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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt B): 130357, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444062

RESUMO

Accurate estimates of spatiotemporally resolved Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD/Fs, or dioxins) emissions are critical for understanding their environmental fate and associated health risks. In this study, by utilizing an empirical regression model for PCDD/Fs emissions, we developed a global emission inventory for 17 toxic PCDD/Fs congeners from 8 source sectors with a spatial resolution of 1° × 1° from 2002 to 2018. The results show that PCDD/Fs emissions decreased by 25.7 % (12.5 kg TEQ) between 2002 and 2018, mostly occurring in upper- and lower-middle income countries. Globally, open-burning processes, waste incineration, ferrous and nonferrous metal production sectors and heat and power generation were the major source sectors of PCDD/Fs. Spatially, high PCDD/Fs emissions were mainly identified in East and South Asia, Southeast Asia, and part of Sub-Saharan Africa. We find that the declining trend of dioxin emissions over the past decades terminated from the early 2010s due to increasing significance of wildfire induced emissions in the total emission. The PCDD/Fs emission inventory developed in the present study was verified by inputting the inventory as initial conditions into an atmospheric transport model, the Canadian Model for Environmental Transport of Organochlorine Pesticides (CanMETOP), to simulate PCDD/Fs concentrations in air and soil. The predicted concentrations were compared to field sampling data. The good agreement between the modeled and measured concentrations demonstrates the reliability of the inventory.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Dibenzofuranos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Canadá
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 1): 159137, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191711

RESUMO

Past studies focused on ground-level air quality, whereas air quality in upper atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) remains unclear due to lack of long-term and high time-resolution profile data. This study utilized the 3-Dimensional Real-Time Atmospheric Monitoring System (3DREAMS) to provide vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter coefficients and wind for three years (2019-2021), along with DustTrak to describe and analyze the characteristics of aerosols in the upper ABL in a high-density city in Asia (Hong Kong, China). It is the first study to assess the long-term record and spatial variations of upper-level aerosol in a high-density city using a LiDAR network. Results show an opposite diurnal profile of aerosol comparing between ground-level and upper ABL, which is different with the diurnal pattern observed in ground measurements (higher air pollutant concentration level in daytime and lower in nighttime). The co-location vertical wind measurements provided the explanation of the opposite diurnal patterns. The 3-year vertical profiles also show the significant spatial variation of vertical distribution of aerosol at different locations, whereas the temporal variations can be affected by various factors such as emissions and transboundary air pollution. Our episode analysis clearly demonstrated the capability of 3DREAMS to monitor transboundary air pollution with detailed information of horizontal transport and vertical convection. 3DREAMS is therefore proved as a suitable system for transboundary air pollution monitoring. Our findings provide a critical reference for atmospheric scientists and decisionmakers to understand transboundary air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Hong Kong
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 302(Pt B): 115934, 2023 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414216

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zhi-zi-chi decoction (ZZCD), from "Treatise on Febrile Diseases", is a typical traditional Chinese medicine herb pair, which consists of Gardeniae Fructus (GF) and Semen Sojae Praeparatu (SSP). In clinical research, ZZCD was widely used to fight depression, remove annoyance. Many studies have reported that gut microbiota is critical target for the influence of depress through gut-brain axis, and our previously studies have found that ZZCD exhibiting antidepressant effect was through the gut-brain axis. However, the specific mechanism by which gut microbiota mediates the pharmacokinetics parameters of active compounds from ZZCD during the process of depression treatment has not yet been studied. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the differences in pharmacokinetics characters of bioactive iridoids from ZZCD and study the changes of gut microbiota at different stages of depression with the personalized medicine of ZZCD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A new strategy exploring the relationship among disease phenotypes (D), intestinal microbiota (I), enzymes (E) and traits of metabolism (T) named as "DIET" was established. Firstly, a fast, selective and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) was established and validated to quality the main bioactive compounds from ZZCD and compare the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of different iridoids prototypes and metabolites from ZZCD between normal and chronic unpredictable mild stress rats. Subsequently, the activity of corresponding metabolic enzymes of anti-depressive compounds, ß-glucosidases and sulfotransferases, were analyzed by ρ-nitrophenyl-ß -D-glucopyranoside and sulfotransferases ELISA kits, respectively. Finally, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was adopt to analyze intestinal bacteria composition for the treatment of depression by ZZCD. RESULTS: The antidepressant effect of ZZCD was promoted due to the increased exposures and reduced eliminations of anti-depressive compounds, especially geniposide and genipin 1-gentiobioside, under the depression state. With the ZZCD treatment, the depression was improved, but the exposures of anti-depressive compounds from ZZCD gradually decreased. Meanwhile, there were the corresponding decreased trends on the activity of ß-glucosidases and sulfotransferases. With the consumption of ZZDC and the improvement of depression, the exposures of anti-depressive iridoid glycosides decreased and the activity of metabolism enzymes restored. Meanwhile, the dysbiosis of pathogenic bacteria (Bacteroidota) induced by depression was ameliorated and the probiotics (Firmicutes) at the phylum and genus level raised, the two phyla are closely related to the production of ß-glucosidase and sulfotransferases. CONCLUSIONS: It is the first proposed that ZZCD could personalized to treat depression at different stages targeting gut microbiota and gut microbiome could emerged as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker in depression.


Assuntos
Celulases , Depressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Ratos , Cromatografia Líquida , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Iridoides , Medicina de Precisão , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia
4.
J Environ Manage ; 326(Pt A): 116673, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375425

RESUMO

Owing to their bioavailability and toxicity, the dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs-d) loaded in rivers are harmful to both inland and marine ecosystems. Thus, exploring the changes in PAHs-d levels and sources is important for controlling PAHs pollution. In this study, the concentration of PAHs-d in the mainstream of the Yangtze River during dry and wet seasons was investigated and the source was analyzed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model to assess the response of PAHs-d to hydrological and anthropogenic activities changes. The concentration of PAHs-d in the wet season (166.2 ± 52.51 ng/L) was significantly higher than that in the dry season (89.05 ± 20.89 ng/L) (ANOVA, P < 0.001), and the sampling sites with high pollution were mainly distributed in the downstream urban agglomeration. Herein, 2-3 rings were identified to play a dominant role in the composition of PAHs-d. Compared with the dry season, the proportion of the low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs-d were relatively depleted and the high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs-d were accumulated in the wet season. Coal and coke combustion were identified as the main sources of PAHs-d (65.9% in the dry season and 59.2% in the wet season), followed by vehicle emissions, petroleum sources, and biomass combustion. Owing to the change in energy consumption structure and climate characteristics, the sources of PAHs-d displayed seasonal variation and spatial heterogeneity. Further, flow was identified as the most important factor affecting PAHs-d in the hydrological parameters. Increases of flow, pH, and SPM decreased the proportion of LMW PAHs-d, and increased that of HMW PAHs-d. The increase in anthropogenic activities intensified the residual levels of 2-3rings and 5-6 rings in water, but had no significant impact on the levels of 4 rings.

5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 769-781, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182182

RESUMO

The seasonal changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM), and its correlation with the release of internal nutrients during the annual cycle of cyanobacteria in the eutrophic Lake Chaohu, China, were investigated from four sampling periods between November 2020 and July 2021. The DOM fluorescence components were identified as protein-like C1, microbial humic-like C2, and terrestrial humic-like C3. The highest total fluorescence intensity (FT) of DOM in sediments during the incubation stage is due to the decomposition and degradation of cyanobacteria remains. The lowest humification of DOM and the highest proportion of C1 in waters during the initial cyanobacterial growth indicate that fresh algae are the main source. The highest molecular weight of DOM and FT of the C2 in sediments during cyanobacterial outbreaks indicate the concurrent deposition of undegraded cyanobacterial remains and microbial degradation. The components of DOM are affected mainly by the dissolved total phosphorus in waters, while the temperature drives the annual cycle of cyanobacteria. The decreasing C1 in sediments and increasing nutrients in waters from the cyanobacterial incubation to outbreak indicate that mineralization of algal organic matter contributes importantly to the release of internal nutrients, with the strongest release of phosphorus observed during the early growth of cyanobacteria. The humic-like C2 and C3 components could also affect the dynamics of internal phosphorus through the formation of organic colloids and organic-inorganic ligands. The results show that the degradation of DOM leads to nutrients release and thus supports the continuous growth of cyanobacteria in eutrophic Lake Chaohu.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Lagos , China , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Eutrofização , Lagos/microbiologia , Ligantes , Nutrientes , Fósforo/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36453536

RESUMO

A simple rectangular-structured freestanding liquid-solid triboelectric nanogenerator (LS-TENG) was fabricated, which used fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) films and deionized water (DI) as friction materials. The LS-TENG can effectively convert mechanical energy into electrical energy under the extremely low-frequency shaking of 2 Hz and shows greatly reliable stability. The influence of liquid volume and units on the output performance of the LS-TENG was studied, and the mechanism of the triboelectric electrification process of the LS-TENG was analyzed by COMSOL Multiphysics software. The results show that friction materials, liquid types, and number of units have a great effect on the output performance of the LS-TENG. Under the optimized conditions, the designed array LS-TENG shows high output performance with the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and transferred charge of 120 V, 3.9 µA, and 133 nC, respectively. The LS-TENG can be applied in capacitive storage, AC power, signal acquisition, and self-powered sensor. The multifunctional LS-TENG provides a potentially practical route for harvesting low-frequency mechanical energy in natural environments and enabling multifunctional applications.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454627

RESUMO

Combustion-derived black carbon (BC) is an important component of sedimentary carbon pool. Due to different physicochemical properties, determining the source of char and soot is crucial for BC cycling, especially for nonhomologous char and soot in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). This study analyzed the sequestration and source of BC, char, and soot in the Dagze Co (inner TP) sediment core via the content and δ13C, revealing the biomass and fossil fuel driving on nonsynchronous char and soot and their response to local anthropogenic activities and atmospheric transmission. The results showed that BC concentration increased from 1.19 ± 0.35 mg g-1 (pre-1956) to 2.03 ± 1.05 mg g-1 (after 1956). The variation of char was similar to BC, while nonhomologous growth was detected in char and soot (r = 0.29 and p > 0.05). The source apportionment showed that biomass burning for 71.52 ± 10.23% of char and promoted char sequestration. The contribution of fossil fuel combustion to soot (46.67 ± 14.07%) is much higher than char (28.48 ± 10.23%). Redundancy analysis confirmed that local anthropogenic activities significantly influenced BC burial and atmospheric transport from outside TP-regulated BC burial. The contribution of biomass and fossil fuels to nonsynchronous char and soot is conducive to understanding the anthropogenic effect on BC burial in the TP.

8.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt A): 112031, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461251

RESUMO

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. This study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of hemoglobin from Tegillarca granosa (T. granosa) on IDA in mice. Mice were randomly divided into five groups: a normal control group, an anemia model group, a positive (FeSO4) control group, a low-dose and high-dose hemoglobin groups. After 4-week iron supplements administration, it was observed that hemoglobin at 2.0 mg iron/kg body weight had better restorative effective on IDA mice than that of FeSO4 with regard to routine blood parameters and serum biochemical indicators. Meanwhile, the IDA-caused alterations of organ coefficients and liver morphology were ameliorated in mice after hemoglobin supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. Further correlation analysis of indicators showed that serum ferritin (iron storage protein) and soluble transferrin receptor (cellular iron uptake membrane glycoprotein) were susceptible to iron deficiency, indicating possibledisorder of iron metabolism caused by IDA. And levels of serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor were restored after administration of hemoglobin. These findings confirmed the safety and effectiveness of T. granosa derived hemoglobin in alleviating IDA in mice, suggesting its great potential as an alternative for iron supplementation.

9.
Heart Lung ; 58: 74-81, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common in intensive care units with high mortality rate and mechanical ventilation (MV) is the most important related treatment. Early prediction of MV duration has benefit for patients risk stratification and care strategies support. OBJECTIVE: To develop an explainable model for predicting mechanical ventilation (MV) duration in patients with ARDS using the machine learning (ML) approach. METHOD: The number of 1,148, 1,697, and 29 ARDS patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) in the MIMIC-IV, eICU-CRD, and AmsterdamUMCdb databases were included in the study. Features at MV initiation from the MIMIC-IV dataset were used to train prediction models based on seven supervised machine learning algorithms. After 5-fold cross-validation for hyperparameters tuning, the hyperparameters- optimized model of different algorithms was tested by external datasets extracted from eICU-CRD and Amsterdamumcdb. Finally, three descriptive machine learning explanation methods were conducted for the model explanation. RESULT: The XGBoosting model showed the most stable and accurate performance among two testing datasets (RMSE= 5.57 and 5.46 days in eICU-CRD and AmsterdamUMCdb) and was selected as the optimal model. The model explanation based on SHAP, LIME, and DALEX results showed a consistent result, vasopressor, PH, and SOFA score had the highest effect on MV duration prediction. CONCLUSION: ML models with features at MV initiation can accurate predict MV duration in patients with ARDS in ICUs. Among seven algorithms, XGB models showed the best performance (RMSE= 5.57 and 5.46 in two external datasets). LIME, SHAP, and Breakdown methods showed good performance as AXI methods.

10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 638: 51-57, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36436342

RESUMO

Multifunctional core-shell hybrids formed by integration of metal-organic framework (MOF) and functional materials have attracted extensive attention as promising theranostic nanoplatforms due to their combined novel properties and enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Recently, the second near-infrared (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) laser-induced photothermal therapy (PTT) as compared to the NIR-I(700-950 nm) laser-induced PTT has displayed improved therapeutic effects owing to its merits that include deeper tissue penetration and increased maximum permissible exposure. Herein, a novel core-shell hollow copper sulfide@metal-organic framework (HCuS@MIL-100) has been successfully fabricated by a layer-by-layer technique for the first time and their collective theranostic effects are investigated in vitro and in vivo. In this platform, the inner HCuS was applied as the NIR-II photothermal agent with excellent NIR-II absorption feature, leading to impressive photothermal effects under irradiation by 1064 nm light. With MIL-100 as the shell, HCuS@MIL-100 not only displayed optimal biocompatibility but also presented superior T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ability. In the current study multifunctional hollow core-shell HCuS@MIL-100 are fabricated for the MRI-guided PTT. This study also offers a facile and effective strategy for the development of novel theranostic platforms with high efficiency through the integration of MOFs and functional materials.

11.
Comput Biol Med ; 151(Pt B): 106323, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36436482

RESUMO

Deep learning-based virtual screening methods have been shown to significantly improve the accuracy of traditional docking-based virtual screening methods. In this paper, we developed Deffini, a structure-based virtual screening neural network model. During training, Deffini learns protein-ligand docking poses to distinguish actives and decoys and then to predict whether a new ligand will bind to the protein target. Deffini outperformed Smina with an average AUC ROC of 0.92 and AUC PRC of 0.44 in 3-fold cross-validation on the benchmark dataset DUD-E. However, when tested on the maximum unbiased validation (MUV) dataset, Deffini achieved poor results with an average AUC ROC of 0.517. We used the family-specific training approach to train the model to improve the model performance and concluded that family-specific models performed better than the pan-family models. To explore the limits of the predictive power of the family-specific models, we constructed Kernie, a new protein kinase dataset consisting of 358 kinases. Deffini trained with the Kernie dataset outperformed all recent benchmarks on the MUV kinases, with an average AUC ROC of 0.745, which highlights the importance of quality datasets in improving the performance of deep neural network models and the importance of using family-specific models.

12.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 1024, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the ever-increasing rate of failure related to proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA), it is expected that an increasing number of PFNA individuals will undergo conversion to total hip arthroplasty (THA). The long-term survivorship of conversion of the initial PFNA to cemented THA is still debated. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the long-term revision-free survivorship of cemented THAs after initial failures of PFNA in geriatric individuals. METHODS: Consecutive geriatric individuals who underwent secondary cemented THA after initial PFNA fixation from July 2005 to July 2018, were retrospectively identified from three medical centres. The primary outcome was revision-free survivorship estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression with revision for any reason as the endpoint; secondary outcomes were functional outcomes and key THA-related complications. Follow-ups occurred at 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and then every 12 months after conversion. RESULTS: In total, 186 consecutive patients (186 hips) were available for study inclusion. The median follow-up was 120.7 months (60-180 months) in the cohort. Kaplan-Meier survivorship with revision for any reason as the end point showed that the 10-year revision-free survival rate was 0.852 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.771-0.890). Good functional outcomes were seen, and the HHS decreased markedly over the 24th month to the final follow-up interval from 92.2 to 75.1 (each p < 0.05). The overall rate of key THA-related complications was 16.1% (30/186). CONCLUSION: Cemented THA executed following initial PFNA failure may yield satisfactory revision-free survival and, at least for the initial 10 years after conversion, good functional outcomes and a 16.1% complication rate of key THA-related complications, which supports the trend towards increased use of cemented THA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Sobrevivência , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seguimentos , Fêmur , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos
13.
Soft Matter ; 18(46): 8830-8839, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367378

RESUMO

Active matter exhibits various collective motions and nonequilibrium phases, such as crystals; however, their surface properties have been poorly explored. Here, we use Brownian dynamics simulations to investigate the surface morphology and dynamics of two-dimensional active crystals during and after growth. For crystal growth on a substrate, the position and roughness of the crystal surface reach steady states at different times. In the steady state, the surface exhibits superdiffusive behaviour at the short time, and the roughness is insensitive to the roughening process and particle activity. We observe two-stage and three-stage surface roughening at different Péclet numbers. The result of dynamic scaling analysis shows that the surface is similar to anomalous roughening, which is distinct from the normal roughening typically found in conventional passive systems. Capillary wave theory for a thermal equilibrium system can describe the active surface fluctuations only in the long-wavelength regime, indicating that active particles mainly drive the surface out of equilibrium locally. These similarities and differences between the active and passive crystal surfaces are essential for understanding active crystals and interfaces.

14.
Development ; 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398796

RESUMO

Propagation of human naïve pluripotent stem cells (nPSCs) relies on inhibition of MEK/ERK signalling. However, MEK/ERK inhibition also promotes differentiation into trophectoderm (TE). Therefore, robust self-renewal requires suppression of TE fate. Tankyrase inhibition using XAV939 has been shown to stabilise human nPSCs and is implicated in TE suppression. Here we dissect the mechanism of this effect. Tankyrase inhibition is known to block canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signalling. However, we show that nPSCs depleted of ß-catenin remain dependent on XAV939. We found instead that XAV939 prevents TE induction by reducing activation of YAP, co-factor of TE-inducing TEAD transcription factors. Tankyrase inhibition stabilises angiomotin, which limits nuclear accumulation of YAP. Upon deletion of angiomotin-family members AMOT and AMOTL2, nuclear YAP increases and XAV939 fails to prevent TE induction. Expression of constitutively active YAP similarly precipitates TE differentiation. Conversely, nPSCs lacking YAP1 or its paralog TAZ resist TE differentiation and self-renewal efficiently without XAV939. These findings explain the distinct requirement for tankyrase inhibition in human but not mouse naïve PSCs and highlight the pivotal role of YAP activity in human naïve pluripotency and TE differentiation.

15.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36420636

RESUMO

Mitochondria are the controllers of cell metabolism and are recognized as decision makers in cell death pathways, organizers of cytoplasmic signaling networks, managers of cellular stress responses and regulators of nuclear gene expression. Cells of the immune system are particularly dependent on mitochondrial resources, as they must swiftly respond to danger signals with activation, trafficking, migration, and generation of daughter cells. Analogously, faulty immune responses that lead to autoimmunity and tissue inflammation rely on mitochondria to supply energy, cell building blocks and metabolic intermediates. Emerging data endorse the concept that mitochondrial fitness, and the lack of it, is of particular relevance in the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA) where deviations of bioenergetic and biosynthetic flux affect T cells during early and late stages of disease. During early stages of RA, mitochondrial deficiency allows naïve RA T cells to lose self-tolerance, biasing fundamental choices of the immune system towards immune-mediated tissue damage and away from host protection. During late stages of RA, mitochondrial abnormalities shape the response patterns of RA effector T cells engaged in the inflammatory lesions, enabling chronicity of tissue damage and tissue remodeling. In the inflamed joint, autoreactive T cells partner with metabolically reprogrammed tissue macrophages that specialize in antigen-presentation and survive by adapting to the glucose-deplete tissue microenvironment. Here, we summarize recent data on dysfunctional mitochondria and mitochondria-derived signals relevant in the RA disease process that offer novel opportunities to deter autoimmune tissue inflammation by metabolic interference.

16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in the physicochemical properties of shrimp meat treated with two-stage heating were investigated. Currently, shrimp products in the processing process are susceptible to uneven dehydration, shrimp meat shrinkage, which results in rough and hard texture, poor chewiness, and seriously affects the edible quality as well as economic benefits. Improving the utilization value of shrimp resources, expanding its market shares, optimizing the tenderness of shrimp is the key to developing new types of fresh and ready-to-eat shrimp products. RESULTS: The results indicated that preheating at 30 °C could not affect the quality of shrimp meat significantly (P > 0.05). As the preheating temperature increased from 40 °C to 50 °C, the hardness and shear force of shrimp meat decreased due to the exposure of protein hydrophobic groups, protein aggregation and degradation, muscle fraction broken, and weight loss increase. Further increase in preheating temperature would lead to further aggregation and gelation of proteins, causing hardness and shear force increase. Besides, the results of microstructure showed that preheating at 40 °C and 50 °C could cause the shrimp muscles to become loose. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the preheating temperature ranging from 40 °C to 50 °C could effectively improve the tenderness of shrimp meat. This study might be useful for developing tenderized shrimp products in the future. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 984480, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389763

RESUMO

The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) are increasing year by year. The accurate classification of CRC can realize the purpose of personalized and precise treatment for patients. The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in the malignant progression and immunotherapy of CRC. An in-depth understanding of the clusters based on the TME is of great significance for the discovery of new therapeutic targets for CRC. We extracted data on CRC, including gene expression profile, DNA methylation array, somatic mutations, clinicopathological information, and copy number variation (CNV), from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (four datasets-GSE14333, GSE17538, GSE38832, and GSE39582), cBioPortal, and FireBrowse. The MCPcounter was utilized to quantify the abundance of 10 TME cells for CRC samples. Cluster repetitive analysis was based on the Hcluster function of the Pheatmap package in R. The ESTIMATE package was applied to compute immune and stromal scores for CRC patients. PCA analysis was used to remove batch effects among different datasets and transform genome-wide DNA methylation profiling into methylation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (MeTIL). We evaluated the mutation differences of the clusters using MOVICS, DeconstructSigs, and GISTIC packages. As for therapy, TIDE and SubMap analyses were carried out to forecast the immunotherapy response of the clusters, and chemotherapeutic sensibility was estimated based on the pRRophetic package. All results were verified in the TCGA and GEO data. Four immune clusters (ImmClust-CS1, ImmClust-CS2, ImmClust-CS3, and ImmClust-CS4) were identified for CRC. The four ImmClusts exhibited distinct TME compositions, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), functional orientation, and immune checkpoints. The highest immune, stromal, and MeTIL scores were observed in CS2, in contrast to the lowest scores in CS4. CS1 may respond to immunotherapy, while CS2 may respond to immunotherapy after anti-CAFs. Among the four ImmClusts, the top 15 markers with the highest mutation frequency were acquired, and CS1 had significantly lower CNA on the focal level than other subtypes. In addition, CS1 and CS2 patients had more stable chromosomes than CS3 and CS4. The most sensitive chemotherapeutic agents in these four ImmClusts were also found. IHC results revealed that CD29 stained significantly darker in the cancer samples, indicating that their CD29 was highly expressed in colon cancer. This work revealed the novel clusters based on TME for CRC, which would guide in predicting the prognosis, biological features, and appropriate treatment for patients with CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Prognóstico , Imunoterapia
18.
Front Genet ; 13: 1053772, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437952

RESUMO

The global outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic has become a major public health problem. COVID-19 virus infection triggers a complex immune response. CD8+ T cells, in particular, play an essential role in controlling the severity of the disease. However, the mechanism of the regulatory role of CD8+ T cells on COVID-19 remains poorly investigated. In this study, single-cell gene expression profiles from three CD8+ T cell subtypes (effector, memory, and naive T cells) were downloaded. Each cell subtype included three disease states, namely, acute COVID-19, convalescent COVID-19, and unexposed individuals. The profiles on each cell subtype were individually analyzed in the same way. Irrelevant features in the profiles were first excluded by the Boruta method. The remaining features for each CD8+ T cells subtype were further analyzed by Max-Relevance and Min-Redundancy, Monte Carlo feature selection, and light gradient boosting machine methods to obtain three feature lists. These lists were then brought into the incremental feature selection method to determine the optimal features for each cell subtype. Their corresponding genes may be latent biomarkers to determine COVID-19 severity. Genes, such as ZFP36, DUSP1, TCR, and IL7R, can be confirmed to play an immune regulatory role in COVID-19 infection and recovery. The results of functional enrichment analysis revealed that these important genes may be associated with immune functions, such as response to cAMP, response to virus, T cell receptor complex, T cell activation, and T cell differentiation. This study further set up different gene expression pattens, represented by classification rules, on three states of COVID-19 and constructed several efficient classifiers to distinguish COVID-19 severity. The findings of this study provided new insights into the biological processes of CD8+ T cells in regulating the immune response.

19.
Front Oncol ; 12: 943806, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439472

RESUMO

The immune system and the tumor have been at each other's throats for so long that the neoplasm has learned to avoid detection and avoid being attacked, which is called immune evasion. Malignant tumors, such as gastric cancer (GC), share the ability to evade the body's immune system as a defining feature. Immune evasion includes alterations to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), antigen presentation mechanisms (APMs), and the tumor microenvironment (TME). While TAA and APM are simpler in nature, they both involve mutations or epigenetic regulation of genes. The TME is comprised of numerous cell types, cytokines, chemokines and extracellular matrix, any one of which might be altered to have an effect on the surrounding ecosystem. The NF-kB, MAPK, PI3K/AKT, JAK/STAT, Wnt/ß-catenin, Notch, Hippo and TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathways are all associated with gastric cancer tumor immune evasion. In this review, we will delineate the functions of these pathways in immune evasion.

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