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1.
Cancer ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study was performed to investigate whether circulating cell-free Epstein-Barr virus DNA (cfEBV DNA) would be useful for posttreatment surveillance in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: The authors identified a total of 1984 nondisseminated NPC patients from an institutional big-data research platform. Blood samples were collected within 3 months of the completion of radiotherapy and every 3 to 12 months thereafter for cfEBV DNA analysis. Patients were followed until disease recurrence was detected or for a median of 60 months. Diagnostic performance was assessed by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy based on the clinical detection of disease recurrence by conventional surveillance modalities (imaging scans and pathological examination). RESULTS: During follow-up, a total of 767 patients (38.7%) had detectable cfEBV DNA. The recurrence rate among these patients was 63.8% (489 of 767 patients), which was significantly higher than that in patients with undetectable cfEBV DNA (8.6%; 105 of 1217 patients). cfEBV DNA sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 68.8%, 80.0%, and 78.2%, respectively, for local recurrence; 80.2%, 80.0%, and 85.9%, respectively, for regional recurrence; and 91.1%, 80.0%, and 92.8%, respectively, for distant metastasis. cfEBV DNA was found to have higher sensitivity for the detection of extrapulmonary metastases (94.9%-96.5%) compared with pulmonary metastases (78.4%). It is interesting to note that among the patients with disease recurrence with detectable cfEBV DNA, positive cfEBV DNA results preceded radiological and/or clinical evidence of disease recurrence by a median of 2.3 months (interquartile range, 0.1-9.5 months). In addition, of the 278 cfEBV DNA-positive patients who did not develop disease recurrence, 227 (81.7%) had transiently positive cfEBV DNA that fell to undetectable levels during long-term monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma cfEBV DNA in patients with NPC appears to be an early sign of tumor recurrence, especially extrapulmonary metastases.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229764, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate mosquito larval habitats and resistance to common insecticides in areas with high incidence rates of mosquito-borne diseases in Jining, Shandong Province, and to provide a scientific basis for the future prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases and the rational use of insecticides. METHODS AND RESULTS: From June to September 2018, mosquito habitat characteristics and species compositions in Jintun town were studied through a cross-sectional survey. Larvae and pupae were collected in different habitats using the standard dipping technique. A total of 7,815 mosquitoes, comprising 7 species from 4 genera, were collected. Among them, Culex pipiens pallens (n = 5,336, 68.28%) was the local dominant species and found in all four habitats (rice paddies, irrigation channels, water containers, drainage ditches). There were 1,708 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (21.85%), 399 Anopheles sinensis (5.11%), 213 Armigeres subalbatus (2.72%), 124 Aedes albopictus (1.59%), and 35 other (Cx. bitaeniorhynchus and Cx. halifaxii) (0.45%) mosquito samples collected. Spearman correlation analysis was employed to evaluate the relationship between larval density and the physicochemical characteristics of the breeding habitat. It was found that the larval density of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus correlated positively with water depth (r = 0.927 p = 0.003), the larval density of An. sinensis correlated positively with dissolved oxygen (DO) (r = 0.775 p = 0.041) and the larval density of Cx. p. pallens correlated positively with ammonia nitrogen (r = 0.527 p = 0.002). Resistance bioassays were carried out on the dominant populations of Cx. p. pallens: mosquitoes presented very high resistance to cypermethrin and deltamethrin, moderate resistance to dichlorvos (DDVP), and low resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), with decreased susceptibility to propoxur. CONCLUSION: We showed that mosquito species vary across habitat type and that the mosquito larval density correlated positively with certain physicochemical characteristics in different habitats. In addition, Cx. p. pallens developed different levels of resistance to five insecticides. Vector monitoring should be strengthened after an epidemic, and further research should be conducted to scientifically prevent and kill mosquitoes.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given their geographical proximity but differences in cultural and religious dietary customs, we hypothesize that children from the three main ethnic populations (Han, Hui, and Tibetan) residing in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region differs in their non-iatrogenic antibiotic loads. METHODS: To determine the antibiotic burden of the school children unrelated to medical treatment, we quantified the antibiotic residues in morning urine samples from 92 Han, 72 Tibetan, and 85 Muslim Hui primary school children aged 8 to 12 years using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and performed correlation analysis between these data and concurrent dietary nutrition assessments. RESULTS: Sixteen of the 18 targeted antibiotics (4 macrolides, 3 ß-lactams, 2 tetracyclines, 4 quinolones, 3 sulfonamides, and 2 aminoanols) were identified in the urine samples with an overall detection frequency of 58.63%. The detection frequency of the six antibiotic classes ranged from 1.61% to 32.53% with ofloxacin showing the single highest frequency (18.47%). Paired comparison analysis revealed significant differences in antibiotic distribution frequency among groups, with Tibetans having higher enrofloxacin (P = 0.015) and oxytetracycline (P = 0.021) than Han children. Norfloxacin (a human/veterinary antibiotic) was significantly higher in the Hui children than in the Han children (P = 0.024). Dietary nutrient intake assessments were comparable among participants, showing adequate levels of essential vitamins and minerals across all three ethnic groups. However, significant differences in specific foods were observed among groups, notably in lower fat consumption in the Hui group. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction and accumulation of antibiotic residues in school children through non-iatrogenic routes (food or environmental sources) poses a serious potential health risk and merits closer scrutiny to determine the sources. While the exact sources of misused or overused antibiotics remains unclear, further study can potentially correlate ethnicity-specific dietary practices with the sources of contamination.

4.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 353(4): e1900350, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003489

RESUMO

Malaria, one of the most striking, re-emerging infectious diseases caused by the genus Plasmodium, places a huge burden on global healthcare systems. A major challenge in the control and eradication of malaria is the continuous emergence of increasingly widespread drug-resistant malaria, creating an urgent need to develop novel antimalarial agents. Chalcone derivatives are ubiquitous in nature and have become indispensable units in medicinal chemistry applications due to their diverse biological profiles. Many chalcone derivatives demonstrate potential in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity, so chalcone could be a useful template for the development of novel antimalarial agents. This review covers the recent development of chalcone hybrids as antimalarial agents. The critical aspects of the design and structure-activity relationship of these compounds are also discussed.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975580

RESUMO

Epitaxially growing a semiconductor shell on the surface of upconversion nanocrystals to form a core/shell structure is believed to be a promising strategy to improve the luminescent efficiency of lanthanide ions doped in particle cores and, meanwhile, enriches the optical properties of the resulting nanocrystals. However, liquid-phase synthesis of such core/shell-structured nanocrystals comprised of a lanthanide ion-doped core and semiconductor shell remains challenging because of the chemical incompatibilities between lanthanides and the most intermediate gap semiconductors. In this context, the successful growth of ZnS shell on a KMnF3 core codoped with Yb3+/Er3+ ions is reported to enhance the upconversion luminescence of Er3+ ions. The underlying core/shell formation mechanism is elucidated in detail combining the hard-soft acid-base theory with structural analysis of the resulting nanocrystals. Quite unexpectedly, Mn2+ diffusion across the core/shell interface occurs during ZnS shell growth, giving rise to Mn2+ emission from the ZnS shell. Thus, the resulting core/shell particles exhibited unique up/downconversion luminescence from doped lanthanide metal ions and transition-metal ions, respectively. By manipulating the ion diffusion and shell growth kinetics, the upconversion and downconversion luminescent performance of KMnF3:Yb,Er@ZnS nanocrystals are further optimized and the related mechanisms are discussed. Further, temperature-dependent upconversion and downconversion photoluminescence properties of KMnF3:Yb,Er@ZnS nanocrystals show potential for ratiometric luminescence temperature sensing.

6.
Curr Eye Res ; 45(2): 124-133, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429304

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate whether glucocorticoids affect the prognosis of fungal keratitis by inhibiting the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).Methods: A mouse model of Candida albicans (C.albicans) keratitis was established. Animals were randomly assigned to treatment with 0.1% dexamethasone (DXM) eye drops and normal saline (3 times each day for 3 days). The effects of DXM on fungal keratitis were assessed using clinical scores, immunofluorescence staining, histopathological examination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and pathogen burden assay. All the analyses were performed using SPSS software version 17.0 (Chicago, IL).Results: NETs formation was noteworthy in the cornea lesions of fungal keratitis. The clinical score of the DXM-treated group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < .05). During the measured period, corneas from DXM-treated group contained more C.albicans than those from the control group by histology and pathogen burden assay. Compared with the control group, the DXM treatment group had a higher depth of infiltration of C.albicans. Histological and immunofluorescence staining showed that there were fewer neutrophils in the cornea focus of DXM-treated group (P < .05), and the number of NETs formed in scrapings from control group was higher than that in the DXM treatment group on day 3 (P < .05, Z = -3.56)) and day 5 (P < .05, Z = -3.69). In a similar amount of cell scraping, the NETs of neutrophils formation from the DXM-treated group were also less than that from the control group.Conclusion: Our results indicated that NETs were involved in the immune response in C.albicans keratitis. Glucocorticoids may exacerbate fungal keratitis not only by increasing fungal aggressivity and reducing the infiltration of neutrophils but also by inhibiting the formation of NETs.

7.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 10275-10285, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819512

RESUMO

Background: A variety of miRNAs have been recently reported to be abnormally expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC). A growing number of studies have demonstrated that aberrantly expressed miRNAs are closely related to the development and progression of CRC. It has been found that miR-140-3p plays a vital role in several cancers. However, its expression, roles and mechanisms in CRC are remain unknown. Materials and methods: Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were used to determine miR-140-3p expression in CRC tissues and cell lines. CCK8, migration, invasion and flow cytometric assays were used to determine the influence of miR-140-3p upregulation on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of CRC cells. Luciferase reporter assays and Western blots were utilized to identify the target genes of miR-140-3p. In addition, the potential mechanism of miR-140-3p action in CRC cells was elucidated. Results: In our study, miR-140-3p expression was significantly decreased in CRC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-140-3p attenuated proliferation, migration, and invasion and induced the apoptosis of CRC cells. Bioinformatics analyse and luciferase reporter analysis identified PD-L1 as a putative target gene of miR-140-3p. PD-L1 was overexpressed in CRC tissues and inversely correlated with miR-140-3p expression. Suppression of PD-L1 expression in CRC cells generated biological behaviours in CRC cells that were similar to those observed after treated with miR-140-3p mimics. Restoration of PD-L1 expression partially attenuated the inhibitory effect of miR-140-3p on CRC cells. Western blot were used to verify the effect of PD-L1 expression on PI3K/AKT pathway. In addition, overexpression of miR-140-3p could inhibit CRC tumor growth in vivo. Conclusion: In general, these data demonstrate that miR-140-3p acts as a tumour suppressor in CRC by directly targeting PD-L1 and inactivating PI3K/AKT pathway, suggesting that miR-140-3p might be a novel target for CRC diagnosis and treatment.

8.
Theranostics ; 9(25): 7648-7665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695792

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) has emerged as a key event in tumor development and microenvironment formation. However, comprehensive analysis of AS and its clinical significance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) is urgently required. Methods: Genome-wide profiling of AS events using RNA-Seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program was performed in a cohort of 464 patients with HNSC. Cancer-associated AS events (CASEs) were identified between paired HNSC and adjacent normal tissues and evaluated in functional enrichment analysis. Splicing networks and prognostic models were constructed using bioinformatics tools. Unsupervised clustering of the CASEs identified was conducted and associations with clinical, molecular and immune features were analyzed. Results: We detected a total of 32,309 AS events and identified 473 CASEs in HNSC; among these, 91 were validated in an independent cohort (n = 15). Functional protein domains were frequently altered, especially by CASEs affecting cancer drivers, such as PCSK5. CASE parent genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to HNSC and the tumor immune microenvironment, such as the viral carcinogenesis (FDR < 0.001), Human Papillomavirus infection (FDR < 0.001), chemokine (FDR < 0.001) and T cell receptor (FDR < 0.001) signaling pathways. CASEs enriched in immune-related pathways were closely associated with immune cell infiltration and cytolytic activity. AS regulatory networks suggested a significant association between splicing factor (SF) expression and CASEs and might be regulated by SF methylation. Eighteen CASEs were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall and disease-free survival. Unsupervised clustering analysis revealed distinct correlations between AS-based clusters and prognosis, molecular characteristics and immune features. Immunogenic features and immune subgroups cooperatively depict the immune features of AS-based clusters. Conclusion: This comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the AS landscape in HNSC revealed novel AS events related to carcinogenesis and immune microenvironment, with implications for prognosis and therapeutic responses.

9.
J Med Virol ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis in China. Little is known about HIV and syphilis infections among MSM in Xi'an, a developing city in Northwest China. A cross-sectional study with recruitment via snowball sampling was conducted to collect HIV and syphilis infection status and risk factors among MSM in Xi'an between April 2013 to December 2016. Among the 5000 participants, the mean age was 29.0 years (SD 7.7) and the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and coinfection was 6.5%, 2.2%, and 0.4%, respectively. There was no significant change in HIV prevalence from 2013 to 2016, while the prevalence of syphilis and coinfection showed a downward trend. Multiple logistic regression analyses found that being over 25 years old (OR = 1.647), junior high school/middle school education and below (OR = 3.085), with a sexual role of passive or versatile (OR = 3.300; OR = 2.337), rush poppers use during the last 6 months (OR = 1.660) and syphilis infection (OR = 2.235) were more likely to acquire HIV infection, whereas used condoms in the last episode of anal sex (OR = 0.572) and tested HIV antibody previously (OR = 0.252) were protective factors for HIV infection. HIV prevalence among MSM in Xi'an was stable, whereas the prevalence of syphilis and coinfection showed a downward trend. Interventions to promote HIV and sexually transmitted disease testing and condom use should be strengthened, especially for MSM with low education.

10.
Small ; 15(50): e1905050, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721434

RESUMO

Upconversion near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) are important for imaging applications. Herein, thermally activated upconversion photoluminescence (UCPL) in the NIR region, with an emission peak at 784 nm, which appears under 808 nm continuous-wave laser excitation, are realized in the NIR absorbing/emissive CDs (NIR-CDs). The NIR-CDs are synthesized by microwave-assisted exfoliation of red emissive CDs in dimethylformamide, and feature single or few-layered graphene-like cores. This structure provides an enhanced contact area of the graphene-like plates in the core with the electron-acceptor carbonyl groups in dimethylformamide, which contributes to the main NIR absorption band peaked at 724 nm and a tail band in 800-850 nm. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra and transient absorption spectra confirm that the UCPL of NIR-CDs is due to the thermally activated electron transitions in the excited state, rather than the multiphoton absorption process. Temperature dependent upconversion NIR luminescence imaging is demonstrated for NIR-CDs embedded in a polyvinyl pyrrolidone film, and the NIR upconversion luminescence imaging in vivo using NIR-CDs in a mouse model is accomplished.

11.
Small ; 15(51): e1904310, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724826

RESUMO

Selenium (Se)-based rechargeable aluminum batteries (RABs), known as aluminum-selenium (Al-Se) batteries, are an appealing new battery design that holds great promise for addressing the low-capacity problem of current RAB technology. However, their applications are hindered by mediocre high-rate capacity (≈100 mAh g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 ) and insufficient cycling life (50 cycles). Herein, the synthesis of mesoporous carbon fibers (MCFs) by coating mesoporous carbon with short-length mesopores and tunable mesopore sizes (2.7 to 8.9 nm) coaxially on carbon nanotubes (CNT) is reported. When compositing MCFs with Se for Al-Se batteries, a positive correlation between mesopore size and electrolyte ion diffusivity is observed, however when pore size is increased to 8.9 nm, large voids are created at the interface of CNT core and mesoporous carbon shell, leading to decreased electrode conductivity. The trade-off between ion diffusivity and interfacial connectivity/conductivity determines MCF with pore size of 7.1 nm as the best host material for Al-Se batteries. The composite cathode delivers high specific capacities (366 and 230 mAh g-1 at 0.5 and 1 A g-1 ), good rate performance, and excellent cycling stability (152 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at 2 A g-1 ), superior over previously reported Se cathodes and other cathodes for RABs.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 1272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736754

RESUMO

Hypericum perforatum L., also known as Saint John's Wort, has been well studied for its chemical composition and pharmacological activity. In this study, the antiviral activities of H. perforatum on infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for the first time. The results of in vitro experiments confirmed that the antiviral component of H. perforatum was ethyl acetate extraction section (HPE), and results showed that treatment with HPE significantly reduced the relative messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression and virus titer of IBV, and reduced positive green immunofluorescence signal of IBV in chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cells. HPE treatment at doses of 480-120 mg/kg for 5 days, reduced IBV induced injury in the trachea and kidney, moreover, reduced the mRNA expression level of IBV in the trachea and kidney in vivo. The mRNA expression levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) significantly decreased, but melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), mitochondrial antiviral signaling gene, interferon alpha (IFN-α), and interferon beta (IFN-ß) mRNA levels significantly increased in vitro and in vivo. Our findings demonstrated that HPE had significant anti-IBV effects in vitro and in vivo, respectively. In addition, it is possible owing to up-regulate mRNA expression of type I interferon through the MDA5 signaling pathway and down-regulate mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α via the NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, the mainly active compositions of HPE analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) are hyperoside, quercitrin, quercetin, pseudohypericin, and hypericin, and a combination of these compounds could mediate the antiviral activities. This might accelerate our understanding of the antiviral effect of H. perforatum and provide new insights into the development of effective therapeutic strategies.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(100): 15053-15056, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777878

RESUMO

The present study reports an aqueous synthesis approach towards off-stoichiometric copper indium sulfide quantum dots with emissions in the near-infrared spectral range. The photoluminescence properties of the dots, and in particular the appearance of dual emission at high Cu deficiency, were studied with temperature-dependent steady-state and transient photoluminescence spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Cobre/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Índio/química , Medições Luminescentes , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade , Temperatura Ambiente , Raios Ultravioleta
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660782

RESUMO

Objectives: To study the epidemiological characteristics of malaria and the effects of comprehensive malaria control implementation in Yantai, as well as to provide a scientific basis for future malaria elimination. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted to explore the epidemiological changes and prevention effects in Yantai from 1951 to 2017. The malaria data before 2004 were collected from paper-based annual reports, and data after 2004 came from the Infectious Diseases Information Reporting Management System. Results: A total of 81,286 malaria cases were identified in Yantai from 1957 to 2017, with two peaks occurring in 1966 (120.93/100,000) and 1970-1972 (366.12/100,000). From 1951 to 2003, the case classification was mainly Plasmodium vivax (99.80%); the first case attributed to Plasmodium falciparum occurred in 2004, and P. falciparum became the main cause of malaria after 2011. All cases reported since 2010 have been imported cases, and the last indigenous case was caused by P. vivax in 2008. A total of 129 imported cases were reported from 2010 to 2017, most of which originated in Africa (93.80%), mainly in men aged 30-49 years (68.28%). From 1951 to 1973, 73,868 cases of malaria were diagnosed with clinical symptoms, and from 1974 to 2017, 818,943 cases in fever patients were diagnosed with blood tests. Conclusions: To achieve the goal of eliminating malaria by 2020, Yantai should continue to strengthen the management of migrant population, including improving malaria surveillance for returnees and immigrants from overseas endemic areas, and continue to increase the training of medical personnel to improve their diagnostic ability.

15.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 211, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to optimize the therapeutic regimen for refractory obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction (o-MGD) patients by combining intraductal meibomian gland probing (MGP) and intense pulsed light (IPL) to enhance their positive effects and reduce their limitations. METHODS: This randomized, assessor blind study includes 45 patients (90 eyes) with refractory o-MGD who were divided into 3 groups via allocation concealment: IPL (group I, received an IPL treatment course: 3 times at 3-week intervals), MGP (group II, received MGP one time), and combined MGP-IPL (group III, MGP first followed by an IPL treatment course). Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness score (SPEED), tear break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), meibum grade, and lid margin finding results were assessed at baseline, 3 weeks after final treatment for groups I and III, 3 and 12 weeks after MGP for group II. Six months after final treatment, the SPEED and willingness to receive any treatment again were also collected for all groups. Paired Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U with Bonferroni correction, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for data analysis. RESULTS: For all 3 groups, all previously mentioned indexes improved significantly following treatment (P<0.01). MGP-IPL was better than IPL and MGP in terms of post-treatment SPEED, TBUT, meibum grade, and lid telangiectasia (P<0.05/3). Furthermore, the MGP-IPL was better than IPL in terms of lid tenderness and better than MGP in terms of orifice abnormality (P< 0.05/3). Six months later, the SPEED for the MGP-IPL was also significantly lower than other groups (P<0.05/3). Moreover, no patients in the MGP-IPL group expressed the need to be treated again compared to 35.7% or 20% of patients in the IPL or MGP groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with IPL or MGP alone, the combination MGP-IPL produced best results in relieving all signs and symptoms and helping patients attain long-lasting symptom relief. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://clinicaltrials.gov , ChiCTR1900021273 (retrospectively registered February 9, 2019).


Assuntos
/terapia , Glândulas Tarsais/efeitos da radiação , Fototerapia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3941, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477699

RESUMO

Liquid biopsies have the utility for detecting minimal residual disease in several cancer types. Here, we investigate if liquid biopsy tracking on-treatment informs on tumour phenotypes by longitudinally quantifying circulating Epstein-barr virus (EBV) DNA copy number in 673 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients undergoing radical induction chemotherapy (IC) and chemo-radiotherapy (CRT). We observe significant inter-patient heterogeneity in viral copy number clearance that is classifiable into eight distinct patterns based on clearance kinetics and bounce occurrence, including a substantial proportion of complete responders (≈30%) to only one IC cycle. Using a supervised statistical clustering of disease relapse risks, we further bin these eight subgroups into four prognostic phenotypes (early responders, intermediate responders, late responders, and treatment resistant) that are correlated with efficacy of chemotherapy intensity. Taken together, we show that real-time monitoring of liquid biopsy response adds prognostic information, and has the potential utility for risk-adapted treatment de-intensification/intensification in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/terapia , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Adulto , Quimiorradioterapia , DNA Viral/sangue , DNA Viral/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/complicações , Fenótipo , Prognóstico
17.
Poult Sci ; 98(12): 6367-6377, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399732

RESUMO

Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a coronavirus, causes infectious bronchitis leading to enormous economic loss in the poultry industry worldwide. Hypericin (HY) is an excellent compound that has been investigated in antiviral, antineoplastic, and antidepressant. To investigate the inhibition effect of HY on IBV infection in chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cells, 3 different experimental designs: pre-treatment of cells prior to IBV infection, direct treatment of IBV-infected cells, and pre-treatment of IBV prior to cell infection were used. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), immunofluorescence assay (IFA), flow cytometry, and fluorescence microscopy were performed and virus titer was determined by TCID50. The results revealed that HY had a good anti-IBV effect when HY directly treated the IBV-infected cells, and virus infectivity decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, HY inhibited IBV-induced apoptosis in CEK cells, and significantly reduced the mRNA expression levels of Fas, FasL, JNK, Bax, Caspase 3, and Caspase 8, and significantly increased Bcl-2 mRNA expression level in CEK cells. In addition, HY treatment could decrease IBV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in CEK cells. These results suggested that HY showed potential antiviral activities against IBV infection involving the inhibition of apoptosis and ROS generation in CEK cells.

18.
Microb Biotechnol ; 12(5): 976-992, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380612

RESUMO

Despite their important roles in host nutrition, metabolism and adaptability, the knowledge on how the mammalian gut microbial community assemble is relatively scanty, especially regarding the ecological mechanisms that govern microbiota along environmental gradients. To address this, we surveyed the diversity, function and ecological processes of gut microbiota in the wild plateau pika, Ochotona curzoniae, along the elevational gradient from 3106 to 4331 m on 'the Roof of the World'-Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results indicated that the alpha, beta and functional diversity of gut microbiota significantly increased with elevation, and elevation significantly explained the variations in the gut microbial communities, even after controlling for geographical distance, host sex and body weight. Some gene functions (e.g. nitrogen metabolism and protein kinases) associated with metabolism were enriched in the high-altitude pikas. Null model and phylogenetic analysis suggest that the relative contributions of environmental filtering responsible for local gut communities increased with elevation. In addition, deterministic processes dominated gut microbial communities in the high-altitude (more than 3694 m) pikas, while the percentages of stochastic and deterministic processes were very close in the low-altitude (3106 and 3580 m) pikas. The observed mechanisms that influence pika gut microbiota assembly and function seemed to be mainly mediated by the internal gut environment and by the external environmental pressure (i.e. lower temperature) in the harsh high-altitude environment. These findings enhance our understanding of gut microbiota assembly patterns and function in wild mammals from extreme harsh environments.

19.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1102): 20190255, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a big data intelligence platform for secondary use of electronic health records (EHRs) data to facilitate research for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). METHODS: This project was launched in 2015 and carried out by the cooperation of an academic cancer centre and a technology company. Patients diagnosed with NPC at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Centre since January 2008 were included in the platform. Standard data elements were established to defined 981 variables for the platform. For each patient, data from 13 EHRs systems were extracted, integrated, structurized and normalized. Eight functional modules were constructed for the platform to facilitate the investigators to identify eligible patients, establish research projects, conduct statistical analysis, track the follow-up, search literature, etc. RESULTS: From January 2008 to December 2018, 54,703 patients diagnosed with NPC were included. Of these patients, 39,058 (71.4%) were male, and 15,645 (28.6%) were female; median age was 47 (interquartile range, 39-55) years. Of 981 variables, 341 were obtained from data structurization and normalization, of which 68 were generated by interacting multiple data sources via well-defined logical rules. The average precision rate, recall rate and F-measure for 341 variables were 0.97 ± 0.024, 0.92 ± 0.030, and 0.94 ± 0.027 respectively. The platform is regularly updated every seven days to include new patients and add new data for existing patients. Up to now, eight big data-driven retrospective studies have been published from the platform. CONCLUSION: Our big data intelligence platform demonstrates the feasibility of integrating EHRs data of routine healthcare, and offers an important perspective on real-world study of NPC. The continued efforts may be focus on data sharing among multiple hospitals and publicly releasing of data files. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Our big data intelligence platform is the first disease-specific data platform for NPC research. It incorporates comprehensive EHRs data from routine healthcare, which can facilitate real-world study of NPC in risk stratification, decision-making and comorbidities management.


Assuntos
Big Data , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Pesquisa Biomédica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Endêmicas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eye Contact Lens ; 45(6): 356-359, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of infectious keratitis in patients wearing bandage contact lenses (BCLs). METHODS: The BCL-related infectious keratitis cases were reviewed at the eye center of the Second Affiliated Hospital at the Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2015 to August 2018. Detailed information about the patients with infectious keratitis was collected, including the age, gender, clinical characteristics, culture results, and other measures. All the data analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows version 24.0. RESULTS: From January 2015 until August 2018, 6,385 eyes of 6,188 patients, including 3,410 males and 2,778 females, received BCLs at our hospital. The mean age of these patients was 48.10±20.81 years (range=15-78 years). The mean BCL wearing time was 18.98±23.72 days (range=1-58 days). Eight patients (0.13%) with infectious keratitis were identified, and the mean age of these patients was 54.33±28.14 years (range=16-75 years). Seven of the infectious keratitis patients were older than 50 years, and one patient was 16 years old. The infectious keratitis incidence rate of the older patients (≥50 years) was significantly higher than that of the young patients (<50 years) (χ=9.647, P=0.002). There was a higher postkeratoplasty risk of BCL-related infectious keratitis than that in the corneal epithelial defect (χ=21.371, P=0.000) and pterygium surgery (χ=16.037, P=0.000) cases, but not in the corneal collagen cross-linking cases (χ=1.792, P=0.181). The mean onset time of BCL-related infectious keratitis was 22.63±18.72 days (range=3-58 days) after wearing the BCLs. Among these 8 infected patients, 3 were noncompliant with their eye drop use and 2 extended their BCL wearing time past 30 days. CONCLUSION: Bandage CL-related infectious keratitis is more likely to occur in older patients. The most common risk factor for BCL-related infectious keratitis was postkeratoplasty use. Overall, appropriate indications, good compliance, and close follow-up attention are required for BCL wearers.

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