Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 53
Filtrar
1.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737422

RESUMO

The tumor suppressor gene BAP1 encodes a widely expressed deubiquitinase for histone H2A. Both hereditary and acquired mutations are associated with multiple cancer types, including cutaneous melanoma (CM), uveal melanoma (UM), and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, there is no personalized therapy for BAP1-mutant cancers. Here, we describe an epigenetic drug library screening to identify small molecules that exert selective cytotoxicity against BAP1 knockout CM cells over their isogenic parental cells. Hit characterization reveals that BAP1 loss renders cells more vulnerable to bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) inhibitor-induced transcriptional alterations, G1/G0 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The association of BAP1 loss with sensitivity to BET inhibitors is observed in multiple BAP1-deficient cancer cell lines generated by gene editing or derived from patient tumors as well as immunodeficient xenograft and immunocompetent allograft murine models. We demonstrate that BAP1 deubiquitinase activity reduces sensitivity to BET inhibitors. Concordantly, ectopic expression of RING1A or RING1B (H2AK119 E3 ubiquitin ligases) enhances sensitivity to BET inhibitors. The mechanistic study shows that the BET inhibitor OTX015 exerts a more potent suppressive effect on the transcription of various proliferation-related genes, especially MYC, in BAP1 knockout cells than in their isogenic parental cells, primarily by targeting BRD4. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Myc rescues the BET inhibitor-sensitizing effect induced by BAP1 loss. Our study reveals new approaches to specifically suppress BAP1-deficient cancers, including CM, UM, and ccRCC.

2.
Andrologia ; : e14325, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837240

RESUMO

Male factors account for roughly half of infertility cases, with most male infertility diagnosed as idiopathic. Researchers predicting intrauterine insemination success rates have identified multiple prognostic factors, including semen parameters and seminal fluid composition. Seminal plasma contains extracellular exosomes, which contain RNAs and proteins involved in spermatogenesis. The contents of seminal plasma exosomes may be an indicator of overall sperm quality or fertility potential; therefore, analysis of exosomes may provide a measure for sperm viability and fertilization potential. In our study, exosomes were isolated and purified from seminal plasma obtained from IUI treatments with known pregnancy outcomes. We used a unique method to isolate the exosomes which made use of the hydrophobic interaction chromatography method. RNASeq was performed on RNAs from the purified exosomes. This analysis revealed holistic trends, including increased expression associated with RNA originating from chromosomes 1, 10, 12, 16 and 21. Overall, total RNA was significantly decreased and rRNA was significantly increased in successful IUI attempts. Furthermore, we found specific mRNAs and lincRNAs associated with positive versus negative pregnancy outcomes. Our study isolated and purified seminal plasma exosomes without ultracentrifugation, and it provides further evidence for differences in seminal plasma exosome molecular contents associated with pregnancy status.

3.
Neurochem Int ; : 105244, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826530

RESUMO

Excitotoxicity refers to the ability of excessive extracellular excitatory amino acids to damage neurons via receptor activation. It is a crucial pathogenetic process in neurodegenerative diseases. TP53 is confirmed to be involved in excitotoxicity. It is demonstrated that TP53 induced glycolysis and apoptotic regulator (TIGAR)-regulated metabolic pathway can protect against neuronal injury. However, the role of TIGAR in excitotoxicity and specific mechanisms is still unknown. In this study, an in vivo excitotoxicity model was constructed via stereotypical kainic acid (KA) injection into the striatum of mice. KA reduced TIGAR expression levels, neuroinflammatory responses and mitochondrial dysfunction. TIGAR overexpression could reverse KA-induced neuronal injury by reducing neuroinflammation and improving mitochondrial function, thereby exerting neuroprotective effects. Therefore, this study could provide a potential therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 673693, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408744

RESUMO

Background: Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is widely used to treat patients with COVID-19 in China; however, its efficacy remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of Tα1 as a COVID-19 therapy. Methods: We performed a multicenter cohort study in five tertiary hospitals in the Hubei province of China between December 2019 and March 2020. The patient non-recovery rate was used as the primary outcome. Results: All crude outcomes, including non-recovery rate (65/306 vs. 290/1,976, p = 0.003), in-hospital mortality rate (62/306 vs. 271/1,976, p = 0.003), intubation rate (31/306 vs. 106/1,976, p = 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) incidence (104/306 vs. 499/1,976, p = 0.001), acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence (26/306 vs. 66/1,976, p < 0.001), and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (14.9 ± 12.7 vs. 8.7 ± 8.2 days, p < 0.001), were significantly higher in the Tα1 treatment group. After adjusting for confounding factors, Tα1 use was found to be significantly associated with a higher non-recovery rate than non-Tα1 use (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, p = 0.028). An increased risk of non-recovery rate associated with Tα1 use was observed in the patient subgroups with maximum sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores ≥2 (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.4-2.9, p = 0.024), a record of ICU admission (OR 5.4, 95%CI 2.1-14.0, p < 0.001), and lower PaO2/FiO2 values (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.4, p = 0.046). Furthermore, later initiation of Tα1 use was associated with a higher non-recovery rate. Conclusion: Tα1 use in COVID-19 patients was associated with an increased non-recovery rate, especially in those with greater disease severity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/epidemiologia , Timalfasina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Prognóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Timalfasina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 6291-6307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408491

RESUMO

Metabolic alteration, one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, is important for cancer initiation and development. To support their rapid growth, cancer cells alter their metabolism so as to obtain the necessary energy and building blocks for biosynthetic pathways, as well as to adjust their redox balance. Once thought to be merely byproducts of metabolic pathways, intermediate metabolites are now known to mediate epigenetic modifications and protein post-transcriptional modifications (PTM), as well as connect cellular metabolism with signal transduction. Consequently, they can affect a myriad of processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, and immunity. In this review, we summarize multiple representative metabolites involved in glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, lipid synthesis, ketogenesis, methionine metabolism, glutamine metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism, focusing on their roles in chromatin and protein modifications and as signal-transducing messengers.

6.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is an emerging metabolic MRI technique to map creatine distribution in the myocardium. PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of using a contrast-free CEST technique to evaluate cardiac involvement in amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. POPULATION: Forty patients with biopsy-proven AL amyloidosis (age 57.6 ± 9.1 years, 31 males) and 20 healthy controls (age 42.8 ± 13.8 years, 13 males). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: A 3.0 T, CEST imaging using a single-shot FLASH sequence, T1 mapping with a modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging with a phase-sensitive inversion recovery gradient echo sequence. ASSESSMENT: The average CEST was calculated in the basal short-axis slice of the entire left ventricle and septum. LGE was assessed subjectively (none/patchy/global) and extracellular volume (ECV), CEST and T1 maps generated. STATISTICAL TESTS: Comparison between patient groups and healthy controls was performed by one-way analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni correction. Correlation was assessed using the Pearson's r correlation or Spearman ρ correlation. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. RESULTS: Global (0.09 ± 0.03 vs. 0.11 ± 0.02) and septal (0.09 ± 0.03 vs. 0.11 ± 0.03) basal short-axis CEST was significantly decreased in patients with AL amyloidosis compared to the controls. Global CEST correlated significantly with Mayo stage (ρ = -0.508), NYHA Class (ρ = -0.430), LVEF (r = 0.511), mass index (r = -0.373), LGE (ρ = -0.537), ECV (r = -0.544), and T2 (r = -0.396). Septal CEST correlated significantly with LVEF (r = 0.395), LGE (ρ = -0.330), and ECV (r = -0.391). DATA CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the potential of CEST MRI to identify cardiac involvement and evaluate disease burden and to give insight into cellular changes intermediary between function and structure in AL amyloidosis patients. EVIDENCE LEVEL: 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252662, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077462

RESUMO

Breast cancer cells were reported to up-regulate human prolactin receptor (PRLR) to assist their growth through the utilization of prolactin (PRL) as the growth factor, which makes PRLR a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. On the other hand, advanced cancer cells tend to down-regulate or shed off stress signal proteins to evade immune surveillance and elimination. In this report, we created a fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of MHC class I chain-related protein (MICA), a stress signal protein and ligand of the activating receptor NKG2D of natural killer (NK) cells, and G129R, an antagonistic variant of PRL. We hypothesize that the MICA portion of the fusion protein binds to NKG2D to activate NK cells and the G129R portion binds to PRLR on breast cancer cells, so that the activated NK cells will kill the PRLR-positive breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that the MICA-G129R fusion protein not only binds to human natural killer NK-92 cells and PRLR-positive human breast cancer T-47D cells, but also promotes NK cells to release granzyme B and IFN-γ and enhances the cytotoxicity of NK cells specifically on PRLR-positive cells. The fusion protein, therefore, represents a new approach for the development of breast cancer specific immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Receptores da Prolactina/metabolismo , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Células Matadoras Naturais , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 27: 100377, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945921

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with oncogenic ROS1 rearrangements would inevitably develop drug resistance and disease progression after receiving targeted oncogene therapy. Here, we present a metastatic lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring a CD74-ROS1 fusion who initially responded to crizotinib and then developed resistance after acquiring a rarely reported BRAF V600E mutation.

9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1167: 338578, 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049630

RESUMO

Exosomes are membrane-bound, cell-secreted vesicles, with sizes ranging from 30 to 150 nm. Exosomes in blood plasma have become proposed targets as measurable indicators of disease conditions. Current methods for plasma-based exosome isolation are time-consuming, complex, and have high operational costs. One of the most commonly reported shortcomings of current isolation protocols is the co-extraction of lipoproteins (e.g. low-density lipoproteins, LDLs) with the target exosomes. This report describes the use of a rapid, single-operation hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) procedure on a polyester (PET) capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fiber column, demonstrating the ability to efficiently purify exosomes. The method has previously been demonstrated for isolation of exosomes from diverse biological matrices, but questions were raised about the potential co-elution of LDLs. In the method described herein, a step-gradient procedure sequentially elutes spiked lipoproteins and blood plasma-originating exosomes in 10 min, with the LDLs excluded from the desired exosome fraction. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used to characterize an impurity in the primary LDL material, identifying the presence of exosomal material. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to identify the various elution components. The method serves both as a rapid means of high purity exosome isolation as well as a screening tool for the purity of LDL samples with respect to extracellular vesicles.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Cromatografia , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lipoproteínas LDL , Plasma , Poliésteres , Polímeros
10.
Phytochem Anal ; 32(6): 1152-1161, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977590

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride (Qing Pi in Chinese) is a clinically effective Chinese herb, which contains biologically valuable flavonoids. Qing Pi is divided into two commodity specifications, Si Hua Qing Pi (SHQP) and Ge Qing Pi (GQP), based on the harvesting time. The flavonoid contents in Qing Pi from different origins and commodity specifications may vary significantly, which will affect their therapeutic functions. Thus, it is crucial to set up a reliable and comprehensive quality evaluation method for flavonoid analysis in Qing Pi. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to establish a rapid and sensitive ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode-array detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-HRMS) for identification and quantification of ten flavonoids in Qing Pi. Chemometric methods were further applied to distinguish Qing Pi of different origins and specifications. METHODOLOGY: An UPLC-DAD-HRMS method was developed for the simultaneous separation and quantification of ten flavonoids in 46 batches of Qing Pi samples from different sources in China. Chemometric approaches were applied to discriminate Qing Pi from different origins and commodity specifications. RESULTS: The chemometric procedures (i.e., hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis) were employed to identify the differences of Qing Pi samples with different origins and commodity specifications. The results showed that the contents of ten flavonoids in Qing Pi samples of different origins were significantly different, and the same results were found out between SHQP and GQP. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a chemical basis for quality control of Qing Pi.


Assuntos
Citrus , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(10): 1488-1493, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is commonly used to treat severe COVID-19, although the clinical outcome of such treatment remains unclear. This study evaluated the effectiveness of IVIG treatment in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective multicentre study evaluated 28-day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with or without IVIG treatment. Each patient treated with IVIG was matched with one untreated patient. Logistic regression and inverse probability weighting (IPW) were used to control confounding factors. RESULTS: The study included 850 patients (421 IVIG-treated patients and 429 non-IVIG-treated patients). After matching, 406 patients per group remained. No significant difference in 28-day mortality was observed after IPW analysis (average treatment effect (ATE) = 0.008, 95% CI -0.081 to 0.097, p 0.863). There were no significant differences between the IVIG group and non-IVIG group for acute respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse intravascular coagulation, myocardial injury, acute hepatic injury, shock, acute kidney injury, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation except for prone position ventilation (ATE = -0.022, 95% CI -0.041 to -0.002, p 0.028). DISCUSSION: IVIG treatment was not associated with significant changes in 28-day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients. The effectiveness of IVIG in treating patients with severe COVID-19 needs to be further investigated through future studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 398, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory event and a fatal complication of viral infections. Whether sHLH may also be observed in patients with a cytokine storm induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still uncertain. We aimed to determine the incidence of sHLH in severe COVID-19 patients and evaluate the underlying risk factors. METHOD: Four hundred fifteen severe COVID-19 adult patients were retrospectively assessed for hemophagocytosis score (HScore). A subset of 7 patients were unable to be conclusively scored due to insufficient patient data. RESULTS: In 408 patients, 41 (10.04%) had an HScore ≥169 and were characterized as "suspected sHLH positive". Compared with patients below a HScore threshold of 98, the suspected sHLH positive group had higher D-dimer, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, triglycerides, ferritin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, troponin, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, while leukocyte, hemoglobin, platelets, lymphocyte, fibrinogen, pre-albumin, albumin levels were significantly lower (all P < 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that high ferritin (>1922.58 ng/mL), low platelets (<101 × 109/L) and high triglycerides (>2.28 mmol/L) were independent risk factors for suspected sHLH in COVID-19 patients. Importantly, COVID-19 patients that were suspected sHLH positive had significantly more multi-organ failure. Additionally, a high HScore (>98) was an independent predictor for mortality in COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: HScore should be measured as a prognostic biomarker in COVID-19 patients. In particular, it is important that HScore is assessed in patients with high ferritin, triglycerides and low platelets to improve the detection of suspected sHLH.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/epidemiologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 612554, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644049

RESUMO

Aim: Previous research recognizes that NADPH can produce reduced glutathione (GSH) as a coenzyme and produce ROS as a substrate of NADPH oxidase (NOX). Besides, excessive activation of glutamate receptors results in mitochondrial impairment. The study aims at spelling out the effects of NADPH and Mito-apocynin, a NOX inhibitor which specifically targets the mitochondria, on the excitotoxicity induced by Kainic acid (KA) and its mechanism. Methods: The in vivo neuronal excitotoxicity model was constructed by stereotypically injecting KA into the unilateral striatum of mice. Administrated NADPH (i.v, intravenous) 30 min prior and Mito-apocynin (i.g, intragastric) 1 day prior, respectively, then kept administrating daily until mice were sacrificed 14 days later. Nissl staining measured the lesion of striatum and survival status of neurons. Cylinder test of forelimb asymmetry and the adhesive removal test reflected the behavioral deficit caused by neural dysfunction. Determined Total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and GSH indicated oxidative stress. Western blot presented the expression levels of LC3-II/LC3-I, SQSTM1/p62, TIGAR, and NOX4. Assessed oxygen consumption rate using High-Resolution Respirometry. In vitro, the MitoSOX Indicator reflected superoxide released by neuron mitochondria. JC-1 and ATP assay Kit were used to detect mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and energy metabolism, respectively. Results: In this study, we have successfully established excitotoxic model by KA in vivo and in vitro. KA induced decreased SOD activity and increased MDA concentration. KA cause the change of LC3-II/LC3-I, SQSTM1/p62, and TIGAR expression, indicating the autophagy activation. NADPH plays a protective role in vivo and in vitro. It reversed the KA-mediated changes in LC3, SQSTM1/p62, TIGAR, and NOX4 protein expression. Mito-apocynin inhibited KA-induced increases in mitochondrial NOX4 expression and activity. Compared with NADPH, the combination showed more significant neuroprotective effects, presenting more neurons survive and better motor function recovery. The combination also better inhibited the over-activated autophagy. In vitro, combination of NADPH and Mito-apocynin performed better in restoring mitochondria membrane potential. Conclusion: In summary, combined administration of NADPH and NOX inhibitors offers better neuroprotection by reducing NADPH as a NOX substrate to generate ROS. The combined use of NADPH and Mito-apocynin can better restore neurons and mitochondrial function through autophagy pathway.

14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 627416, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732717

RESUMO

Background: Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) in the abdominal cavity or within an abdominal organ are numerous and frequent dangerous entities in the treatment of critically ill patients. Early clinical evaluation is necessary. Methods: This retrospective multicenter study included patients from 10 intensive care units (ICUs). Risk factors for the overall survival (OS) of patients with cIAI were selected using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression, and a nomogram was constructed subsequently. Calibration curve and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to evaluate the calibration and discriminative ability. Results: In total, 544 patients diagnosed with cIAI were enrolled and divided into the study (n = 276) and validation (n = 268) sets. Sex, acute gastrointestinal injury, acute kidney injury, rare bacterium infection, Charlson score, and APACHE II score were identified as independent risk factors and were constructed for the nomogram. The nomogram showed marked calibration capability with a concordance index (C-index) of 0.909 and 0.831 in the study and validation set, respectively. Compared with the common clinical prognostic scoring system, the nomogram achieved the highest discrimination ability with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.91 and 0.83 in the study set and validation set, respectively. Conclusions: Our newly constructed nomogram provides a useful tool for risk stratification and prognosis evaluation of cIAI.

15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 584813, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681240

RESUMO

Background: Extended/continuous infusion and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of time-dependent antimicrobials are recommended for optimizing drug exposure for patients in intensive care units (ICUs), although practical application of these measures remains uncertain. We surveyed current practices in infusion and monitoring of commonly prescribed time-dependent antimicrobials in ICUs across China. Methods: From December 2019 to January 2020, we sent online questionnaires about various aspects of infusion and monitoring of time-dependent antimicrobials to intensivists across China. Responses from clinicians were matched with their professional titles using the Sankey diagram. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to find factors associated with TDM. Results: A total of 3,687 ICU specialists from 31 provincial administrative regions of China responded to our questionnaires. Antibiotic stewardship (ABS) teams were available in hospitals as reported by 3,243 (88.0%) intensivists, including 1,308 (35.5%) who were ABS team members. Although most intensivists (3,490, 94.7%) were acquainted with the concept of prolonged/continuous infusion, nearly half of them (1,634, 44.3%) commonly administered ß-lactam antibiotics intermittently. Nearly two-thirds of the respondents reported that their hospitals could not perform TDM. Our multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that at the hospital level, knowledge of drug sample timing and attitude toward monitoring treatment effects, and drug trough or peak concentration influenced the decision to conduct TDM. Conclusions: We found great variability in prescribing practices, from drug administration to TDM, for several time-dependent antibiotics commonly used for patients with severe infections. Further studies are necessary to effectively evaluate strategies to promote consistent prescribing behavior.

17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(11): 2985-2994, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608753

RESUMO

Lentiviruses are increasingly used as gene delivery vehicles for vaccines and immunotherapies. However, the purification of clinical-grade lentivirus vectors for therapeutic use is still troublesome and limits preclinical and clinical experiments. Current purification methods such as ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration are time consuming and do not remove all of the impurities such as cellular debris, membrane fragments, and denatured proteins from the lentiviruses. The same challenges exist in terms of their analytical characterization. Presented here is the novel demonstration of the chromatographic isolation of virus particles from culture media based on the hydrophobicity characteristics of the vesicles. A method was developed to isolate lentivirus from media using a hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) method performed on a polyester, capillary-channeled polymer (PET C-CP) stationary phase and a standard liquid chromatography apparatus. The method is an extension of the approach developed in this laboratory for the isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to verify and quantify lentiviruses in elution fractions. Load and elution mobile phase compositions were optimized to affect high efficiency and throughput. The process has been visualized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the fiber surfaces following media injection, the elution of proteinaceous material, and the elution of lentiviruses. This effort has yielded a rapid (<10 min), low-cost (< $15 per column, providing multiple separations), and efficient method for the isolation/purification of lentivirus particles from cell culture media at the analytical scale.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Lentivirus/isolamento & purificação , Poliésteres/química , Polímeros/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
18.
Electrophoresis ; 42(3): 245-256, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169421

RESUMO

We have developed a rapid, low-cost, and simple separation strategy to separate extracellular vesicles (EVs) from a small amount of serum (i.e.,<100 µL) with minimal contamination by serum proteins and lipoprotein particles to meet the high purity requirement for EV proteome analysis. EVs were separated by a novel polyester capillary channel polymer (PET C-CP) fiber phase/hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) method which is rapid and can process small size samples. The collected EV fractions were subjected to a post-column cleanup protocol using a centrifugal filter to perform buffer exchange and eliminate potential coeluting non-EV proteins while minimizing EV sample loss. Downstream characterization demonstrated that our current strategy can separate EVs with the anticipated exosome-like particle size distribution and high yield (∼1 × 1011 EV particles per mL of serum) in approximately 15 min. Proteome profiling of the EVs reveals that a group of genuine EV components were identified that have significantly less high-abundance blood proteins and lipoprotein particle contamination in comparison to traditional separation methods. The use of this methodology appears to address the major challenges facing EV separation for proteomics analysis. In addition, the EV post-column cleanup protocol proposed in the current work has the potential to be combined with other separation methods, such as ultracentrifugation (UC), to further purify the separated EV samples.

19.
Melanoma Res ; 31(2): 119-129, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347048

RESUMO

Although germline mutations in BRCA-associated protein-1 (BAP1) predispose to cutaneous melanoma (CM), BAP1 is rarely mutated in primary CM outside the familial context. The role of BAP1 in the pathogenesis of CM remains obscure. Here, we discovered an unexpected role of BAP1 in suppressing CM growth and metastasis. BAP1 deletion by CRISPR-Cas9 system severely compromises colony-forming capability of murine CM cell line B16-F10 and human CM cell lines, SK-MEL-28 and A375. Furthermore, BAP1 loss abrogates tumor growth and lung metastasis in murine syngeneic tumor models. Deletion of BAP1 in B16-F10 cells leads to preferential downregulation of genes accompanied with increased H2A ubiquitination at lysine 119. Transcriptomic characterization of BAP1 deletion reveals multiple deregulated cellular functions including extracellular matrix-receptor interaction and MAPK signaling pathway which may contribute to BAP1's effect on metastasis and proliferation. Our findings indicate that BAP1 could be a potential therapeutic target for CM.


Assuntos
Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Metástase Neoplásica , Transfecção
20.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6417-6428, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141117

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDCorticosteroids are widely used in patients with COVID 19, although their benefit-to-risk ratio remains controversial.METHODSPatients with severe COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were included from December 29, 2019 to March 16, 2020 in 5 tertiary Chinese hospitals. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks analyses were conducted to analyze the impact of corticosteroids on mortality and SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance, respectively. We performed a propensity score (PS) matching analysis to control confounding factors.RESULTSOf 774 eligible patients, 409 patients received corticosteroids, with a median time from hospitalization to starting corticosteroids of 1.0 day (IQR 0.0-3.0 days) . As compared with usual care, treatment with corticosteroids was associated with increased rate of myocardial (15.6% vs. 10.4%, P = 0.041) and liver injury (18.3% vs. 9.9%, P = 0.001), of shock (22.0% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001), of need for mechanical ventilation (38.1% vs. 19.5%, P < 0.001), and increased rate of 28-day all-cause mortality (44.3% vs. 31.0%, P < 0.001). After PS matching, corticosteroid therapy was associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, P = 0.045). High dose (>200 mg) and early initiation (≤3 days from hospitalization) of corticosteroid therapy were associated with a higher 28-day mortality rate. Corticosteroid use was also associated with a delay in SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance in the competing risk analysis (subhazard ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.17-2.15, P = 0.003).CONCLUSIONAdministration of corticosteroids in severe COVID-19-related ARDS is associated with increased 28-day mortality and delayed SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance after adjustment for time-varying confounders.FUNDINGNone.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...