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1.
J Cell Physiol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472101

RESUMO

Targeting protein kinase C (PKC) family was found to repress the migration and resistance of non-small cell lung cancer cells to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, none of the PKC inhibitors has been approved for anticancer therapy yet due to the limited efficacy in clinical trials, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. l-lactic acidosis, a common condition comprising high l-lactate concentration and acidic pH in the tumor microenvironment, has been known to induce tumor metastasis and drug resistance. In this study, l-lactic acid was found to reverse the inhibitory effects of pan-PKC inhibitors GO6983 on PKC activity, cell migration, and EGFR-TKI resistance, but these effects were not affected by the modulators of lactate receptor GPR81. Interestingly, blockade of lactate transporters, monocarboxylate transporter-1 and -4 (MCT1 and MCT4), attenuated the intracellular level of GO6983, and its inhibitory effect on PKC activity, suggesting that lactic acid promotes the resistance to PKC inhibitors by competing for the uptake through these transporters rather than by activating its receptor, GPR81. Our findings explain the underlying mechanisms of the limited response of PKC inhibitors in clinical trials.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2007778, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510563

RESUMO

Cancer has been one of the most common life-threatening diseases for a long time. Traditional cancer therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy (CT), and radiotherapy (RT) have limited effects due to drug resistance, unsatisfactory treatment efficiency, and side effects. In recent years, photodynamic therapy (PDT), photothermal therapy (PTT), and chemodynamic therapy (CDT) have been utilized for cancer treatment owing to their high selectivity, minor resistance, and minimal toxicity. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that selective delivery of drugs to specific subcellular organelles can significantly enhance the efficiency of cancer therapy. Mitochondria-targeting therapeutic strategies are promising for cancer therapy, which is attributed to the essential role of mitochondria in the regulation of cancer cell apoptosis, metabolism, and more vulnerable to hyperthermia and oxidative damage. Herein, the rational design, functionalization, and applications of diverse mitochondria-targeting units, involving organic phosphine/sulfur salts, quaternary ammonium (QA) salts, peptides, transition-metal complexes, guanidinium or bisguanidinium, as well as mitochondria-targeting cancer therapies including PDT, PTT, CDT, and others are summarized. This review aims to furnish researchers with deep insights and hints in the design and applications of novel mitochondria-targeting agents for cancer therapy.

3.
Adv Mater ; : e2104370, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510593

RESUMO

Neural systems can selectively filter and memorize spatiotemporal information, thus enabling high-efficient information processing. Emulating such an exquisite biological process in electronic devices is of fundamental importance for developing neuromorphic architectures with efficient in situ edge/parallel computing, and probabilistic inference. Here a novel multifunctional memristor is proposed and demonstrated based on metalloporphyrin/oxide hybrid heterojunction, in which the metalloporphyrin layer allows for dual electronic/ionic transport. Benefiting from the coordination-assisted ionic diffusion, the device exhibits smooth, gradual conductive transitions. It is shown that the memristive characteristics of this hybrid system can be modulated by altering the metal center for desired metal-oxygen bonding energy and oxygen ions migration dynamics. The spike voltage-dependent plasticity stemming from the local/extended movement of oxygen ions under low/high voltage is identified, which permits potentiation and depression under unipolar different positive voltages. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, memristive arrays are further built to emulate the signal filtering function of the biological visual system. This work demonstrates the ionic intelligence feature of metalloporphyrin and paves the way for implementing efficient neural-signal analysis in neuromorphic hardware.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523785

RESUMO

Achieving single-component white organic afterglow remains a great challenge owing to the difficulties in simultaneously supporting long-lived emissions from varied excited states of a molecule for complementary afterglow. Here, an extraordinary tri-mode emission from the radiative decays of singlet (S 1 ), triplet (T 1 ) and stabilized triplet (T 1 * ) excited states was proposed to afford white afterglow through modulating the singlet-triplet splitting energy (Δ E ST ) and exciton trapping depth ( E TD ). Low-lying T 1 * for yellow afterglow was constructed by H-aggregation engineering with large E TD and trace isomer doping, while high-lying T 1 and S 1 for blue afterglow with thermally activated emission feature was realized by reducing Δ E ST through donor-acceptor molecular design. Therefore, the single-component white afterglow with high efficiency of 14.1% and lifetime of 0.61 s was achieved by rationally regulating the afterglow intensity ratios of complementary emissions from S 1 , T 1 and T 1 * .

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125894, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492832

RESUMO

The chemistry of root cell wall of rice could be changed by inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the roles of such changes on cadmium (Cd) uptake and distribution in rice. Results showed that inoculation of AM fungus Rhizophagus intraradices (RI) significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) shoot biomass, plant height and root length of rice, and decreased Cd concentration in shoot and root under Cd stress. Moreover, Cd in root was mainly found in pectin and hemicellulose 1 (HC1) components of root cell wall. Inoculation of RI increased the levels of pectin, HC1 and lignin content, accompanied by the increments of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and pectin methylesterase (PME) activities. Results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further showed that more hydroxyl and carboxyl groups in root cell wall were observed in mycorrhizal treatment, compared with control. This study demonstrates that cell wall components could be the locations for Cd fixation, which reduced Cd transportation from root to shoot. Inoculation of AMF may remodel root cell wall biosynthesis and affect the characteristics of Cd fixation. The entering and fixing mechanisms should be further studied.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Parede Celular/química , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
6.
Neural Netw ; 144: 90-100, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478941

RESUMO

Transforming neural activities into language is revolutionary for human-computer interaction as well as functional restoration of aphasia. Present rapid development of artificial intelligence makes it feasible to decode the neural signals of human visual activities. In this paper, a novel Progressive Transfer Language Decoding Model (PT-LDM) is proposed to decode visual fMRI signals into phrases or sentences when natural images are being watched. The PT-LDM consists of an image-encoder, a fMRI encoder and a language-decoder. The results showed that phrases and sentences were successfully generated from visual activities. Similarity analysis showed that three often-used evaluation indexes BLEU, ROUGE and CIDEr reached 0.182, 0.197 and 0.680 averagely between the generated texts and the corresponding annotated texts in the testing set respectively, significantly higher than the baseline. Moreover, we found that higher visual areas usually had better performance than lower visual areas and the contribution curve of visual response patterns in language decoding varied at successively different time points. Our findings demonstrate that the neural representations elicited in visual cortices when scenes are being viewed have already contained semantic information that can be utilized to generate human language. Our study shows potential application of language-based brain-machine interfaces in the future, especially for assisting aphasics in communicating more efficiently with fMRI signals.

7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112735, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The kidney toxicity of fluoride exposure has been demonstrated in animal studies, and a few studies have reported kidney function injury in children with fluoride exposure. However, epidemiological information for the effects of long-term fluoride exposure on adult kidney function remains limited. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional investigation in Wenshui County, Shanxi Province to examine the association between fluoride exposure and kidney function in adults, and a total of 1070 adults were included in our study. Urinary fluoride concentrations were measured using the national standardized ion selective electrode method. And markers of kidney function injury (urinary NAG, serum RBP, serum Urea, serum C3, serum UA and serum αl-MG) were measured using automatic biochemical analyzer. Multivariate linear regression analysis and binary logistic regression model were used to assess the relationship between urinary fluoride and markers of kidney function injury. RESULTS: Urinary fluoride was positively correlated with urinary NAG and serum Urea, negatively correlated with serum C3. In multivariate linear regression models, every 1 mg/L increment of urinary fluoride was associated with 1.583 U/L increase in urinary NAG, 0.199 mmol/L increase in serum Urea, 0.037 g/L decrease in serum C3 after adjusting for potential confounding factors. In the binary logistic regression model, higher levels of urinary fluoride were associated with an increased risk of kidney function injury. Determination of kidney function based on urinary NAG, every 1 mg/L increment in the urinary fluoride concentrations was associated with significant increases of 22.8% in the risk of kidney function injury after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Sensitivity analysis for the association between urinary fluoride concentrations and markers of kidney function (urinary NAG, serum Urea, and serum C3) by adjusting for the covariates, it is consistent with the primary analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that long-term fluoride exposure is associated with kidney function in adults, and urinary NAG is a sensitive and robust marker of kidney dysfunction caused by fluoride exposure, which could be considered for the identification of early kidney injury in endemic fluorosis areas.

8.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105309, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479054

RESUMO

Six new polyketone metabolites, compounds (1-6) and seven known polyketone compounds (7-13) were isolated from Rhodiola tibetica endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. The structural elucidation of five new polyketone metabolites were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic including 2D NMR and HRMS and spectrometric analysis. Inhibition rate evaluation revealed that compounds 1(EC50 = 0.02 mM), 3(EC50 = 0.3 mM), 6(EC50 = 0.07 mM), 8(EC50 = 0.1 mM) and 9(EC50 = 0.04 mM) had inhibitory effect on the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

9.
Mar Environ Res ; 171: 105455, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492365

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) have become a ubiquitous emerging pollutant in the global marine environment. The potential toxic effects of MPs and interactions of MP pollution with other stressors such as food limitation on marine organisms' health are not yet well understood. This study investigated the effects of three-week exposure to different MPs and food shortage on the physical defense mechanisms (byssus production and properties) of Mytilus coruscus. Starvation significantly reduced the number of byssus threads, and combined exposure to MPs and food shortage suppressed the adhesion ability and condition index of mussels. The length of the byssus threads was not affected by all experimental exposures. Transcript levels of genes encoding key proteins involved in byssus formation (the mussel foot proteins mfp-1, -2, -3, -4, -5 and -6, and prepolymerized collagen proteins preCOL-D, -P and -NG) were altered by interactions between the MPs and food shortage. These findings show that insufficient food supply can exacerbate the adverse effects of MPs on mussel defense which might have implications for survival and fitness of mussels under food limited conditions (e.g. in winter) in polluted coastal habitats.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The waiting time (WT) for a phlebotomy is directly related to patient satisfaction with a health service. However, the processing time varies widely depending on the type of patients. Monitoring of the WT alone may not enable an effective evaluation of the lean performance of the medical staff for patients with different characteristics. The objective of this study was to use process cycle efficiency (PCE) to assess the performance of an intelligent tube preparation system (ITPS) which automatically labeled test tubes and conducted patient rerouting for phlebotomy services, and to interpret the WT during peak hours. METHODS: Three time periods were used. The baseline period was from 1 July to 31 July 2014. Phase 1 was after the establishment of the ITPS, with patients ≥80 years old being rerouted. In phase 2, patients ≥78 years old were rerouted. Those data were recorded with a calling system and ITPS, respectively. RESULTS: PCE was significantly improved from 12.9% at baseline to 51.1% (p < 0.001) in phase 1 and 53.0% (p < 0.001) in phase 2. The WT of 16.9 min at baseline was reduced to 3.8 min in phase 1 (p < 0.001), and 3.6 min in phase 2 (p < 0.001). Moreover, the results showed that a WT < 10 min was consistent with a PCE ≥ 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Establishing an ITPS for phlebotomy can significantly increase PCE and shorten the WT. Furthermore, the PCE ≥ 25% could be a good assessment reference for the management of appropriate human resources for phlebotomy services, although it is a complex parameter.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18013, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504225

RESUMO

To investigate associations between isoniazid for latent tuberculosis and risk of severe hepatitis, affecting patients with rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis whose treatment includes tumor necrosis factor inhibitors. Our self-controlled case series study analyzed Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database from 2003 to 2015 to identify RA or AS patients, aged ≥ 20 years, receiving TNF inhibitors and a 9-month single isoniazid treatment. The outcome of interest was hospitalization due to severe hepatitis. We defined risk periods by isoniazid exposure (days): 1-28, 29-56, 57-84, 85-168, 169-252, and 253-280. To compare risk of severe hepatitis in exposed and non-exposed periods, we performed conditional Poisson regressions to generate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals, with adjustment of patients' baseline covariates including age, sex, HBV, HCV and related medication. Of 54,267 RA patients and 137,889 AS patients identified between 2000 and 2015, 11,221 (20.7%) RA and 4,208 (3.1%) AS patients underwent TNFi therapy, with 722 (5%) receiving isoniazid for latent tuberculosis. We identified 31 incident cases (4.3%) of hospitalization due to severe hepatitis. Of these hospitalization events, 5 occurred in the exposed periods, 25 occurred in the INH unexposed periods, and 1 occurred in the pre-exposure period. Compared with non-exposure, the risk of severe hepatitis was higher in exposed periods (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 5.1, 95% CI: 1.57-16.55), especially 57-84 days (IRR: 17.29, 95% CI: 3.11-96.25) and 85-168 days (IRR:10.55, 95% CI: 1.90-58.51). The INH related fatal hepatotoxicity was not identified in our study. Our findings suggest an association between risk of severe hepatitis and exposure to isoniazid in patients with RA or AS under TNFi therapy, particularly within the exposed period 57-168 days. A close monitoring of liver function is mandatory to minimize the risk, especially within the first 6 months after initiation of 9 months isoniazid.

12.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 6343-6353, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506231

RESUMO

Resveratrol (Res) has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer properties in gastric cancer. However, its clinical application is limited by its poor pharmacokinetics, stability, and low solubility. Hence, this study aimed to explore and verify a better delivery system for gastric cancer therapy. Using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry, we observed the shape and encapsulation of resveratrol-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN-Res) that were synthesized by chemical methods. To explore the anti-cancer effects of these MSN-Res in vivo and in vitro, we established AGS and HGC-27 tumor-bearing mouse models. Meanwhile, the proliferation of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8, EdU, and Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining methods, while cellular apoptosis, and invasion and migration were detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Transwell assays, respectively. FTIR and UV results showed that we successfully synthesized and loaded drugs. Safety evaluation experiments showed that neither MSN-SH nor MSN-Res had toxic effects on the normal tissues of animals. Moreover, in vitro experiments revealed that MSN-Res significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and migration of gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, TUNEL assay showed that MSN-Res promoted apoptosis in gastric cancer. These results were confirmed by the nude mouse tumorigenesis experiment. In conclusion, we demonstrated that MSN-Res showed better inhibitory effect on the development of gastric cancer than Res alone, indicating that MSN-Res could be a promising drug delivery system for gastric cancer treatment.

13.
ACS Sens ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505501

RESUMO

Accurate single virus detection is critical for disease diagnosis and early prevention, especially in view of current pandemics. Numerous detection methods have been proposed with the single virus sensitivity, including the optical approaches and immunoassays. However, few of them hitherto have the capability of both trapping and detection of single viruses in the microchannel. Here, we report an optofluidic potential well array to trap nanoparticles stably in the flow stream. The nanoparticle is bound with single viruses and fluorescence quantum dots through an immunolabeling protocol. Single viruses can be swiftly captured in the microchannel by optical forces and imaged by a camera. The number of viruses in solution and on each particle can be quantified via image processing. Our method can trap and detect single viruses in the 1 mL serum or water in 2 h, paving an avenue for the advanced, fast, and accurate clinical diagnosis, as well as the study of virus infectivity, mutation, drug inhibition, etc.

14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505585

RESUMO

The development of synthetic helical structures from achiral molecules and stimulus-responsive shape transformations are vital for biomimetics and mechanical actuators. A stimulus regarded as the force to induce chirality modulation plays a significant role in the helical supramolecular structure design through symmetry breaking. Herein, we synthesized a metastable complex Form 1 crystal composed of pyrene and (4,8-bis(dicyanomethylene)-4,8-dihydrobenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']-dithiophen-e) DTTCNQ components with a torsional backbone by C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds via a quick cooling method. The helix motion kinetics of Form 1 depends on the intrinsic factor (crystal thickness) and external stimuli (polar solvents). The self-assembled helical microstructures grow into needle-like crystals in liquid media via an untwistingprocess. Furthermore, they undergo predictable deformation of untwisting or breaking under a stimulus-responsive strain-relaxing phase transformation. This work illustrates a new approach in the mediated formation of helical morphologies from achiral binary supramolecules and dynamic motion, which is vital for biomimetics and mechanical actuators.

15.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506027
16.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506028
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514796

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as traditional electrochemiluminescence (ECL) luminophores have been widely applied in the analysis field. However, their ECL intensity and efficiency are still limited due to the aggregation-induced quenching (ACQ) effect of PAHs. Hence, to overcome this limitation, we put forward a new strategy to increase the ECL intensity and efficiency by eliminating the ACQ effect of PAHs through the coordinative immobilization of PAHs within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). As anticipated, the proof-of-concept experiment indicated that the coordinative immobilization of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylate (PTC) into a Zn-PTC MOF could distinctly increase the ECL intensity and efficiency compared with H4PTC aggregates and H4PTC monomers. The reason for the ECL enhancement of Zn-PTC was that the immobilization of PTC within the MOF effectively amplified the distance between perylene rings of PTC ligands and thus eliminated the ACQ effect. Furthermore, the PTC into Zn-PTC was stacked in an edge-to-edge mode to form J-aggregation, which was also conducive to ECL enhancement. On the basis of the excellent ECL performance, we utilized Zn-PTC as a new ECL emitter combined with exonuclease III-stimulated target cycling and DNAzyme-assisted cycling dual amplification strategies to construct an ECL sensor for microRNA-21 detection, which had a wide signal response (100 aM to 100 pM) with a detection limit of 29.5 aM. Overall, this work represents a new and convenient method to overcome the ACQ effect of PAHs and boost the ECL performance, which opens a new horizon for developing high-performance ECL materials, thus offering more opportunities for building highly sensitive ECL biosensors.

18.
Adv Mater ; : e2103627, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515384

RESUMO

Improving singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) lifespan by fractionated delivery in dark and hypoxic conditions is a better way to achieve enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy. Herein, three boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes are synthesized to demonstrate that anthracence-functionalized BODIPY, namely ABDPTPA is an efficient heavy-atom-free photosensitizer for the reversible capture and release of 1 O2 . The spin-orbit charge-transfer intersystem crossing of ABDPTPA promises a high 1 O2 quantum yield of 60% in dichloromethane. Under light irradiation, the anthracene group reacts with 1 O2 to produce endoperoxide. Interestingly, after termination of irradiation, the endoperoxide undergoes thermal cycloreversion to produce 1 O2 , and regenerates the anthracene module to achieve 1 O2 "afterglow," which results in a prolonged half lifetime of 1 O2 for 9.2 min. In vitro cytotoxicity assays indicate that ABDPTPA nanoparticles have a low half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 3.6 µg mL-1 on U87MG cells. Further, the results of near-infrared-II fluorescence-imaging-guided phototherapy indicate that ABDPTPA nanoparticles can inhibit tumor proliferation even at a low dose (200 µg mL-1 , 100 µL) without any side effects. Therefore, the study provides a generalized 1 O2 "afterglow" strategy to enhance phototheranostics for complete tumor regression.

19.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515484

RESUMO

The active phase and catalytic mechanisms of Ni-based layered double hydroxide (LDH) materials for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) have no common consensus and remain controversial. Moreover, engineering the site activity and the number of active sites of LDHs is an efficient approach to advance the OER activity, as the thickness and stacking structure of the LDHs layer limit the catalytic activity. This work presents an interesting in situ approach of tuning the site activity and number of active sites of NiMn-LDHs, which exhibit the superior OER performance (onset overpotential of 0.17 V and overpotential of 0.24 V at 10 mA cm-2). The fundamental mechanistic insights and active phases during the OER process are characterized by in operando techniques along with the computational density functional theory calculations, revealing that the Ni site constitutes the OER activity and the dynamically generated NiOOH moiety is the active phase. We also prove that Ni sites undergo a reversible oxidation state under the working conditions to create active NiOOH species which catalyze the water to generate oxygen. These findings suggest that the Ni(III) phase in NiMn-LDHs is the OER active site and Mn promotes the electronic properties of Ni sites. Utilizing in situ/in operando techniques and theoretical calculation, we find that the in situ intercalation of guest anions allows the expansion of the LDH layers and keeps the active NiOOH species under the oxidation state of +3 via electron coupling, which ultimately tunes the site populations and site activity toward the superior OER activity, respectively. This work thus targets to provide insight into strategies to design the next generation of highly active catalysts for water electrolysis and fuel cell technologies.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ablation of the upper thoracic sympathetic ganglia that innervates the hands is the most effective and permanent cure of palmar hyperhidrosis. However, this type of sympathectomy causes irreversible neural damage and may result in severe compensatory hyperhidrosis. This experiment is designed to confirm the hypothesis, in which the stimulation of T2 sympathetic chain leads to increased palmar microcirculation, and thus results in treating hyperhidrosis. METHODS: In this study, we used electric stimulation to induce reversible blockade of the sympathetic ganglion in pigs and investigated its effect on palmar perfusion. An electrode was inserted to the T2 sympathetic ganglion of the pig through three different approaches: open dorsal, thoracoscopic, and fluoroscopy-guided approaches. Electric stimulation was delivered through the electrode using clinically available pulse generators. Palmar microcirculation was evaluated by laser speckle contrast imaging. RESULTS: The T2 sympathetic ganglion of the pig was successfully accessed by all the three approaches, as confirmed by changes in palmar microcirculation during electric stimulation. Similar effects were not observed when the electrode was placed on the T4 sympathetic ganglion or off the sympathetic trunk. CONCLUSION: We established a large animal model to verify the effect of thoracic sympathetic stimulation. Electric stimulation can be used for sympathetic blockade, as confirmed by increased blood perfusion of the palm. Our work suggests that sympathetic stimulation is a potential solution for palmar hyperhidrosis.

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