an appealing treatment target in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Clinical evidence has shown an association of HE with peripheral white blood cells (WBC) count, but the individual contributions of leukocyte subtypes between literatures are described inconsistently. Our aim was to determine the relationship between admission absolute and differential leukocyte counts and HE by using different growth definitions. Methods: We analyzed spontaneous ICH patients who underwent baseline cranial computed tomography and blood sampling within 6 h of stroke onset in our institution between September 2013 and August 2018. Hematoma volume was calculated using a semiautomated 3-dimensional reconstruction algorithm. According to commonly used absolute or relative growth definitions (>6 mL, >12.5 mL, or >33%), we defined 5 types of HE. A propensity score-matching analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of complete blood count components on HE across the various growth definitions. The receiver operating characteristic analysis assessed the predictive ability of leukocyte counts for HE. Results: A total of 1,066 patients were included, of whom 11-21% met the 5 HE definitions. After propensity score-matching, except using the definition of >12.5 mL growth or its combination with >33% growth, both WBC and neutrophil count were independently associated with reduced risk of HE (odds ratio [OR] for 103 cells increase; OR, 0.86-0.99; all p < 0.05) after adjusting confounders in multivariate analyses. However, monocyte count was correlated with increased risk of HE under the usage of >12.5 mL expansion definition only (OR, 1.43; p = 0.024). There was no association between lymphocyte count and HE (all p > 0.05). Regardless of the growth definition, admission eosinophil count was directly associated with the risk of HE (OR, 6.92-31.60; all p < 0.05), and was the best predictive subtype with area under the curve 0.64, sensitivity 69.5%, and specificity 58.9% at the optimal cut-off value of 45 cells/µL. Conclusions: Growth definition affects the relationship of HE with leukocyte subtypes counting. Eosinophil count robustly predicts HE, and may be a surrogate when using an inflammatory marker to help select acute ICH patients with high expansion risk for hemostasis treatment in clinical trial and practice.

8.
PeerJ ; 7: e7622, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565565

RESUMO

APYRASEs, which directly regulate intra- and extra-cellular ATP homeostasis, play a pivotal role in the regulation of various stress adaptations in mammals, bacteria and plants. In the present study, we identified and characterized wheat APYRASE family members at the genomic level in wheat. The results identified a total of nine APY homologs with conserved ACR domains. The sequence alignments, phylogenetic relations and conserved motifs of wheat APYs were bioinformatically analyzed. Although they share highly conserved secondary and tertiary structures, the wheat APYs could be mainly categorized into three groups, according to phylogenetic and structural analysis. Additionally, these APYs exhibited similar expression patterns in the root and shoot, among which TaAPY3-1, TaAPY3-3 and TaAPY3-4 had the highest expression levels. The time-course expression patterns of the eight APYs in response to biotic and abiotic stress in the wheat seedlings were also investigated. TaAPY3-2, TaAPY3-3, TaAPY3-4 and TaAPY6 exhibited strong sensitivity to all kinds of stresses in the leaves. Some APYs showed specific expression responses, such as TaAPY6 to heavy metal stress, and TaAPY7 to heat and salt stress. These results suggest that the stress-inducible APYs could have potential roles in the regulation of environmental stress adaptations. Moreover, the catalytic activity of TaAPY3-1 was further analyzed in the in vitro system. The results showed that TaAPY3-1 protein exhibited high catalytic activity in the degradation of ATP and ADP, but with low activity in degradation of TTP and GTP. It also has an extensive range of temperature adaptability, but preferred relatively acidic pH conditions. In this study, the genome-wide identification and characterization of APYs in wheat were suggested to be useful for further genetic modifications in the generation of high-stress-tolerant wheat cultivars.

9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 516(2): 565-570, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235258

RESUMO

Nanoparticle-based thrombolysis is a potential new treatment for stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of targeted thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). The rtPA was covalently bound to magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) and maintained at the target site using an external magnet. Polyacrylic acid (PAA)-coated MNP were synthesized and rtPA was then bound to the resultant PAA-MNP via carbodiimide-mediated amide bonds. For the in vitro tests, blood clots were formed in plastic centrifuge tubes with anti-coagulated plasma, thrombin and calcium chloride. For the in vivo tests, mice with ferric chloride-induced distal middle cerebral artery occlusion were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), MNP, rtPA, or MNP-rtPA (n = 6 mice per group). The binding efficacy was 80.7 ± 1.5 µg rtPA bound to 1 mg PAA-MNP. In the in vitro tests, the mean lysis percentage dramatically increased from 1.28% in the MNP group without rotation to 77.40% in the rtPA + MNP group with rotating magnetic field. The lysis efficiency of MNP-rtPA was 27.3 ± 1.3%, and it increased to 42.8 ± 2.8% with magnetic field rotation. The mean sizes of the infarct areas of the PBS, MNP, rtPA, and MNP-rtPA mouse groups were 20.09 ± 6.07, 18.28 ± 2.69, 8.65 ± 3.63 and 4.40 ± 2.46 mm3, respectively. Thus, targeted MNP-rtPA accelerated thrombolysis and reduced the infarct area in a mouse model of cerebral embolism. This approach may serve as a feasible and effective treatment for embolic cerebral ischemia.

10.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(7)2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970546

RESUMO

Generally, crop straw degrades slowly in soil, which is unfavorable for tillage and next crop growth. Thus, it is important to develop a promising technology to boost degradation of straw. Herein, a nanobiosystem has been developed by loading bacterial mixture in nanostructured attapulgite (ATP) and using it as a straw returning agent (SRA). Therein, ATP could effectively anchor bacteria to the surface of straw and greatly facilitate the adhesion and growth of bacteria. Consequently, this technology could effectively accelerate the degradation and transformation of straw into nutrients, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and organic matters (OM). Pot and field tests indicated that SRA displayed significant positive effects on the growth of the next crop. Importantly, SRA could effectively decrease greenhouse gas emissions from farmland, which is beneficial for the environment. Therefore, this work provides a facile and promising method to facilitate the degradation of straw, which might have a potential application value.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(4)2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781340

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that strigolactones (SLs) also participate in the regulation of stress adaptation; however, the regulatory mechanism remains elusive. In this study, the homolog of More Axillary Branches 2, which encodes a key component in SL signaling, in the perennial oil plant Sapium sebiferum was identified and functionally characterized in Arabidopsis. The results showed that the expression of SsMAX2 in S. sebiferum seedlings was stress-responsive, and SsMAX2 overexpression (OE) in Arabidopsis significantly promoted resistance to drought, osmotic, and salt stresses. Moreover, SsMAX2 OE lines exhibited decreased chlorophyll degradation, increased soluble sugar and proline accumulation, and lower water loss ratio in response to the stresses. Importantly, anthocyanin biosynthesis and the activities of several antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), were enhanced in the SsMAX2 OE lines, which further led to a significant reduction in hydrogen peroxide levels. Additionally, the SsMAX2 OE lines exhibited higher expression level of several abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis genes, suggesting potential interactions between SL and ABA in the regulation of stress adaptation. Overall, we provide physiological and biochemical evidence demonstrating the pivotal role of SsMAX2 in the regulation of osmotic, drought, and salt stress resistance and show that MAX2 can be a genetic target to improve stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Secas , Homeostase , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Sapium/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Prolina/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sapium/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Açúcares/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(12)2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501097

RESUMO

Selenite is extremely biotoxic, and as a result of this, exploitation of microorganisms able to reduce selenite to non-toxic elemental selenium (Se°) has attracted great interest. In this study, a bacterial strain exhibiting extreme tolerance to selenite (up to 100 mM) was isolated from the gut of adult Monochamus alternatus and identified as Proteus mirabilis YC801. This strain demonstrated efficient transformation of selenite into red selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) by reducing nearly 100% of 1.0 and 5.0 mM selenite within 42 and 48 h, respectively. Electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated that the SeNPs were spherical and primarily localized extracellularly, with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 178.3 ± 11.5 nm. In vitro selenite reduction activity assays and real-time PCR indicated that thioredoxin reductase and similar proteins present in the cytoplasm were likely to be involved in selenite reduction, and that NADPH or NADH served as electron donors. Finally, Fourier-transform infrared spectral analysis confirmed the presence of protein and lipid residues on the surfaces of SeNPs. This is the first report on the capability of P. mirabilis to reduce selenite to SeNPs. P. mirabilis YC801 might provide an eco-friendly approach to bioremediate selenium-contaminated soil/water, as well as a bacterial catalyst for the biogenesis of SeNPs.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Proteus mirabilis/metabolismo , Selênio/química , Biotransformação , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Ácido Selenioso/química , Ácido Selenioso/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(39): 32988-32997, 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192506

RESUMO

Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only FDA approved thrombolytic drug for acute ischemic stroke but concerns regarding its limitations remain. Here, we developed a new strategy by incorporating tPA into porous magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4)-microrods (tPA-MRs) for targeted thrombolytic therapy in ischemic stroke induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. We showed that intra-arterial injection of tPA-MRs could target the cerebral blood clot in vivo under the guidance of an external magnet, where tPA was subsequently released at the site of embolism. When applied with an external rotating magnetic field, rotating tPA-MRs significantly improved not only the mass transport of the tPA-clot reaction, but also mechanically disrupted the clot network, which thus increased clot interaction and penetration of tPA. Importantly, intravenously injected MRs could be discharged from the kidney, and the function of liver and kidney were not damaged at different durations after administration of tPA-MRs. Our data suggest that tPA-MRs overcome the limitations of thrombolytic therapy with tPA alone, which may be not only just for the treatment of ischemic stroke but also have majorly impact on other thrombotic diseases.


Assuntos
Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Animais , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão e Varredura , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/química
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(9)2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227664

RESUMO

In this study, a bacterial strain exhibiting high selenite (Na2SeO3) tolerance and reduction capacity was isolated from the gut of Monochamus alternatus larvae and identified as Alcaligenes faecalis Se03. The isolate exhibited extreme tolerance to selenite (up to 120 mM) when grown aerobically. In the liquid culture medium, it was capable of reducing nearly 100% of 1.0 and 5.0 mM Na2SeO3 within 24 and 42 h, respectively, leading to the formation of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). Electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated that A. faecalis Se03 produced spherical electron-dense SeNPs with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 273.8 ± 16.9 nm, localized mainly in the extracellular space. In vitro selenite reduction activity and real-time PCR indicated that proteins such as sulfite reductase and thioredoxin reductase present in the cytoplasm were likely to be involved in selenite reduction and the SeNPs synthesis process in the presence of NADPH or NADH as electron donors. Finally, using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, protein and lipid residues were detected on the surface of the biogenic SeNPs. Based on these observations, A. faecalis Se03 has the potential to be an eco-friendly candidate for the bioremediation of selenium-contaminated soil/water and a bacterial catalyst for the biogenesis of SeNPs.


Assuntos
Alcaligenes faecalis/citologia , Alcaligenes faecalis/metabolismo , Besouros/microbiologia , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Alcaligenes faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Nanotecnologia , Oxirredução
15.
Toxins (Basel) ; 10(8)2018 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110983

RESUMO

(1) Background: Aflatoxin contamination in food and grain poses serious problems both for economic development and public health protection, thus leading to a focus on an effective approach to control it; (2) Methods: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) degrading bacteria were isolated using a medium containing coumarin as the sole carbon source, and the biodegradation of AFB1 by the isolate was examined by high performance liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry; (3) Results: a bacterial strain exhibiting strong AFB1 degradation activity (91.5%) was isolated and identified as Bacillusvelezensis DY3108. The AFB1 degrading activity was predominantly attributed to the cell-free supernatant of strain DY3108. Besides, it was heat-stable and resistant to proteinase K treatment but sensitive to sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment. The optimal temperature for the maximal degradation of AFB1 was 80 °C. Even more notable, the supernatant showed a high level of activity over a broad pH (4.0 to 11.0) and exhibited the highest degradation (94.70%) at pH 8.0. Cytotoxicity assays indicated that the degradation products displayed significantly (p < 0.05) lower cytotoxic effects than the parent AFB1; (4) Conclusions: B.velezensis DY3108 might be a promising candidate for exploitation in AFB1 detoxification and bioremediation in food and feed matrices.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Bacillus/metabolismo , Aflatoxina B1/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 269: 434-442, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093226

RESUMO

Provision of chemical modulators has emerged as an effective strategy to govern cell growth and development. Here, the impact of flavonoid quercetin on algal growth, lipid accumulation and transcriptional patterns was investigated in the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris. These results demonstrated that quercetin (15 µg/l) significantly enhanced the cellular biomass and photosynthetic efficiency, with up to 2.5-fold in the biomass in the stationary phase. Lipidomic analyses revealed that lipid content was increased by 1.8-fold. Furthermore, the functional mechanism of quercetin on the molecular level was dissected by transcriptomic analysis. Results revealed that quercetin upregulated the expression pattern of key genes involved in cellular signaling mechanisms such as phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase α, thus consequently enhanced cell growth. Altogether, the data present in this study demonstrate the dramatic role of quercetin on enhancing microalgal biomass and lipid accumulation by unprecedented regulation, of key metabolic nodes, for the first time and provide a novel insight into microalgal metabolism and regulation.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Lipídeos , Quercetina , Biomassa , Chlorella , Microalgas
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 96, 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sapium sebiferum, whose seeds contain high level of fatty acids, has been considered as one of the most important oil plants. However, the high male to female flower ratio limited the seed yield improvement and its industrial potentials. Thus, the study of the sex determination in S. sebiferum is of significant importance in increasing the seed yield. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrated that in S. sebiferum, cytokinin (CK) had strong feminization effects on the floral development. Exogenous application with 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) significantly induced the development of female flowers and increased the fruit number. Interestingly, the feminization effects of cytokinin were also detected on the androecious genotype of S. sebiferum which only produce male flowers. To further investigate the mechanism underlying the role of cytokinin in the flower development and sex differentiation, we performed the comparative transcriptome analysis of the floral buds of the androecious plants subjected to 6-BA. The results showed that there were separately 129, 352 and 642 genes differentially expressed at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after 6-BA treatment. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed that many genes are related to the hormonal biosynthesis and signaling, nutrients translocation and cell cycle. Moreover, there were twenty one flowering-related genes identified to be differentially regulated by 6-BA treatment. Specifically, the gynoecium development-related genes SPATULA (SPT), KANADI 2 (KAN2), JAGGED (JAG) and Cytochrome P450 78A9 (CYP79A9) were significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of PISTILLATA (PI), TATA Box Associated Factor II 59 (TAFII59) and MYB Domain Protein 108 (MYB108) that were important for male organ development was down-regulated in response to 6-BA treatment, demonstrating that cytokinin could directly target the floral organ identity genes to regulate the flower sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our work demonstrated that cytokinin is a potential regulator in female flower development in S. sebiferum. The transcriptome analysis of the floral sex transition from androecious to monoecious in response to cytokinin treatment on the androecious S. sebiferum provided valuable information related to the mechanism of sex determination in the perennial woody plants.


Assuntos
Citocininas/farmacologia , Flores/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Sapium/genética , Transcriptoma , Compostos de Benzil/farmacologia , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Purinas/farmacologia , Sapium/efeitos dos fármacos , Sapium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia
18.
Molecules ; 23(4)2018 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601513

RESUMO

Melatonin has emerged as a research highlight regarding its important role in regulating plant growth and the adaptation to the environmental stresses. In this study, we investigated how melatonin prevented the cadmium toxicity to wheat seedlings. The results demonstrated that cadmium induced the expression of melatonin biosynthesis-related genes and cause a significant increase of endogenous melatonin level. Melatonin treatment drastically alleviated the cadmium toxicity, resulting in increased plant height, biomass accumulation, and root growth. Cadmium and senescence treatment significantly increased the endogenous level of hydrogen peroxide, which was strictly counterbalanced by melatonin. Furthermore, melatonin treatment caused a significant increase of GSH (reduced glutathione) content and the GSH/GSSG (oxidized glutathione) ratio. The activities of two key antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but not catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), were specifically improved by melatonin. Additionally, melatonin not only promoted the primary root growth, but also drastically enhanced the capacity of the seedling roots to degrade the exogenous hydrogen peroxide. These results suggested that melatonin played a key role in maintaining the hydrogen peroxide homeostasis, via regulation of the antioxidant systems. Conclusively, this study revealed a crucial protective role of melatonin in the regulation of cadmium resistance in wheat.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Prog Neurobiol ; 157: 29-48, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28743465

RESUMO

The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for neurological disease is generally limited by the poor entry of therapeutic agents into the central nervous system (CNS). Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier thus, overcoming this problem has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of neurological therapeutics. Nanotechnology has emerged as an innovative alternative for treating neurological diseases. In fact, rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. This review highlights the applications of nanomaterials in the developing neurological field and discusses the evidence for their efficacies.


Assuntos
Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanoestruturas , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/efeitos adversos
20.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 637, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28523004

RESUMO

Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum L.) is a promising landscape and bioenergy plant. Measuring gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) can provide valuable information on gene function. Stably expressed reference genes for normalization are a prerequisite for ensuring the accuracy of the target gene expression level among different samples. However, the reference genes in Chinese tallow have not been systematically validated. In this study, 12 candidate reference genes (18S, GAPDH, UBQ, RPS15, SAND, TIP41, 60S, ACT7, PDF2, APT, TBP, and TUB) were investigated with qRT-PCR in 18 samples, including those from different tissues, from plants treated with sucrose and cold stresses. The data were calculated with four common algorithms, geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and the delta cycle threshold (ΔCt). TIP41 and GAPDH were the most stable for the tissue-specific experiment, GAPDH and 60S for cold treatment, and GAPDH and UBQ for sucrose stresses, while the least stable genes were 60S, TIP41, and 18S respectively. The comprehensive results showed APT, GAPDH, and UBQ to be the top-ranked stable genes across all the samples. The stability of 60S was the lowest during all experiments. These selected reference genes were further validated by comparing the expression profiles of the chalcone synthase gene in Chinese tallow in different samples. The results will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in Chinese tallow.

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