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1.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 22(5): 539-550, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723908

RESUMO

On infection, plant-parasitic nematodes establish feeding sites in roots from which they take up carbohydrates among other nutrients. Knowledge on how carbohydrates are supplied to the nematodes' feeding sites is limited. Here, gene expression analyses showed that RNA levels of OsSWEET11 to OsSWEET15 were extremely low in both Meloidogyne graminicola (Mg)-caused galls and noninoculated roots. All the rice sucrose transporter genes, OsSUT1 to OsSUT5, were either down-regulated in Mg-caused galls compared with noninoculated rice roots or had very low transcript abundance. OsSUT1 was the only gene up-regulated in galls, at 14 days postinoculation (dpi), after being highly down-regulated at 3 and 7 dpi. OsSUT4 was down-regulated at 3 dpi. No noticeable OsSUTs promoter activities were detected in Mg-caused galls of pOsSUT1 to -5::GUS rice lines. Loading experiments with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) demonstrated that symplastic connections exist between phloem and Mg-caused giant cells (GCs). According to data from OsGNS5- and OsGSL2-overexpressing rice plants that had decreased and increased callose deposition, respectively, callose negatively affected Mg parasitism and sucrose supply to Mg-caused GCs. Our results suggest that plasmodesmata-mediated sucrose transport plays a pivotal role in sucrose supply from rice root phloem to Mg-caused GCs, and OsSWEET11 to -15 and OsSUTs are not major players in it, although further functional analysis is needed for OsSUT1 and OsSUT4.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Glucanos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Oryza/parasitologia , Floema/metabolismo , Floema/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Tumores de Planta/parasitologia
2.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 48, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola has become a serious threat to rice production as a result of the cultivation changes from transplanting to direct seeding. The nematicidal activity of Aspergillus welwitschiae have been investigated in vitro, and the disease control efficacy of the active compound has been evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions. RESULTS: The active compound αß-dehydrocurvularin (αß-DC), isolated by nematicidal assay-directed fractionation, showed significant nematicidal activity against M. graminicola, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) value of 122.2 µg mL- 1. αß-DC effectively decreased the attraction of rice roots to nematodes and the infection of nematodes and also suppressed the development of nematodes under greenhouse conditions. Moreover, αß-DC efficiently reduced the root gall index under field conditions. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the nematicidal activity of αß-DC against M. graminicola. The results obtained under greenhouse and field conditions provide a basis for developing commercial formulations from αß-DC to control M. graminicola in the future.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Aspergillus/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Zearalenona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antiparasitários/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia , Feminino , Efeito Estufa , Estrutura Molecular , Oryza/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zearalenona/química , Zearalenona/isolamento & purificação , Zearalenona/farmacologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2184, 2019 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778126

RESUMO

Cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) presents severe challenges to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production worldwide. An investigation of the interaction between wheat and CCN can greatly improve our understanding of how nematodes alter wheat root metabolic pathways for their development and could contribute to new control strategies against CCN. In this study, we conducted transcriptome analyses of wheat cv. Wen 19 (Wen19) by using RNA-Seq during the compatible interaction with CCN at 1, 3 and 8 days past inoculation (dpi). In total, 71,569 transcripts were identified, and 10,929 of them were examined as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to CCN infection. Based on the functional annotation and orthologous findings, the protein phosphorylation, oxidation-reduction process, regulation of transcription, metabolic process, transport, and response process as well as many other pathways previously reported were enriched at the transcriptional level. Plant cell wall hydrolysis and modifying proteins, auxin biosynthesis, signalling and transporter genes were up-regulated by CCN infection to facilitate penetration, migration and syncytium establishment. Genes responding to wounding and jasmonic acid stimuli were enriched at 1 dpi. We found 16 NBS-LRR genes, 12 of which were down-regulated, indicating the repression of resistance. The expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases and UDP-glucosyltransferase was significantly up-regulated during CCN infection, indicating that they may play key roles in the compatible interaction of wheat with CCN. Taken together, the results obtained from the transcriptome analyses indicate that the genes involved in oxidation-reduction processes, induction and suppression of resistance, metabolism, transport and syncytium establishment may be involved in the compatible interaction of Wen 19 with CCN. This study provides new insights into the responses of wheat to CCN infection. These insights could facilitate the elucidation of the potential mechanisms of wheat responses to CCN.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/parasitologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade , Animais , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , RNA-Seq , Triticum/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 591, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679719

RESUMO

Heterodera glycines is the most pervasive soybean pests worldwide. Biocontrol provides a strategy to sustainably control nematodes. In this study, 22 fungal isolates were obtained and identified from cysts of Heterodera spp. Among them, Aspergillus niger NBC001 showed high nematicidal activity against H. glycines. The 2-fold dilution of NBC001 culture filtrate caused 89% mortality of second-stage juveniles and inhibited more than 98% of egg hatching in vitro. In both pot and field experiments, the numbers of H. glycines cysts in soybean seedlings dressed with the the 5-fold concentrated culture filtrate of NBC001 were significantly reduced by 43% and 28%, respectively. In addition, application of NBC001 remarkably reduced the penetration of nematodes into the roots. Histochemical and fluorometric staining analyses indicate that application of NBC001 stimulated hydrogen peroxide activity in the roots and triggered callose deposition in the leaves and roots. Transcription of the PR1a and EREBP genes in the salicylic acid and ethylene signaling pathways was upregulated in soybean plants treated with NBC001. However, the application of concentrated culture filtrate of NBC001 had no significant impacts on the soil microbial community based on next generation DNA sequencing technology. In summary, NBC001 may be a good biocontrol agent against H. glycines via stimulation of the immunity/defense of the plant host.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger/fisiologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Tylenchida/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aspergillus niger/isolamento & purificação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/parasitologia , Tylenchida/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 50, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silicon (Si) can confer plant resistance to both abiotic and biotic stress. In the present study, the priming effect of Si on rice (Oryza sativa cv Nipponbare) against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola and its histochemical and molecular impact on plant defense mechanisms were evaluated. RESULTS: Si amendment significantly reduced nematodes in rice roots and delayed their development, while no obvious negative effect on giant cells was observed. Increased resistance in rice was correlated with higher transcript levels of defense-related genes (OsERF1, OsEIN2 and OsACS1) in the ethylene (ET) pathway. Si amendment significantly reduced nematode numbers in rice plants with enhanced ET signaling but had no effect in plants deficient in ET signaling, indicating that the priming effects of Si were dependent on the ET pathway. A higher deposition of callose and accumulation of phenolic compounds were observed in rice roots after nematode attack in Si-amended plants than in the controls. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the priming effect may partially depend on the production of phenolic compounds and hydrogen peroxide. Further research is required to model the ethylene signal transduction pathway that occurs in the Si-plant-nematode interaction system and gain a better understanding of Si-induced defense in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Silício/farmacologia , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade , Animais , Lignina/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Phytopathology ; 108(2): 264-274, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28945520

RESUMO

Few molecular details of effectors of Heterodera avenae parasitism are known. We performed a high-throughput sequencing analysis of the H. avenae transcriptome at five developmental stages. A total of 82,549 unigenes were ultimately obtained, and 747 transcripts showed best hits to genes putatively encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes in plant-parasitic nematodes that play an important role in the invasion process. A total of 1,480 unigenes were homologous to known phytonematode effectors, and 63 putative novel effectors were identified in the H. avenae transcriptomes. Twenty-three unigenes were analyzed by qRT-PCR and confirmed to be highly expressed during at least one developmental stage. For in situ hybridization, 17 of the 22 tested putative effectors were specifically expressed and located in the subventral gland cells, and five putative novel effectors were specifically expressed in the dorsal gland. Furthermore, 115 transcripts were found to have putative lethal RNA interference (RNAi) phenotypes. Three target genes with lethal RNAi phenotypes and two of the four tested putative effectors were associated with a decrease in the number of cysts through in vitro RNAi technology. These transcriptomic data lay a foundation for further studies of interactions of H. avenae with cereal and H. avenae parasitic control.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/parasitologia , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Transcriptoma , Tylenchoidea/genética , Animais , Feminino , Hibridização In Situ , Óvulo , Fenótipo , Interferência de RNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Tylenchoidea/citologia , Tylenchoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Plant Dis ; 101(3): 428-433, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677342

RESUMO

Cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi) and root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) have been found to infect cereals in 16 provinces of China. To develop a nematicide that effectively controls nematodes, two novel chemical products, methylene bis thiocyanate (MBT) and MBT + thiamethoxam (MTT); four common pesticides, fipronil + chlorpyrifos (FIC), emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, and Bacillus thuringiensis; and one fungicide, iprodione, were tested as seed coatings for the control of cereal cysts and root lesion nematodes from 2013 to 2015. Wheat seeds were treated with these seven seed coatings before sowing, and changes in the numbers of Heterodera spp. and Pratylenchus spp. were recorded during three different growth stages. Wheat yields were also compared after harvest. All treatments reduced the numbers of Pratylenchus in wheat and of cysts and eggs of Heterodera in the soil compared with the untreated control. Among the treatments, application of MTT or FIC was more effective than that of the other treatments for nematode control, and the other treatments had similar effects. The results of this study have demonstrated that MTT and FIC applied as seed treatments effectively reduce the number of cysts, inhibit the reproduction of Heterodera and Pratylenchus, and enhance wheat yields. MTT and FIC are thus suitable for controlling nematodes on wheat under natural field conditions.

8.
Sci Rep ; 6: 38102, 2016 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27897265

RESUMO

The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita causes severe damage to continuously cropping vegetables. The control of this nematode relies heavily on organophosphate nematicides in China. Here, we described resistance to the organophosphate nematicide fosthiazate in a greenhouse-collected resistant population (RP) and a laboratory susceptible population (SP) of M. incognita. Fosthiazate was 2.74-fold less toxic to nematodes from RP than that from SP. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the acetylcholinesterase2 (ace2) transcription level in the RP was significantly higher than that in the SP. Eighteen nonsynonymous amino acid differences in ace2 were observed between the cDNA fragments of the RP and SP. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) protein activity in the RP was significantly reduced compared with that in the SP. After knocking down the ace2 gene, the ace2 transcription level was significantly decreased, but no negative impact on the infection of juveniles was observed. The 50% lethal concentration of the RNAi RP population decreased 40%, but the inhibition rate of fosthiazate against AChE activity was significantly increased in RP population. Thus, the increased fosthiazate insensitivity in the M. incognita resistant population was strongly associated with mutations in ace2. These results provide valuable insights into the resistance mechanism of root-knot nematode to organophosphate nematicides.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Mutação/genética , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Tiazolidinas/farmacologia , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , China , Transcrição Genética/genética , Tylenchoidea/genética
9.
Viruses ; 8(10)2016 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27690081

RESUMO

A novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus, consisting of three dsRNA genome segments and possibly belonging to the family Chrysoviridae, was isolated from the filamentous phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and designated as Colletotrichum gloeosprioides chrysovirus 1 (CgCV1). The three dsRNAs of the CgCV1 genome with lengths of 3397, 2869, and 2630 bp (dsRNAs1-3) were found to contain a single open reading frame (ORF) putatively encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a capsid protein, and a protease, respectively, all of which exhibited some degree of sequence similarity to the comparable putative proteins encoded by the genus Chrysovirus. The 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions in each dsRNA segment contained similar sequences that were strictly conserved at the termini. Moreover, isometric virus-like particles (VLPs) with a diameter of approximately 40 nm were extracted from fungal mycelia. Phylogenetic analysis based on the conserved dsRNA1-encoded RdRp showed that CgCV1 is a new virus belonging to the Chrysoviridae family. BLAST analysis revealed the presence of CgCV1-like sequences in the chromosomes of Medicago truncatula and Solanum tuberosum. Moreover, some sequences in the transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) library and expressed sequence tag database (ESTdb) of other eudicot and monocot plants were also found to be related to CgCV1.

10.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 17(4): 614-24, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27103216

RESUMO

Thiamine (vitamin B1, VB1) can act as a plant defence trigger, or priming agent, leading to a rapid counterattack on pathogen invasion. In this study, the priming effect of thiamine on rice (Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare) and its activity against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola) infection were evaluated. Thiamine treatment and subsequent nematode inoculation activated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation and lignin deposition in plant roots, and this correlated with enhanced transcription of OsPAL1 and OsC4H, two genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The number of nematodes in rice roots was slightly but significantly reduced, and the development of the nematodes was delayed, whereas no direct toxic effects of VB1 on nematode viability and infectivity were observed. The combined application of thiamine with l-2-aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), significantly hampered the VB1-priming capacity. These findings indicate that thiamine-induced priming in rice involves H2O2 and phenylpropanoid-mediated lignin production, which hampers nematode infection. Further cellular and molecular studies on the mechanism of thiamine-induced defence will be useful for the development of novel nematode control strategies.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Oryza/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Tiamina/farmacologia , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tumores de Planta/genética , Tumores de Planta/parasitologia , Propanóis/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 15: 267, 2015 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26537003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biochar is a solid coproduct of biomass pyrolysis, and soil amended with biochar has been shown to enhance the productivity of various crops and induce systemic plant resistance to fungal pathogens. The aim of this study was to explore the ability of wood biochar to induce resistance to the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne graminicola in rice (Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare) and examine its histochemical and molecular impact on plant defense mechanisms. RESULTS: A 1.2 % concentration of biochar added to the potting medium of rice was found to be the most effective at reducing nematode development in rice roots, whereas direct toxic effects of biochar exudates on nematode viability, infectivity or development were not observed. The increased plant resistance was associated with biochar-primed H2O2 accumulation as well as with the transcriptional enhancement of genes involved in the ethylene (ET) signaling pathway. The increased susceptibility of the Ein2b-RNAi line, which is deficient in ET signaling, further confirmed that biochar-induced priming acts at least partly through ET signaling. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that biochar amendments protect rice plants challenged by nematodes. This priming effect partially depends on the ET signaling pathway and enhanced H2O2 accumulation.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Oryza/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Solo/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia
12.
BMC Genomics ; 16: 801, 2015 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26475271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae, an important soil-borne pathogen in wheat, causes numerous annual yield losses worldwide, and use of resistant cultivars is the best strategy for control. However, target genes are not readily available for breeding resistant cultivars. Therefore, comparative transcriptomic analyses were performed to identify more applicable resistance genes for cultivar breeding. METHODS: The developing nematodes within roots were stained with acid fuchsin solution. Transcriptome assemblies and redundancy filteration were obtained by Trinity, TGI Clustering Tool and BLASTN, respectively. Gene Ontology annotation was yielded by Blast2GO program, and metabolic pathways of transcripts were analyzed by Path_finder. The ROS levels were determined by luminol-chemiluminescence assay. The transcriptional gene expression profiles were obtained by quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: The RNA-sequencing was performed using an incompatible wheat cultivar VP1620 and a compatible control cultivar WEN19 infected with H. avenae at 24 h, 3 d and 8 d. Infection assays showed that VP1620 failed to block penetration of H. avenae but disturbed the transition of developmental stages, leading to a significant reduction in cyst formation. Two types of expression profiles were established to predict candidate resistance genes after developing a novel strategy to generate clean RNA-seq data by removing the transcripts of H. avenae within the raw data before assembly. Using the uncoordinated expression profiles with transcript abundance as a standard, 424 candidate resistance genes were identified, including 302 overlapping genes and 122 VP1620-specific genes. Genes with similar expression patterns were further classified according to the scales of changed transcript abundances, and 182 genes were rescued as supplementary candidate resistance genes. Functional characterizations revealed that diverse defense-related pathways were responsible for wheat resistance against H. avenae. Moreover, phospholipase was involved in many defense-related pathways and localized in the connection position. Furthermore, strong bursts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within VP1620 roots infected with H. avenae were induced at 24 h and 3 d, and eight ROS-producing genes were significantly upregulated, including three class III peroxidase and five lipoxygenase genes. CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale identification of wheat resistance genes were processed by comparative transcriptomic analysis. Functional characterization showed that phospholipases associated with ROS production played vital roles in early defense responses to H. avenae via involvement in diverse defense-related pathways as a hub switch. This study is the first to investigate the early defense responses of wheat against H. avenae, not only provides applicable candidate resistance genes for breeding novel wheat cultivars, but also enables a better understanding of the defense mechanisms of wheat against H. avenae.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Triticum/genética , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Triticum/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade
13.
PLoS One ; 9(2): e89717, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24586982

RESUMO

The root-knot nematode (RKN) is one of the most damaging agricultural pests.Effective biological control is need for controlling this destructive pathogen in organic farming system. During October 2010 to 2011, the nematicidal effects of the Syncephalastrum racemosum fungus and the nematicide, avermectin, alone or combined were tested against the RKN (Meloidogyne incognita) on cucumber under pot and field condition in China. Under pot conditions, the application of S. racemosum alone or combined with avermectin significantly increased the plant vigor index by 31.4% and 10.9%, respectively compared to the M. incognita-inoculated control. However, treatment with avermectin alone did not significantly affect the plant vigor index. All treatments reduced the number of root galls and juvenile nematodes compared to the untreated control. Under greenhouse conditions, all treatments reduced the disease severity and enhanced fruit yield compared to the untreated control. Fewer nematodes infecting plant roots were observed after treatment with avermectin alone, S. racemosum alone or their combination compared to the M. incognita-inoculated control. Among all the treatments, application of avermectin or S. racemosum combined with avermectin was more effective than the S. racemosum treatment. Our results showed that application of S. racemosum combined with avermectin not only reduced the nematode number and plant disease severity but also enhanced plant vigor and yield. The results indicated that the combination of S. racemosum with avermectin could be an effective biological component in integrated management of RKN on cucumber.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Mucorales/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/terapia , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
14.
PLoS One ; 8(7): e69579, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23922743

RESUMO

The potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor, is a very destructive nematode pest on many agriculturally important crops worldwide, but the molecular characterization of its parasitism of plant has been limited. The effectors involved in nematode parasitism of plant for several sedentary endo-parasitic nematodes such as Heterodera glycines, Globodera rostochiensis and Meloidogyne incognita have been identified and extensively studied over the past two decades. Ditylenchus destructor, as a migratory plant parasitic nematode, has different feeding behavior, life cycle and host response. Comparing the transcriptome and parasitome among different types of plant-parasitic nematodes is the way to understand more fully the parasitic mechanism of plant nematodes. We undertook the approach of sequencing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a mixed stage cDNA library of D. destructor. This is the first study of D. destructor ESTs. A total of 9800 ESTs were grouped into 5008 clusters including 3606 singletons and 1402 multi-member contigs, representing a catalog of D. destructor genes. Implementing a bioinformatics' workflow, we found 1391 clusters have no match in the available gene database; 31 clusters only have similarities to genes identified from D. africanus, the most closely related species to D. destructor; 1991 clusters were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO); 1550 clusters were assigned enzyme commission (EC) numbers; and 1211 clusters were mapped to 181 KEGG biochemical pathways. 22 ESTs had similarities to reported nematode effectors. Interestedly, most of the effectors identified in this study are involved in host cell wall degradation or modification, such as 1,4-beta-glucanse, 1,3-beta-glucanse, pectate lyase, chitinases and expansin, or host defense suppression such as calreticulin, annexin and venom allergen-like protein. This result implies that the migratory plant-parasitic nematode D. destructor secrets similar effectors to those of sedentary plant nematodes. Finally we further characterized the two D. destructor expansin proteins.


Assuntos
Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Tylenchoidea/genética , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade , Animais , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Plantas/parasitologia
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