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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-30, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818119

RESUMO

AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants have continued to emerge in diverse geographic locations with a temporal distribution. The Lambda variant containing multiple mutations in the spike protein, has thus far appeared mainly in South America. The variant harbours two mutations in the receptor binding domain, L452Q and F490S, which may change its infectivity and antigenicity to neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we constructed 10 pseudoviruses to study the Lambda variant and each individual amino acid mutation's effect on viral function, and used eight cell lines to study variant infectivity. In total, 12 monoclonal antibodies, 14 convalescent sera, and 23 immunized sera induced by mRNA vaccines, inactivated vaccine, and adenovirus type 5 vector vaccine were used to study the antigenicity of the Lambda variant. We found that compared with the D614G reference strain, Lambda demonstrated enhanced infectivity of Calu-3 and LLC-MK2 cells by 3.3-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively. Notably, the sensitivity of the Lambda variant to 5 of 12 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, 9G11, AM180, R126, X593, and AbG3, was substantially diminished. Furthermore, convalescent- and vaccine-immunized sera showed on average 1.3-2.5-fold lower neutralizing titres against the Lambda variant. Single mutation analysis revealed that this reduction in neutralization was caused by L452Q and F490S mutations. Collectively, the reduced neutralization ability of the Lambda variant suggests that the efficacy of monoclonal antibodies and vaccines may be compromised during the current pandemic.

3.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(3): nwaa297, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676096

RESUMO

Receptor recognition and subsequent membrane fusion are essential for the establishment of successful infection by SARS-CoV-2. Halting these steps can cure COVID-19. Here we have identified and characterized a potent human monoclonal antibody, HB27, that blocks SARS-CoV-2 attachment to its cellular receptor at sub-nM concentrations. Remarkably, HB27 can also prevent SARS-CoV-2 membrane fusion. Consequently, a single dose of HB27 conferred effective protection against SARS-CoV-2 in two established mouse models. Rhesus macaques showed no obvious adverse events when administrated with 10 times the effective dose of HB27. Cryo-EM studies on complex of SARS-CoV-2 trimeric S with HB27 Fab reveal that three Fab fragments work synergistically to occlude SARS-CoV-2 from binding to the ACE2 receptor. Binding of the antibody also restrains any further conformational changes of the receptor binding domain, possibly interfering with progression from the prefusion to the postfusion stage. These results suggest that HB27 is a promising candidate for immuno-therapies against COVID-19.

4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1196, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645933

RESUMO

Emerging mutations in SARS-CoV-2 cause several waves of COVID-19 pandemic. Here we investigate the infectivity and antigenicity of ten emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants-B.1.1.298, B.1.1.7(Alpha), B.1.351(Beta), P.1(Gamma), P.2(Zeta), B.1.429(Epsilon), B.1.525(Eta), B.1.526-1(Iota), B.1.526-2(Iota), B.1.1.318-and seven corresponding single amino acid mutations in the receptor-binding domain using SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. The results indicate that the pseudovirus of most of the SARS-CoV-2 variants (except B.1.1.298) display slightly increased infectivity in human and monkey cell lines, especially B.1.351, B.1.525 and B.1.526 in Calu-3 cells. The K417N/T, N501Y, or E484K-carrying variants exhibit significantly increased abilities to infect mouse ACE2-overexpressing cells. The activities of furin, TMPRSS2, and cathepsin L are increased against most of the variants. RBD amino acid mutations comprising K417T/N, L452R, Y453F, S477N, E484K, and N501Y cause significant immune escape from 11 of 13 monoclonal antibodies. However, the resistance to neutralization by convalescent serum or vaccines elicited serum is mainly caused by the E484K mutation. The convalescent serum from B.1.1.7- and B.1.351-infected patients neutralized the variants themselves better than other SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our study provides insights regarding therapeutic antibodies and vaccines, and highlights the importance of E484K mutation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Linhagem Celular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Mamíferos/imunologia , Camundongos , Mutação , Pandemias , Primatas/imunologia , Ligação Proteica , Tropismo/genética
5.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although SARS-CoV-2 infection often causes milder symptoms in children and adolescents, young people might still play a key part in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. An efficacious vaccine for children and adolescents could therefore assist pandemic control. For further evaluation of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine candidate BBIBP-CorV, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of BBIBP-CorV in participants aged 3-17 years. METHODS: A randomised, double-blind, controlled, phase 1/2 trial was done at Shangqiu City Liangyuan District Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Henan, China. In phases 1 and 2, healthy participants were stratified according to age (3-5 years, 6-12 years, or 13-17 years) and dose group. Individuals with a history of SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV infection were excluded. All participants were randomly assigned, using stratified block randomisation (block size eight), to receive three doses of 2 µg, 4 µg, or 8 µg of vaccine or control (1:1:1:1) 28 days apart. The primary outcome, safety, was analysed in the safety set, which consisted of participants who had received at least one vaccination after being randomly assigned, and had any safety evaluation information. The secondary outcomes were geometric meant titre (GMT) of the neutralising antibody against infectious SARS-CoV-2 and were analysed based on the full analysis set. This study is registered with www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000032459, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Aug 14, 2020, and Sept 24, 2020, 445 participants were screened, and 288 eligible participants were randomly assigned to vaccine (n=216, 24 for each dose level [2/4/8 µg] in each of three age cohorts [3-5, 6-12, and 13-17 years]) or control (n=72, 24 for each age cohort [3-5, 6-12, and 13-17 years]) in phase 1. In phase 2, 810 participants were screened and 720 eligible participants were randomly assigned and allocated to vaccine (n=540, 60 for each dose level [2/4/8 µg] in each of three age cohorts [3-5, 6-12, and 13-17 years]) or control (n=180, 60 for each age cohort [3-5, 6-12, and 13-17 years]). The most common injection site adverse reaction was pain (ten [4%] 251 participants in all vaccination groups of the 3-5 years cohort; 23 [9·1%] of 252 participants in all vaccination groups and one [1·2%] of 84 in the control group of the 6-12 years cohort; 20 [7·9%] of 252 participants in all vaccination groups of the 13-17 years cohort). The most common systematic adverse reaction was fever (32 [12·7%] of 251 participants in all vaccination groups and six [7·1%] of 84 participants in the control group of the 3-5 years cohort; 13 [5·2%] of 252 participants in the vaccination groups and one [1·2%] of 84 in the control group of the 6-12 years cohort; 26 [10·3%] of 252 participants in all vaccination groups and eight [9·5%] of 84 in the control group of the 13-17 years cohort). Adverse reactions were mostly mild to moderate in severity. The neutralising antibody GMT against the SARS-CoV-2 virus ranged from 105·3 to 180·2 in the 3-5 years cohort, 84·1 to 168·6 in the 6-12 years cohort, and 88·0 to 155·7 in the 13-17 years cohort on day 28 after the second vaccination; and ranged from 143·5 to 224·4 in the 3-5 years cohort, 127 to 184·8 in the 6-12 years cohort, and 150·7 to 199 in the 13-17 years cohort on day 28 after the third vaccination. INTERPRETATION: The inactivated COVID-19 vaccine BBIBP-CorV is safe and well tolerated at all tested dose levels in participants aged 3-17 years. BBIBP-CorV also elicited robust humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 infection after two doses. Our findings support the use of a 4 µg dose and two-shot regimen BBIBP-CorV in phase 3 trials in the population younger than 18 years to further ascertain its safety and protection efficacy against COVID-19. FUNDING: National Program on Key Research Project of China, National Mega projects of China for Major Infectious Diseases, National Mega Projects of China for New Drug Creation, and Beijing Science and Technology Plan. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

6.
Small Methods ; 5(7): 2100058, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514088

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the associated COVID-19 diseases are an emerging threat to global public health. Although considerable scientific research on the immune, especially antibody, responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection have been conducted, additional dominant epitopes and protective antibodies are needed for diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients. Here, two different phage libraries are used to identify immunogenic epitopes across the spike protein and monoclonal antibodies from COVID-19 patients. Three peptides are further characterized in the receptor-binding motif (RBM) and measured their antibody levels in COVID-19 patients, from which one identifies one most immunodominant epitope with the highest antibody response in COVID-19 patients and in immunized mice. More importantly, monoclonal antibodies specifically binding to this peptide isolated from COVID-19 patients have therapeutic potential to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, the approaches to systemically identify immunogenic peptides and directly identify human monoclonal antibodies from patients will provide useful diagnostic and therapeutic tools for COVID-19 and other emerging infectious diseases.

7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 346, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561414

RESUMO

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses to viral infection are a form of antibody regulated immune responses mediated through the Fc fragment. Whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) triggered ADCC responses contributes to COVID-19 disease development is currently not well understood. To understand the potential correlation between ADCC responses and COVID-19 disease development, we analyzed the ADCC activity and neutralizing antibody response in 255 individuals ranging from asymptomatic to fatal infections over 1 year post disease. ADCC was elicited by 10 days post-infection, peaked by 11-20 days, and remained detectable until 400 days post-infection. In general, patients with severe disease had higher ADCC activities. Notably, patients who had severe disease and recovered had higher ADCC activities than patients who had severe disease and deceased. Importantly, ADCC activities were mediated by a diversity of epitopes in SARS-COV-2-infected mice and induced to comparable levels against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1) as that against the D614G mutant in human patients and vaccinated mice. Our study indicates anti-SARS-CoV-2 ADCC as a major trait of COVID-19 patients with various conditions, which can be applied to estimate the extra-neutralization level against COVID-19, especially lethal COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Vaccine ; 39(41): 6050-6056, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521552

RESUMO

The development of an effective vaccine to control the global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus- 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of utmost importance. In this study, a synthetic DNA-based vaccine candidate, known as pSV10-SARS-CoV-2, expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was designed and tested in 39 BALB/c mice with BC01, an adjuvant derived from unmethylated CpG motif-containing DNA fragments from the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin genome. Mice vaccinated with pSV10-SARS-CoV-2 with BC01 produced early neutralizing antibodies and developed stronger humoral and cellular immune responses compared to mice that received the DNA vaccine only. Moreover, sera from mice vaccinated with pSV10-SARS-CoV-2 with BC01 can neutralize certain variants, including 614G, 614G + 472 V, 452R, 483A, 501Y.V2, and B.1.1.7. The results of this study demonstrate that the addition of BC01 to a DNA-vaccine for COVID-19 could elicit more effective neutralizing antibody titers for disease prevention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas de DNA , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacina BCG , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , DNA , Genômica , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
9.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105309, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479054

RESUMO

Six new polyketone metabolites, compounds (1-6) and seven known polyketone compounds (7-13) were isolated from Rhodiola tibetica endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. The structural elucidation of five new polyketone metabolites were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic including 2D NMR and HRMS and spectrometric analysis. Inhibition rate evaluation revealed that compounds 1(EC50 = 0.02 mM), 3(EC50 = 0.3 mM), 6(EC50 = 0.07 mM), 8(EC50 = 0.1 mM) and 9(EC50 = 0.04 mM) had inhibitory effect on the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Assuntos
Alternaria/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Cetonas/isolamento & purificação , Cetonas/farmacologia , Polímeros/isolamento & purificação , Polímeros/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/química , Humanos , Cetonas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Polímeros/química
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5000, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404805

RESUMO

The successive emergences and accelerating spread of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineages and evolved resistance to some ongoing clinical therapeutics increase the risks associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. An urgent intervention for broadly effective therapies to limit the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 and future transmission events from SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) is needed. Here, we isolate and humanize an angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2)-blocking monoclonal antibody (MAb), named h11B11, which exhibits potent inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV and circulating global SARS-CoV-2 lineages. When administered therapeutically or prophylactically in the hACE2 mouse model, h11B11 alleviates and prevents SARS-CoV-2 replication and virus-induced pathological syndromes. No significant changes in blood pressure and hematology chemistry toxicology were observed after injections of multiple high dosages of h11B11 in cynomolgus monkeys. Analysis of the structures of the h11B11/ACE2 and receptor-binding domain (RBD)/ACE2 complexes shows hindrance and epitope competition of the MAb and RBD for the receptor. Together, these results suggest h11B11 as a potential therapeutic countermeasure against SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and escape variants.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Células Vero , Ativação Viral
12.
Antiviral Res ; 194: 105161, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391783

RESUMO

Ebola virus (EBOV) has emerged as a significant public health concern since the 2013-2016 outbreak in West Africa. Currently, no effective antiviral treatments have been approved for clinical use. Compound 1 RYL-634 is a quinolone-derived compound that can inhibit dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway and it exhibited antiviral activity against multiple RNA virus infection. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a panel of newly developed compounds based on RYL-634 against EBOV infection. Our data showed that RYL-634 as well as its derivatives are effective against EBOV transcription- and replication-competent virus-like particle (trVLP) infection and authentic EBOV infection in vitro at low nanomolar IC50 values and relatively high CC50. Of note, the new derivative RYL-687 had the lowest IC50 at approximately 7 nM and was almost 6 times more potent than remdesivir (GS-5734). Exogenous addition of different metabolites in the pyrimidine de novo synthesis pathway confirmed DHODH as the target of RYL-687. These data provide evidence that such quinolone-derived compounds are promising therapeutic candidates against EBOV infection.

13.
Bioorg Chem ; 115: 105196, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333425

RESUMO

So far, there is still no specific drug against COVID-19. Taking compound 1 with anti-EBOV activity as the lead, fifty-four 12N-substituted aloperine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities using pseudotyped virus model. Among them, 8a exhibited the most potential effects against both pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2, as well as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, indicating a broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus profile. The mechanism study disclosed that 8a might block a late stage of viral entry, mainly via inhibiting host cathepsin B activity rather than directly targeting cathepsin B protein. Also, 8a could significantly reduce the release of multiple inflammatory cytokines in a time- and dose-dependent manner, such as IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-8 and MCP-1, the major contributors to cytokine storm. Therefore, 8a is a promising agent with the advantages of broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus and anti-cytokine effects, thus worthy of further investigation.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Quinolizidinas/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/síntese química , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Antivirais/toxicidade , Catepsina B/antagonistas & inibidores , Chlorocebus aethiops , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Piperidinas/síntese química , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/toxicidade , Quinolizidinas/síntese química , Quinolizidinas/farmacocinética , Quinolizidinas/toxicidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Vero
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4195, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234119

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 can infect many domestic animals, including dogs. Herein, we show that dog angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (dACE2) can bind to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein receptor binding domain (RBD), and that both pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2 can infect dACE2-expressing cells. We solved the crystal structure of RBD in complex with dACE2 and found that the total number of contact residues, contact atoms, hydrogen bonds and salt bridges at the binding interface in this complex are slightly fewer than those in the complex of the RBD and human ACE2 (hACE2). This result is consistent with the fact that the binding affinity of RBD to dACE2 is lower than that of hACE2. We further show that a few important mutations in the RBD binding interface play a pivotal role in the binding affinity of RBD to both dACE2 and hACE2. Our work reveals a molecular basis for cross-species transmission and potential animal spread of SARS-CoV-2, and provides new clues to block the potential transmission chains of this virus.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4210, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244522

RESUMO

Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to SARS-CoV-2 hold powerful potentials for clinical interventions against COVID-19 disease. However, their common genetic and biologic features remain elusive. Here we interrogate a total of 165 antibodies from eight COVID-19 patients, and find that potent nAbs from different patients have disproportionally high representation of IGHV3-53/3-66 usage, and therefore termed as public antibodies. Crystal structural comparison of these antibodies reveals they share similar angle of approach to RBD, overlap in buried surface and binding residues on RBD, and have substantial spatial clash with receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) in binding to RBD. Site-directed mutagenesis confirms these common binding features although some minor differences are found. One representative antibody, P5A-3C8, demonstrates extraordinarily protective efficacy in a golden Syrian hamster model against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, virus escape analysis identifies a single natural mutation in RBD, namely K417N found in B.1.351 variant from South Africa, abolished the neutralizing activity of these public antibodies. The discovery of public antibodies and shared escape mutation highlight the intricate relationship between antibody response and SARS-CoV-2, and provide critical reference for the development of antibody and vaccine strategies to overcome the antigenic variation of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Receptores Virais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Neutralização , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
16.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 53, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285195

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a pandemic disease caused by the newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused more than 3.8 million deaths to date. Neutralizing antibodies are effective therapeutic measures. However, many naturally occurring mutations at the receptor-binding domain (RBD) have emerged, and some of them can evade existing neutralizing antibodies. Here, we utilized RenMab, a novel mouse carrying the entire human antibody variable region, for neutralizing antibody discovery. We obtained several potent RBD-blocking antibodies and categorized them into four distinct groups by epitope mapping. We determined the involved residues of the epitope of three representative antibodies by cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) studies. Moreover, we performed neutralizing experiments with 50 variant strains with single or combined mutations and found that the mixing of three epitope-distinct antibodies almost eliminated the mutant escape. Our study provides a sound basis for the rational design of fully human antibody cocktails against SARS-CoV-2 and pre-emergent coronaviral threats.

17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1574-1588, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289779

RESUMO

A safe and effective vaccine is urgently needed to control the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. Four adenovirus-vectored vaccines expressing spike (S) protein have been approved for use. Here, we generated several recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus (AdC7) vaccines expressing S, receptor-binding domain (RBD), or tandem-repeat dimeric RBD (RBD-tr2). We found vaccination via either intramuscular or intranasal route was highly immunogenic in mice to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. AdC7-RBD-tr2 showed higher antibody responses compared to either AdC7-S or AdC7-RBD. Intranasal administration of AdC7-RBD-tr2 additionally induced mucosal immunity with neutralizing activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Either single-dose or two-dose mucosal administration of AdC7-RBD-tr2 protected mice against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, with undetectable subgenomic RNA in lung and relieved lung injury. AdC7-RBD-tr2-elicted sera preserved the neutralizing activity against the circulating variants, especially the Delta variant. These results support AdC7-RBD-tr2 as a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Injeções Intramusculares , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pan troglodytes/virologia , Ligação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vacinação , Células Vero
18.
Se Pu ; 39(4): 424-429, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227763

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer which accounts for 5% of all human cancers and results in about 528000 cases and 266000 deaths every year. HPV vaccines are considered the most effective strategy for the prevention of HPV infection and cervical carcinoma. Since 2006, three prophylactic vaccines against HPV have been available on the market, including bivalent vaccines, quadrivalent vaccines, and nine-valent vaccines. Among them, nine-valent vaccines have been reported to be the most effective. They can prevent 97% of the high-grade pre-cancer lesions. Virus-like particles (VLPs), which are arranged as 360 copies of capsid proteins L1, are the only antigens of the HPV vaccine. Nine-valent HPV vaccines are prepared by mixing nine types of VLPs with adjuvants. Thus, the quality of the VLPs, including their stability and content in the HPV bulk, is very important for developing HPV vaccines. In this study, a method was developed for the determination of the nine types of VLPs (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) in HPV bulk by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The parameters of this method were optimized in terms of column brand, pore size of stationary phase particles, buffer concentration, and pH value. SHIMSEN Ankylo SEC-300 column (300 mm×7.8 mm, 3 µm) combined with a buffer aqueous solution containing 300 mmol/L NaCl and 50 mmol/L phosphate (pH 7.0) was utilized to separate the VLPs from the matrix since a narrow peak shape and good repeatability for VLPs could be obtained with this column and mobile phase. The optimized method had a wide linear range, good repeatability (RSDs of peak area were not more than 5.0%), and a satisfactory sensitivity (LOQs in the range of 4.58-15.24 µg/mL). The optimized method was used to determine the VLPs in the HPV bulk. The LOQs of the current method were much lower than the content of the nine types of VLPs in the HPV bulk, indicating that this method was sensitive enough for the determination of the nine types of VLPs in the HPV bulk. The method was also used to determine the VLPs in an HPV bulk that had been stored at 4 ℃ for one week. A decrease in the nine types of VLPs in the range of 10.0%-62.6% was observed after they were stored at 4 ℃ for one week. An HPV vaccine was prepared by mixing the VLPs with an adjuvant. Thereafter, the VLPs were adsorbed on the surface of the adjuvant. The developed method was applied to determine the free VLPs in twelve batches of HPV vaccines from three different manufacturers. No obvious free protein was detected in the twelve batches of the HPV vaccines from the three manufacturers, indicating that VLPs from these manufactures react well with their aluminum adjuvant. Folin-phenol (Lowry assay) is commonly used for the determination of proteins in vaccines. It is based on the reduction of phosphomolybdotungstic mixed acid chromogen in the phosphomolybdotungstic reagent, which results in an absorbance maximum at 650 nm. The Lowry method was sensitive to interfering substances. Most interfering substances caused a lower color yield, while some detergents caused a slight increase in color. To reduce the effect of the interfering substances, a procedure for precipitating the proteins was usually required before the sample was tested. Thus, the Lowry assay is complex, time-consuming, and of low selectivity. Compared to the Lowry method, the method we developed is simpler and more automatic. It is a high-throughput method of determining VLPs. It can be used to determine VLPs in HPV bulk and free VLPs in HPV vaccines.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus , Cromatografia em Gel , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/análise , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/análise
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1519-1529, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278967

RESUMO

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mutated continuously and newly emerging variants escape from antibody-mediated neutralization raised great concern. S protein is heavily glycosylated and the glycosylation sites are relatively conserved, thus glycans on S protein surface could be a target for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategies against variants. Here, we collected 12 plant-derived lectins with different carbohydrate specificity and evaluated their anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity against mutant strains and epidemic variants using a pseudovirus-based neutralization assay. The Lens culinaris-derived lentil lectin which specifically bind to oligomannose-type glycans and GlcNAc at the non-reducing end terminus showed most potent and broad antiviral activity against a panel of mutant strains and variants, including the artificial mutants at N-/O-linked glycosylation site, natural existed amino acid mutants, as well as the epidemic variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1. Lentil lectin also showed antiviral activity against SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. We found lentil lectin could block the binding of ACE2 to S trimer and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 at the early steps of infection. Using structural information and determined N-glycan profile of S trimer, taking together with the carbohydrate specificity of lentil lectin, we provide a basis for the observed broad spectrum anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Lentil lectin showed weak haemagglutination activity at 1 mg/mL and no cytotoxicity activity, and no weight loss was found in single injection mouse experiment. This report provides the first evidence that lentil lectin strongly inhibit infection of SARS-COV-2 variants, which should provide valuable insights for developing future anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategies.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Lens (Planta)/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Lectinas de Plantas/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/química , Lectinas de Plantas/química , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química
20.
Pathogens ; 10(6)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205738

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is zoonotic and the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Rabbit HEV can infect humans and is prevalent globally. It is reported that laboratory rabbits are also naturally infected with HEV. Therefore, it is important to investigate in a large scale the prevalence of HEV in laboratory rabbits. Serum samples were collected from 649 laboratory rabbits of 13 different commercial vendors in Beijing, China, from 2017 to 2019, and anti-HEV and HEV antigen (Ag) were tested. Fecal samples were collected from 50 laboratory rabbits from one of the vendors for HEV RNA detection. Six laboratory rabbits with natural HEV infection were euthanized and their liver, kidney, bile and urine samples were collected for HEV RNA quantification. Liver tissues were subjected to histopathology analysis. The overall positive rates of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV-Ag are 2.6% (15/588) and 7.9% (51/649), respectively. HEV RNA was detected in 12.0% (6/50) of the rabbits. High viral load of HEV RNA was detected in liver and bile samples. Liver inflammation was observed. HEV is circulating in laboratory rabbit population in China. Strict screening is crucial to ensure experimental accuracy and prevent zoonotic transmission to research personnel.

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