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1.
Theriogenology ; 145: 115-125, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023502

RESUMO

To explore the repair effect of lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on ovarian injuries induced by repeated superovulation in mice, a model of ovarian injury was established, and ovarian repair was assessed after intragastric administration of LBP. The oocyte quality and blastocyst rates of pronuclear embryos in vitro were observed. The levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and lipid peroxide (LPO) in ovarian tissue were measured, and ovarian damage was assessed in paraffin sections. The groups with significant injury were selected according to the above observation, mice in the significant injury group were intragastrically administered with LBP (low dose, 25 mg/kg; medium dose, 35 mg/kg; and high dose, 45 mg/kg) for 30 days. The above measurements and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) expression were detected in the mouse ovaries and the breeding verification was carried out. Our results showed that repeated superovulation could cause mouse oocyte quality to drop, significant differences started from 4 superovulation events (P < 0.05). The levels of 8-OHdG and LPO in the ovary increased gradually as the number of superovulation events increased, and significant differences were observed after 4-6 superovulations (P < 0.05). The ratios of primordial follicles, primary, tertiary and mature follicles decreased and the ratio of atresia follicles increased as the number of superovulation events increased, especially in 4-6 superovulation groups. Thus, the groups of superovulation 4-6 events were considered as significant injury groups. LBP-medium dose groups significantly improved the number and quantity of oocytes and embryo blastocyst rate (P < 0.05), significantly decreased 8-OHdG and LPO levels in mice ovary (P < 0.05), also improved the ratios of all stages follicles and reduced the rate of atresia follicles, increased the numbers of litter size, live birth, weaning survival, and repaired the expression of AMH in ovary significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the degree of ovarian injury was affected by the number of superovulation. LBP repaired ovarian injuries most likely through scavenging oxidative products 8-OHdG and LPO and increasing AMH protein expression.

2.
Nature ; 567(7749): 516-520, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818324

RESUMO

The nitrogen cycle has been radically changed by human activities1. China consumes nearly one third of the world's nitrogen fertilizers. The excessive application of fertilizers2,3 and increased nitrogen discharge from livestock, domestic and industrial sources have resulted in pervasive water pollution. Quantifying a nitrogen 'boundary'4 in heterogeneous environments is important for the effective management of local water quality. Here we use a combination of water-quality observations and simulated nitrogen discharge from agricultural and other sources to estimate spatial patterns of nitrogen discharge into water bodies across China from 1955 to 2014. We find that the critical surface-water quality standard (1.0 milligrams of nitrogen per litre) was being exceeded in most provinces by the mid-1980s, and that current rates of anthropogenic nitrogen discharge (14.5 ± 3.1 megatonnes of nitrogen per year) to fresh water are about 2.7 times the estimated 'safe' nitrogen discharge threshold (5.2 ± 0.7 megatonnes of nitrogen per year). Current efforts to reduce pollution through wastewater treatment and by improving cropland nitrogen management can partially remedy this situation. Domestic wastewater treatment has helped to reduce net discharge by 0.7 ± 0.1 megatonnes in 2014, but at high monetary and energy costs. Improved cropland nitrogen management could remove another 2.3 ± 0.3 megatonnes of nitrogen per year-about 25 per cent of the excess discharge to fresh water. Successfully restoring a clean water environment in China will further require transformational changes to boost the national nutrient recycling rate from its current average of 36 per cent to about 87 per cent, which is a level typical of traditional Chinese agriculture. Although ambitious, such a high level of nitrogen recycling is technologically achievable at an estimated capital cost of approximately 100 billion US dollars and operating costs of 18-29 billion US dollars per year, and could provide co-benefits such as recycled wastewater for crop irrigation and improved environmental quality and ecosystem services.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Fertilizantes/provisão & distribução , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/provisão & distribução , Qualidade da Água/normas , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/análise
3.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54(3): 520-530, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578596

RESUMO

The effect of berberine (Ber) on in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryo development in pigs and the associated differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the embryo were investigated. NCSU-23 embryonic culture medium was used for a control group, while NCSU-23 embryonic culture medium added with Ber was used for a Ber group. The embryo development rates in these groups were determined, and the zygotes, 4- and 8-cell embryos, and blastocysts were collected for cDNA microarray analysis. The development rates of 2-, 4-, 8-cell embryos and blastocysts were significantly higher in the Ber group than those in the control group (p < 0.01). The differentially expressed miRNAs in the 8-cell versus the 4-cell stage in control group as well as in the 8-cell Ber group versus the 8-cell control group overlapped, and it was found that nine miRNAs were commonly upregulated and two of them were downregulated, while there was no overlap among the other groups. The target genes of Ber-regulated miRNAs at the 8-cell stage were mainly associated with the molecular pathway of nucleic acid and protein synthesis. These findings suggest that Ber may regulate the expression of miRNAs at the 8-cell stage, which is beneficial to provide material reserves for the maternal to zygote transition of porcine embryos, thereby increasing the porcine IVF embryo development rate.


Assuntos
Berberina/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Gravidez , Suínos/embriologia , Zigoto/efeitos dos fármacos , Zigoto/metabolismo
4.
Theriogenology ; 125: 157-167, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447495

RESUMO

In this study, effects of icariin (Ica) on were examined in a mouse model of d-galactose (D-gal)-induced ovarian aging. Kunming white mice were divided into three groups: aging group induced with D-gal, experiment group treated with Ica at low (50 mg/kg), middle (100 mg/kg) and high (200 mg/kg) concentrations, and control group with no treatment. Ovarian histomorphology, serum FSH, LH and E2 levels, and reproductive function were compared among the groups. Ovarian expression of Amh, Bax and Bcl-2 was examined by qPCR and western blotting. Our results showed that diameters of secondary and tertiary follicles were significantly reduced in the aging group when compared with control group (P < 0.01), and were restored to normal in Ica 100 and Ica 200 treatment groups. The diameter of atretic follicles was significantly smaller in the aging group compared with control group and Ica 200 treatment group (P < 0.05). The proportion of secondary and atretic follicles was higher in the aging group compared with control group, Ica 100 and 200 treatment groups, whereas the proportion of tertiary and mature follicles was reduced in the aging group versus control, Ica 100 and 200 groups. The aging group lacked mature follicles, whereas Ica treatment induced mature follicle development. Primary and secondary follicles exhibited similar theca cell numbers and theca interna and externa cell layers in all groups examined, whereas theca interna and externa cell layers were decreased and increased, respectively, in tertiary follicles of aging group compared with control and I 200 groups. In the aging group, FSH and LH levels were significantly higher than those in control and Ica 200 groups (P < 0.05), and the E2 level was significantly reduced compared with control (P < 0.01), Ica 200 (P < 0.01), and Ica 100 (P < 0.05) groups. Serum hormone levels were equivalent in the control, Ica 100 and Ica 200 groups. The pregnancy rate was reduced in the aging group compared with other groups. The average litter size per birth, birth litter weight, and weaning weight of litters were all significantly lower in the aging group compared with control, Ica 100 and 200 groups (P < 0.05). The ovarian expression of AMH and Bcl-2 mRNA was significantly reduced in the aging group compared with those in control and Ica-treated groups (P < 0.01). In contrast, Bax expression was significantly higher in the aging group compared with all other groups (P < 0.01), and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was markedly reduced in aging group compared with control, Ica 100 and 200 groups (P < 0.01), and Ica 50 group (P < 0.05). Ovarian expression of AMH protein was elevated in the Ica 100 group compared with the aging, control and Ica 50 groups (P < 0.01) and Ica 200 group (P < 0.05). Ovarian Bcl-2 protein levels and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly higher in the Ica 100 group than those in the Ica 50, 200 and aging groups (P < 0.05), and were similar or reduced (P < 0.05), respectively, compared to those in control group. Ovarian Bax expression was similar in each group. These findings suggest that Ica can improve ovarian follicular development, inhibit follicular atresia, decrease FSH and LH levels and increase E2, upregulate ovarian AMH expression and increase the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in aging mice. Therefore, Ica can partially restore ovarian function of aging mice and enhance their fertility. Optimal reproductive effects were obtained with the Ica 100 group.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento , Animais , Hormônio Antimülleriano/genética , Hormônio Antimülleriano/metabolismo , Feminino , Galactose/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Ovário/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
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