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1.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 30, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) are two representative bariatric surgeries. This study aimed to compare the effects of the LSG and LRYGB based on high-quality analysis and massive amount of data. METHODS: For this study databases of PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, Medline, and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published until January 2019 comparing the outcomes of LSG and LRYGB. RESULTS: This study included 28 articles. Overall, 9038 patients (4597, LSG group; 4441, LRYGB group) were included. The remission rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the LRYGB group was superior to that in the LSG group at the 3-years follow-up. Five-year follow-up results showed that LRYGB had an advantage over LSG for the percentage of excess weight loss and remission of T2DM, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormally low-density lipoprotein. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of the long-term effects of bariatric surgery, the effect of LRYGB was better than of LSG.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(1)2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947765

RESUMO

Self-interference (SI) is the key issue that prevents in-band full-duplex (IBFD) communications from being practical. Analog multi-tap adaptive filter is an efficient structure to cancel SI since it can capture the nonlinear components and noise in the transmitted signal. Analog least mean square (ALMS) loop is a simple adaptive filter that can be implemented by purely analog means to sufficiently mitigate SI. Comprehensive analyses on the behaviors of the ALMS loop have been published in the literature. This paper proposes a practical structure and presents an implementation of the ALMS loop. By employing off-the-shelf components, a prototype of the ALMS loop including two taps is implemented for an IBFD system operating at the carrier frequency of 2.4 GHz. The prototype is firstly evaluated in a single carrier signaling IBFD system with 20 MHz and 50 MHz bandwidths, respectively. Measured results show that the ALMS loop can provide 39 dB and 33 dB of SI cancellation in the radio frequency domain for the two bandwidths, respectively. Furthermore, the impact of the roll-off factor of the pulse shaping filter on the SI cancellation level provided by the prototype is presented. Finally, the experiment with multicarrier signaling shows that the performance of the ALMS loop is the same as that in the single carrier system. These experimental results validate the theoretical analyses presented in our previous publications on the ALMS loop behaviors.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether moral hazard may exist under unsupervised home-based online applications, leading to more assistive technology devices (ATDs) and larger per capita expenditures on ATDs than under supervised community center-based online applications. METHODS: Using the data from the Assistive Devices Resource Centre in Shanghai, descriptive statistics were estimated for the sociodemographics of applicants. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to test the effect of the introduction of home-based online applications. RESULTS: In 2015-2016, there were marked increases of 22.3% in the total number of ATDs and 27.2% in the total expenditure on ATDs compared with 2013-2014. The per capita number and expenditure also demonstrated an increasing trend. More devices were applied for in 2015-2016 than in 2013-2014, yielding a higher expenditure per capita (P < .001). Interestingly, with an invisible price, more devices were applied for at home than in community centers (P < .001), but the expenditure per capita was smaller (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of online applications increased the number of ATDs per capita. The home-based applications induced the purchase of more ATDs but not higher expenditures on ATDs. Individuals with disabilities tend to request the maximum number of ATDs allowed by the application rules, which is an indicator of moral hazard. The prices of ATDs were not visible for individuals with disabilities, which may cause individuals to order costlier ATDs when applying at home. Stricter review may be needed to reign in the potential moral hazard among online applicants with disabilities.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(5): 2145-2149, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923358

RESUMO

We report the application of lanthanide-binding tags (LBTs) for two- and three-dimensional X-ray imaging of individual proteins in cells with a sub-15 nm beam. The method combines encoded LBTs, which are tags of minimal size (ca. 15-20 amino acids) affording high-affinity lanthanide ion binding, and X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). This approach enables visualization of LBT-tagged proteins while simultaneously measuring the elemental distribution in cells at a spatial resolution necessary for visualizing cell membranes and eukaryotic subcellular organelles.

5.
ACS Chem Biol ; 15(1): 234-242, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613081

RESUMO

Lcn2 is a host defense protein induced via the innate immune response to sequester iron-loaded bacterial siderophores. However, excess or prolonged elevation of Lcn2 levels can induce adverse cellular effects, including oxidative stress and inflammation. In this work, we use Hydrogen-Deuterium eXchange (HDX) and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) to characterize the binding interaction between Lcn2 and siderophores enterobactin and 2,3-DHBA, in the presence and absence of iron. Our results indicate a rare "Type II" interaction in which binding of siderophores drives the protein conformational equilibrium toward an unfolded state. Linking our molecular model to cellular assays, we demonstrate that this "distorted binding mode" facilitates a deleterious cellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species that could represent the molecular origin of Lcn2 pathology. These results add important insights into mechanisms of Lcn2 action and have implications in Lcn2-mediated effects including inflammation.

6.
Photochem Photobiol ; 96(1): 170-177, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483869

RESUMO

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been recommended for clinical application. Its antibacterial effect on bacteria remained in dentinal tubule was seldom investigated. Here, we evaluated the antibacterial effects of aPDT on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) in planktonic lifestyle, biofilm and carious dentine. Mono-species biofilms or dentinal caries formed on human dentine slices or slabs. Bacterial suspension, biofilms and dentine caries were treated with 0.1 mg mL-1 toluidine Blue O followed by irradiation with a light emission diode (λ - 635 ± 10 nm; 500 mW; 31.5 J cm-2 ; 60 s) and 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX), respectively. Residual bacteria were determined by microbial culture analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to detect the significance of the variables. Both treatments significantly reduced the number of L. acidophilus in planktonic state, biofilm and carious dentine (P < 0.05). For S. mutans, CHX was only bactericidal against suspension (P < 0.05), while aPDT was effective on both suspension and biofilm (P < 0.05) while not for dentin caries (P > 0.05). Under the experimental conditions assessed, aPDT could be an alternative disinfection method for superficial layer of caries cavity. Its disinfection on bacteria in dentinal tubule of deep layer was deficient.

7.
Obes Surg ; 29(12): 4105-4113, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630324

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between bariatric surgery (laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy [LSG] and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [LRYGB]) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The number of obese patients with newly onset, worsened, or improved GERD after bariatric surgery in each article were extracted. In the pooled analysis, LSG was associated with a higher risk of GERD than LRYGB (odds ratio [OR] = 5.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.60-7.23, p < 0.001). Compared with LSG, LRYGB had a better effect on GERD (OR = 0.19, 95% CI 0.12-0.30, p < 0.001). LRYGB was more effective for treating GERD in obese patients than LSG and the incidence of newly onset GERD after LRYGB was lower.

8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 3070-3077, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602855

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the quality of Styrax more comprehensively,this study attempted to establish an HPLC wavelength switching method to simultaneously determine the content of seven compounds in Styrax,and chemometrics were used to analyze the quality difference between different sources of Styrax,and finally establish a characteristic chromatogram of Styrax. The column was Agilent ZORBAX Extend C18( 4. 6 mm×250 mm,5 µm) with phase a mixture of acetonitrile-0. 1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase in a gradient elution procedure; the detection wavelength was set as follows: 0-13. 5 min,194 nm( benzoic acid);13. 5-20. 5 min,278 nm( cinnamic acid); 20. 5-32 min,194 nm( benzyl benzoate,benzyl cinnamate,cinnamyl cinnamate,dehydroabietic acid); 32-55 min,241 nm( abietic acid). The methodological verification results showed that when the injection masses of benzoic acid,cinnamic acid,benzyl benzoate,benzyl cinnamate,cinnamyl cinnamate,dehydroabietic acid and abietic acid were0. 006 948-0. 694 8,0. 001 426-0. 142 6,0. 013 16-0. 658 0,0. 006 148-0. 614 8,0. 008 035-0. 803 5,0. 002 121-0. 212 1,and0. 010 172-1. 017 2 µg,respectively,there were good linear relationship between injection mass and peak area. The average recovery rates of seven compounds were in the range from 94. 34% to 105. 8%,and all RSD were less than 3. 0%( n = 6). The methodological verification results showed that the developed HPLC wavelength switching method has good accuracy and repeatability. The results of the sample analysis showed that the quality of Styrax from different sources was quite different. The chromatogram of Styrax reference material( S1) was used as the reference chromatogram to calculate the fingerprint similarity of each batch of samples. The results showed that the similarities of samples S2-S10 were 0. 952,0. 949,0. 981,0. 351,0. 751,0. 969,0. 979,0. 992 and 0. 971,respectively.The similarity values of other batches samples were satisfactory,except for sample S5 and S6,indicating that the quality difference among these samples is small. The similarity values of S11-S20 were 0. 060,0. 055,0. 054,0. 285,0. 092,0. 002,0. 044,0. 044,0. 044,and 0. 040,respectively. The results showed that compared with the sample S1,there was a large quality difference among S11-S20. Based on the chromatograms of S1-S10,the HPLC characteristic chromatograms of Styrax was established and the purpose is to give reference to other pharmaceutical researchers. The newly developed HPLC wavelength switching method have the advantages of simplicity,reproducibility and specificity,and the developed HPLC characteristic chromatograms provided a reference method for the overall quality evaluation of Styrax.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Styrax/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(8): 174, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168455

RESUMO

Background: Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) technique for thoracotomy has seen increased application. The erector spinae plane block (ESPB) technique is simpler to perform than TPVB. However, whether it can be employed as a safe alternative analgesic technique has not been verified by a head-to-head clinical study. Methods: Ninety-four patients scheduled for thoracotomy lung surgeries were randomly allocated to an ESPB or TPVB group. Patients in both groups were provided with an intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device containing sufentanil. Visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores under the status of rest and cough were recorded at 1, 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively. In addition, total press times of PCA were read from the PCA memory. The adverse effects, puncture time and success rate of one puncture were also recorded. Results: There were no significant differences in pain scores at rest and cough between the ESPB and TPVB groups in each of the first two days after surgery, and no difference between the two groups was identified regarding postoperative sufentanil usage (P>0.05). There was no statistical difference in post-operative nausea and vomiting. There was significantly less hypotension (6.7% vs. 21.7%, P=0.04), bradycardia (0 vs. 8.7%, P=0.04), hematoma (0 vs. 10.9%, P=0.02) and a higher success rate of one puncture (82.2% vs. 54.3%, P<0.001) in the ESPB group. Conclusions: Preoperative single-injection ESPB plus postoperative sufentanil PCA provided similar effects of pain relief for patients undergoing thoracotomy when comparing to TPVB. Yet, ESPB had the advantages of a lower adverse effect incidence.

10.
FASEB J ; 33(8): 9476-9488, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091421

RESUMO

Liver serine-threonine kinase B1 (LKB1) is a tumor suppressor that has been linked to many types of tumors. However, the role of LKB1 in cartilaginous tumorigenesis is still poorly understood. In this study, we find that cartilage-specific, tamoxifen-inducible Lkb1 knockout results in multiple enchondroma-like lesions adjacent to the disorganized growth plates. We showed that chondrocytes retain an immature status caused by loss of Lkb1, which may lead to the dramatic expansion of growth-plate cartilage and the formation of enchondroma-like lesions. Additionally, increased mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is observed in the Lkb1 conditional knockout (cKO) chondrocytes, and rapamycin (mTORC1 inhibitor) treatment significantly alleviates the expansion of growth-plate cartilage and eliminates the enchondroma-like lesions in Lkb1 cKO mice. Thus, our findings indicate that loss of Lkb1 leads to the expansion of chondrocytes and the formation of enchondroma-like lesions during postnatal cartilage development, and that the up-regulated mTORC1-signaling pathway is implicated in this process. Our findings suggest that modulation of LKB1 and related signaling is a potential therapy in cartilaginous tumorigenesis.-Zhou, S., Li, Y., Qiao, L., Ge, Y., Huang, X., Gao, X., Ju, H., Wang, W., Zhang, J., Yan, J., Teng, H., Jiang, Q. Inactivation of Lkb1 in postnatal chondrocytes leads to epiphyseal growth-plate abnormalities and promotes enchondroma-like formation.

11.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(8): 13614-13624, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937968

RESUMO

Inducing of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) into endothelial cells (ECs) to prevascularize pulp tissue constructs may offer a novel and viable approach for enhancing pulp regeneration. However, there are numerous challenges in current methods for the acquisition of sufficient translational ECs. It was known that Sema4D/PlexinB1 signaling exerts profound effects on enhancing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and angiogenesis. Whether Sema4D/PlexinB1 could regulate endothelial differentiation of DPSCs is not yet investigated. In this study, when DPSCs were treated with Sema4D (2 µg/mL), ECs-specific (VEGFR1, VEGFR2, CD31, and vWF), and angiogenic genes and proteins were significantly upregulated. The induced ECs exhibited similar endothelial vessel formation ability to that of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, phosphorylation of AKT increased dramatically within 5 minutes (from 0.93 to 21.8), while p-ERK1/2 was moderately elevated (from 0.94 to 2.65). In summary, our results demonstrated that Sema4D/PlexinB1 signaling induces endothelial differentiation of DPSCs. The interactions of Sema4D, VEGF, ANGPTL4, ANG1, and HIF-1α may play a crucial role in mediating the differentiation process.

12.
Acta Crystallogr A Found Adv ; 75(Pt 2): 336-341, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821266

RESUMO

Multi-slice X-ray ptychography offers an approach to achieve images with a nanometre-scale resolution from samples with thicknesses larger than the depth of field of the imaging system by modeling a thick sample as a set of thin slices and accounting for the wavefront propagation effects within the specimen. Here, we present an experimental demonstration that resolves two layers of nanostructures separated by 500 nm along the axial direction, with sub-10 nm and sub-20 nm resolutions on two layers, respectively. Fluorescence maps are simultaneously measured in the multi-modality imaging scheme to assist in decoupling the mixture of low-spatial-frequency features across different slices. The enhanced axial sectioning capability using correlative signals obtained from multi-modality measurements demonstrates the great potential of the multi-slice ptychography method for investigating specimens with extended dimensions in 3D with high resolution.

13.
Opt Lett ; 44(3): 503-506, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702664

RESUMO

Ptychography is a scanning variation of the coherent diffractive imaging method for providing high-resolution quantitative images from specimen with extended dimensions. Its capability of achieving diffraction-limited spatial resolution can be compromised by the sample thickness, which is generally required to be thinner than the depth of field of the imaging system. In this Letter, we present a method to extend the depth of field for ptychography by numerically generating the focus stack from reconstructions with propagated illumination wavefronts and combining the in-focus features to a single sharp image using an algorithm based on the complex-valued discrete wavelet transform. This approach does not require repeated measurements by translating the sample along the optical axis as in the conventional focus stacking method, and offers a computation-efficient alternative to obtain high-resolution images with extended depth of fields, complementary to the multi-slice ptychography.

14.
Opt Lett ; 44(3): 662, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702704

RESUMO

This publisher's note corrects an error in Eq. (3) of Opt. Lett.44, 503 (2019).OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.44.000503.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(10): 4018-4024, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765527

RESUMO

Optical trapping has been implemented in many areas of physics and biology as a noncontact sample manipulation technique to study the structure and dynamics of nano- and mesoscale objects. It provides a unique approach for manipulating microscopic objects without inducing undesired changes in structure. Combining optical trapping with hard X-ray microscopy techniques, such as coherent diffraction imaging and crystallography, provides a nonperturbing environment where electronic and structural dynamics of an individual particle in solution can be followed in situ. It was previously shown that optical trapping allows the manipulation of micrometer-sized objects for X-ray fluorescence imaging. However, questions remain over the ability of optical trapping to position objects for X-ray diffraction measurements, which have stringent requirements for angular stability. Our work demonstrates that dynamic holographic optical tweezers are capable of manipulating single micrometer-scale anisotropic particles in a microfluidic environment with the precision and stability required for X-ray Bragg diffraction experiments-thus functioning as an "optical goniometer." The methodology can be extended to a variety of X-ray experiments and the Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of individual particles in solution, as demonstrated here, will be markedly enhanced with the advent of brighter, coherent X-ray sources.

16.
ACS Nano ; 13(4): 3964-3970, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794384

RESUMO

Topological defects in solid-state materials by breaking the translational symmetry offer emerging properties that are not present in their parental phases. For example, edge dislocations-the 2π phase-winding topological defects-in antiferromagnetic NiO crystals can exhibit ferromagnetic behaviors. Herein, we study how these defects could give rise to topological orders when they interact with a high-energy electron beam. To probe this interaction, we formed a coherent electron nanobeam in a scanning transmission electron microscope and recorded the far-field transmitted patterns as the beam steps through the edge dislocation core in [001] NiO. Surprisingly, we found the amplitude patterns of the ⟨020⟩ Bragg disks evolve in a similar manner to the evolution of an annular solar eclipse. Using the ptychographic technique, we recovered the missing phase information in the diffraction plane and revealed the topological phase vortices in the diffracted beams. Through atomic topological defects, the wave function of electrons can be converted from plane wave to electron vortex. Technologically, this approach provides a feasible route for the fabrication of phase plates that can generate electron vortex beams with an angular separation that is 3 orders of magnitude larger than what traditional nanofabrication technology can offer. This advance will enable the collection of magnetic circular dichroism spectra with high spatial resolution and high efficiency, boosting the understanding of the relationship between symmetry breaking and magnetic property of individual topological defect at the atomic scale.

17.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 25: 382-388, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: S. aureus biofilm plays a predominant role in the establishment and development of peri-implantitis. It is suggested to combine different modalities as peri-implantitis treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the disinfection efficacy of combined application of antiseptics with PDT on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilm formed on titanium(Ti) disks with different surface roughness. METHODS: S. aureus biofilm was incubated on polished and sandblasted large-grit acid-etched (SLA) Ti surfaces for 48 h. 72 contaminated Ti disks (36 polished, 36 SLA) were randomly divided into 6 different groups as follows: (a) PBS, (b) 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), (c) 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), (d) PDT, (e) 0.2% CHX + PDT, and (f) 3% H2O2+PDT. Colony forming unit (CFU) was measured to determine antimicrobial effects. Biofilm structure was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). RESULTS: All disinfection methods significantly reduced bacteria amounts compared to control group on both polished and SLA Ti surfaces (P < 0.001). PDT demonstrated stronger decontamination ability in eliminating S. aureus from Ti surfaces than CHX and H2O2 did (P < 0.05). The combined CHX or H2O2 with PDT treatment were more effective in bacterial disinfection than a single administration of these treatments (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The combination of CHX or H2O2 administration with PDT was more effective in eradicating S. aureus on both polished and SLA Ti disks in comparison with either treatment alone, suggesting that combined usage of antiseptics with PDT could be a more efficient method for the treatment of peri-implantitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/química , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Peri-Implantite/microbiologia , Peri-Implantite/prevenção & controle , Células-Tronco , Cloreto de Tolônio/farmacologia
18.
Photochem Photobiol ; 95(3): 839-845, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481378

RESUMO

Various antimicrobial modalities have been proposed to treat peri-implantitis but resulted in limited outcomes. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the disinfection efficacy of combined application of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) of titanium surfaces previously contaminated with Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm. P. gingivalis biofilms were grown on 32 polished and 32 sandblasted large-grit acid-etched (SLA) titanium surfaces. Titanium disks were allocated into four groups as follows: (1) immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), (2) immersed in 0.2% CHX, (3) application of aPDT and (4) immersed in 0.2% CHX and subsequent aPDT. Residual bacteria were determined by microbial culture analysis and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging. Combination protocol (CHX+ aPDT) was the most effective in eradicating P. gingivalis (P < 0.05) on both polished and SLA surfaces. There was no significant difference in the number of remaining P. gingivalis between polished titanium disks and the SLA ones in four groups (P > 0.05). Under the limitation of this study, combined technique of preceding application of CHX and subsequent aPDT was shown to be an efficient method in reducing P. gingivalis numbers in both polished and SLA titanium surfaces.

19.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 19(1): 575-584, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327072

RESUMO

Diffraction optics fabricated from multilayers offer an intriguing alternative to lithography-based zone plates due to their advantages of virtually limitless aspect ratio and extremely small feature size. However, other issues, intrinsic to thin-film deposition, such as film stress and deposition rate instability, for example, limit the total achievable aperture. Over the last decade, Multilayer Laue Lens (MLLs) have progressed from a mere curiosity with initial aperture sizes in the 3-10 µm range, to real beamline-deployed optics with apertures in the 40-50 µm range (X. Huang, et al., Scientific Reports 3, 3562 (2013); E. Nazaretski, et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014); E. Nazaretski, et al., Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 24, 1113 (2017)). By optimizing deposition conditions and incorporating new materials, MLLs have now broken the 100 µm thickness milestone. A flat WSi2/Al-Si MLL with a deposition thickness of 102 µm, the largest MLL to date, is reviewed. New large aperture wedged MLLs (wMLL), which were first fabricated by APS in 2006 using the WSi2/Si material system, are presented which demonstrate high focusing efficiency across a broad energy range. These results confirm findings by other groups who have also independently fabricated wMLL (A. J. Morgan, et al., Scientific Reports 5, 9892 (2015); S. Bajt, et al., Nature Light: Science and Applications 7, 17162 (2017)) based on a similar material system.

20.
Cell Metab ; 29(2): 383-398.e7, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449686

RESUMO

Metabolic plasticity has been linked to polarized macrophage function, but mechanisms connecting specific fuels to tissue macrophage function remain unresolved. Here we apply a stable isotope tracing, mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics approach to reveal the metabolome penetrated by hepatocyte-derived glucose and ketone bodies. In both classically and alternatively polarized macrophages, [13C]acetoacetate (AcAc) labeled ∼200 chemical features, but its reduced form D-[13C]ß-hydroxybutyrate (D-ßOHB) labeled almost none. [13C]glucose labeled ∼500 features, and while unlabeled AcAc competed with only ∼15% of them, the vast majority required the mitochondrial enzyme succinyl-coenzyme A-oxoacid transferase (SCOT). AcAc carbon labeled metabolites within the cytoplasmic glycosaminoglycan pathway, which regulates tissue fibrogenesis. Accordingly, livers of mice lacking SCOT in macrophages were predisposed to accelerated fibrogenesis. Exogenous AcAc, but not D-ßOHB, ameliorated diet-induced hepatic fibrosis. These data support a hepatocyte-macrophage ketone shuttle that segregates AcAc from D-ßOHB, coordinating the fibrogenic response to hepatic injury via mitochondrial metabolism in tissue macrophages.

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