Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 192
Filtrar
1.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153550, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) has been widely used to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The metabolites of BBR were believed to contribute significantly to its pharmacological effects. Oxyberberine (OBB), a gut microbiota-mediated oxidative metabolite of BBR, has been firstly identified in our recent work. PURPOSE: Here, we aimed to comparatively investigate the anti-NAFLD properties of OBB and BBR. METHODS: The anti-NAFLD effect was evaluated in high-fat diet-induced obese NAFLD rats with biochemical/ELISA tests and histological staining. The related gene and protein expressions were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. Molecular docking and dynamic simulation were also performed to provide further insight. RESULTS: Results indicated OBB remarkably and dose-dependently attenuated the clinical manifestations of NAFLD, which (100 mg/kg) achieved similar therapeutic effect to metformin (300 mg/kg) and was superior to BBR of the same dose. OBB significantly inhibited aberrant phosphorylation of IRS-1 and up-regulated the downstream protein expression and phosphorylation (PI3K, p-Akt/Akt and p-GSK-3ß/GSK-3ß) to improve hepatic insulin signal transduction. Meanwhile, OBB treatment remarkably alleviated inflammation via down-regulating the mRNA expression of MCP-1, Cd68, Nos2, Cd11c, while enhancing Arg1 mRNA expression in white adipose tissue. Moreover, OBB exhibited closer affinity with AMPK in silicon and superior hyperphosphorylation of AMPK in vivo, leading to increased ACC mRNA expression in liver and UCP-1 protein expression in adipose tissue. CONCLUSION: Taken together, compared with BBR, OBB was more capable of maintaining lipid homeostasis between liver and WAT via attenuating hepatic insulin pathway and adipocyte inflammation, which was associated with its property of superior AMPK activator.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amygdala-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) circuitry is disrupted in pediatric anxiety disorders, yet how selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect this circuitry is unknown. We examined the impact of the SSRI escitalopram on functional connectivity (FC) within this circuit, and whether early FC changes predicted treatment response in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHOD: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired before and after 2 weeks of treatment in 41 adolescents with GAD (12-17 years of age) who received double-blind escitalopram or placebo for 8 weeks. Change in amygdala-based whole-brain FC and anxiety severity were analyzed. RESULTS: Controlling for age, sex, and pretreatment anxiety, escitalopram increased amygdala-VLPFC connectivity compared to placebo (F = 17.79, p = .002 FWE-corrected). This early FC change predicted 76.7% of the variability in improvement trajectory in patients who received escitalopram (p < .001) but not placebo (p = .169); the predictive power of early amygdala-VLPFC FC change significantly differed between placebo and escitalopram (p = .013). Furthermore, this FC change predicted improvement better than baseline FC or clinical/demographic characteristics. Exploratory analyses of amygdala subfields' FC revealed connectivity of left basolateral amygdala (BLA) -VLPFC (F = 19.64, p < .001 FWE-corrected) and superficial amygdala-posterior cingulate cortex (F = 22.92, p = .001 FWE-corrected) were also increased by escitalopram, but only BLA-VLPFC FC predicted improvement in anxiety over 8 weeks of treatment. CONCLUSION: In adolescents with GAD, escitalopram increased amygdala-prefrontal connectivity within the first 2 weeks of treatment, and the magnitude of this change predicted subsequent clinical improvement. Early normalization of amygdala-VLPFC circuitry might represent a useful tool for identifying future treatment responders as well as a promising biomarker for drug development. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: Neurofunctional Predictors of Escitalopram Treatment Response in Adolescents With Anxiety; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02818751.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 271: 113886, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524513

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Huangqin Decoction (HQD), a traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) formula chronicled in Shang Han Lun, has been used to treat gastrointestinal diseases for nearly 1800 years. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of HQD on ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: The bioactive compounds in HQD were obtained from the traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database. Then, the HQD and UC-related targets were analyzed by establishing HQD-Compounds-Targets (H-C-T) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Enrichment analysis was used for further study. The candidate targets for the effects of HQD on UC were validated using a dextran sulfate sodium-induced UC mouse experiment. RESULTS: The results showed that 51 key targets were gained by matching 284 HQD-related targets and 837 UC-related targets. Combined with H-C-T and PPI network analyses, the key targets were divided into endothelial growth, inflammation and signal transcription-related targets. Further experimental validation showed that HQD targeted estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and endothelial growth factor receptors to relieve endothelial dysfunction, thereby improving intestinal barrier function. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and signal transducers was suppressed by HQD treatment and inflammation was inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: HQD may acts on UC via the regulation of targets and pathways related to improving the intestinal mucosal barrier and ameliorating endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, ERS1 may be a new target to explore the mechanisms of UC.

4.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566375

RESUMO

The hippocampus and amygdala are important structures in the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the exact relationship between these structures and stress or PTSD remains unclear. Moreover, they consist of several functionally distinct subfields/subregions that may serve different roles in the neuropathophysiology of PTSD. Here we present a subregional profile of the hippocampus and amygdala in 145 survivors of a major earthquake and 56 non-traumatized healthy controls (HCs). We found that the bilateral hippocampus and left amygdala were significantly smaller in survivors than in HCs, and there was no difference between survivors with (n = 69) and without PTSD (trauma-exposed controls [TCs], n = 76). Analyses revealed similar results in most subfields/subregions, except that the right hippocampal body (in a head-body-tail segmentation scheme), right presubiculum, and left amygdala medial nuclei (Me) were significantly larger in PTSD patients than in TCs but smaller than in HCs. Larger hippocampal body were associated with the time since trauma in PTSD patients. The volume of the right cortical nucleus (Co) was negatively correlated with the severity of symptoms in the PTSD group but positively correlated with the same measurement in the TC group. This correlation between symptom severity and Co volume was significantly different between the PTSD and TCs. Together, we demonstrated that generalized smaller volumes in the hippocampus and amygdala were more likely to be trauma-related than PTSD-specific, and their subfields/subregions were distinctively affected. Notably, larger left Me, right hippocampal body and presubiculum were PTSD-specific; these could be preexisting factors for PTSD or reflect rapid posttraumatic reshaping.

5.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(2): 1205-1215, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555531

RESUMO

Insulin contributes to atherosclerosis, but the potential mechanisms are kept unclear. In this study, insulin promoted proliferation of A7r5 cells. Microarray analysis indicated that insulin significantly changed 812 probe sets of genes, including 405 upregulated and 407 downregulated ones (fold change ≥ 1.5 or ≤ - 1.5; p < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were involved in a number of processes, including the regulation of cell proliferation/migration/cycle, apoptotic process, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, lipid metabolic process and extracellular matrix organization. Moreover, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis indicated that the genes were involved in biosynthesis of amino acids, fatty acid metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, metabolic pathways, regulation of autophagy, cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the PI3K-Akt, MAPK, mTOR and NF-κB signaling pathways. Additionally, insulin enhanced phosphorylation of MAPK kinase 1/2 and Akt, suggesting activation of the MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Inhibition of ERK1/2 reduced insulin-induced proliferation. This study revealed the proliferative effects of insulin and displayed global gene expression profile of A7r5 cells stimulated by insulin, suggesting new insight into the molecular pathogenesis of insulin promoting atherosclerosis.

6.
Front Med ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511554

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) causes great decrements in health and quality of life with increments in healthcare costs, but the causes and pathogenesis of depression remain largely unknown, which greatly prevent its early detection and effective treatment. With the advancement of neuroimaging approaches, numerous functional and structural alterations in the brain have been detected in MDD and more recently attempts have been made to apply these findings to clinical practice. In this review, we provide an updated summary of the progress in translational application of psychoradiological findings in MDD with a specified focus on potential clinical usage. The foreseeable clinical applications for different MRI modalities were introduced according to their role in disorder classification, subtyping, and prediction. While evidence of cerebral structural and functional changes associated with MDD classification and subtyping was heterogeneous and/or sparse, the ACC and hippocampus have been consistently suggested to be important biomarkers in predicting treatment selection and treatment response. These findings underlined the potential utility of brain biomarkers for clinical practice.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512508

RESUMO

Anxiety and depressive symptoms may predispose individuals to sleep disturbance. Understanding how these emotional symptoms affect sleep quality, especially the underlying neural basis, could support the development of effective treatment. The aims of the present study were therefore to investigate potential changes in brain morphometry associated with poor sleep quality and whether this structure played a mediating role between the emotional symptoms and sleep quality. 141 healthy adults (69 women, mean age 26.06 years, SD = 6.36 years) were recruited. A structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) investigation was performed and self-reported measures of anxiety, depressive symptoms and sleep quality obtained for each participant. Whole-brain regression analysis revealed that worse sleep quality was associated with thinner cortex in left Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS). Furthermore, the thickness of left STS mediated the association between the emotional symptoms and sleep quality. A subsequent commonality analysis showed that physiological component of the depressive symptoms had the greatest influence on sleep quality. In conclusion, thinner cortex in left STS may represent a neural substrate for the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality and may thus serve as a potential target for neuromodulatory treatment of sleep problems.

8.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 16(3): 334-344, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315100

RESUMO

The hippocampus, a key structure with distinct subfield functions, is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, few studies of hippocampus subfields in PTSD have focused on pediatric patients. We therefore investigated the hippocampal subfield volume using an automated segmentation method and explored the subfield-centered functional connectivity aberrations related to the anatomical changes, in a homogenous population of traumatized children with and without PTSD. To investigate the potential diagnostic value in individual patients, we used a machine learning approach to identify features with significant discriminative power for diagnosis of PTSD using random forest classifiers. Compared to controls, we found significant mean volume reductions of 8.4% and 9.7% in the right presubiculum and hippocampal tail in patients, respectively. These two subfields' volumes were the most significant contributors to group discrimination, with a mean classification accuracy of 69% and a specificity of 81%. These anatomical alterations, along with the altered functional connectivity between (pre)subiculum and inferior frontal gyrus, may underlie deficits in fear circuitry leading to dysfunction of fear extinction and episodic memory, causally important in post-traumatic symptoms such as hypervigilance and re-experience. For the first time, we suggest that hippocampal subfield volumes might be useful in discriminating traumatized children with and without PTSD.

9.
Brain Commun ; 2(2): fcaa113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215081

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has been identified to involve the impairment of large-scale functional networks within grey matter, and recent studies have suggested that white matter, which also encodes neural activity, can manifest intrinsic functional organization similar to that of grey matter. However, the alterations in white matter functional networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder remain unknown. We recruited a total of 99 children, including 66 drug-naive patients and 33 typically developing controls aged from 6 to 14, to characterize the alterations in functional networks within white matter in drug-naive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Using clustering analysis, resting-state functional MRI data in the white matter were parsed into different networks. Intrinsic activity within each network and connectivity between networks and the associations between network activity strength and clinical symptoms were assessed. We identified eight distinct white matter functional networks: the default mode network, the somatomotor network, the dorsal attention network, the ventral attention network, the visual network, the deep frontoparietal network, the deep frontal network and the inferior corticospinal-posterior cerebellum network. The default mode, somatomotor, dorsal attention and ventral attention networks showed lower spontaneous neural activity in patients. In particular, the default mode network and the somatomotor network largely showed higher connectivity with other networks, which correlated with more severe hyperactive behaviour, while the dorsal and ventral attention networks mainly had lower connectivity with other networks, which correlated with poor attention performance. In conclusion, there are two distinct patterns of white matter functional networks in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, with one being the hyperactivity-related hot networks including default mode network and somatomotor network and the other being inattention-related cold networks including dorsal attention and ventral attention network. These results extended upon our understanding of brain functional networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder from the perspective of white matter dysfunction.

10.
Br J Radiol ; : 20201030, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to explore the relationships between multiple chemokines with spirometry, inflammatory mediators and CT findings of emphysema, small airways disease and bronchial wall thickness. METHODS: All patients with COPD (n = 65) and healthy control subjects (n = 23) underwent high-resolution CT, with image analysis determining the low attenuation area (LAA), ratio of mean lung attenuation on expiratory and inspiratory scans (E/I MLD) and bronchial wall thickness of inner perimeter of a 10-mm diameter airway (Pi10). At enrollment, subjects underwent pulmonary function studies, chemokines and inflammatory mediators measurements. RESULTS: Multiple chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CX3CL1, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11 and CXCL12) and inflammatory mediators (MMP-9, MMP-12, IL-18 and neutrophil count) were markedly increased in the serum of COPD patients compared with healthy controls. There were associations between small airway disease (E/I MLD) and CCL11, CXCL8, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12 and CX3CL1. Especially CXCL8 and CX3CL1 are strongly associated with E/I MLD (r = 0.74, p < 0.001; r = 0.76, p < 0.001, respectively). CXCL8, CXCL12 and CX3CL1 were moderately positively correlated with emphysema (%LAA) (r = 0.49, p < 0.05; r = 0.51, p < 0.05; r = 0.54, p < 0.01, respectively). Bronchial wall thickness (Pi10)showed no significant differences between the COPD and healthy controls,,but there was an association between Pi10 and FEV1% in COPD patients (r=-0.420, p = 0.048). Our statistical results showed that there were not any associations between airway wall thickness (Pi10) and chemokines. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary chemokines levels are closely associated with the extent of gas trapping, small airways disease and emphysema identified on high-resolution chest CT scan. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study combines quantitative CT analysis with multiplex chemokines and inflammatory mediators to identify a new role of pathological changes in COPD.

11.
Neuroimage Clin ; 28: 102432, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987298

RESUMO

The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a key structure in the executive system, has consistently emerged as a crucial element in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the neural primacy of the DLPFC remains elusive in this disorder. We investigated the causal interaction (measured by effective connectivity) between the DLPFC and the remaining brain areas using bivariate Granger causality analysis of resting-state fMRI collected from 88 medication-free OCD patients and 88 matched healthy controls. Additionally, we conducted seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses to identify network-level neural functional alterations using the bilateral DLPFC as seeds. OCD patients demonstrated reduced FC between the right DLPFC and right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and activity in the right OFC had an inhibitory effect on the right DLPFC. Additionally, we observed alterations in both feedforward and reciprocal influences between the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and the DLPFC in patients. Furthermore, activity in the cerebellum had an excitatory influence on the right DLPFC in OCD patients. These findings may help to elucidate the psychopathology of OCD by detailing the directional connectivity between the DLPFC and the rest of the brain, ultimately helping to identify regions that could serve as treatment targets in OCD.

12.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 292, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a severe digestive system condition, characterized by chronic and relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huangqin, HQ) and Paeonia lactiflora Pall (Baishao, BS) from a typical herbal synergic pair in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for IBD treatments. However, the mechanisms of action for the synergy are still unclear. Therefore, this paper aimed to predict the anti-IBD targets and the main active ingredients of the HQ-BS herbal pair. METHODS: A systems pharmacology approach was used to identify the bioactive compounds and to delineate the molecular targets and potential pathways of HQ-BS herbal pair. Then, the characteristics of the candidates were analyzed according to their oral bioavailability and drug-likeness indices. Finally, gene enrichment analysis with DAVID Bioinformatics Resources was performed to identify the potential pathways associated with the candidate targets. RESULTS: The results showed that, a total of 38 active compounds were obtained from HQ-BS herbal pair, and 54 targets associated with IBD were identified. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis yielded the top 20 significant results with 54 targets. Furthermore, the integrated IBD pathway revealed that the HQ-BS herbal pair probably acted in patients with IBD through multiple mechanisms of regulation of the nitric oxide biosynthetic process and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, cell experiments were carried out to verify that the HQ-BS herbal pair and their Q-markers could attenuate the levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1-derived macrophage inflammation. In particular, the crude materials exerted a much better anti-inflammatory effect than their Q-markers, which might be due to their synergistic effect. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel insight into the molecular pathways involved in the mechanisms of the HQ-BS herbal pair acting on IBD.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22191, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957347

RESUMO

To investigate the role of previous cancer on overall survival in patients with bladder cancer (BCa) and to establish an effective prognostic tool for individualized overall survival prediction.A total of 78,660 patients diagnosed with BCa between 2000 and 2013 were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, among which 8915 patients had a history of other cancers. We compared the overall survival between patients with and without previous cancer after propensity score matching and we further established a nomogram for overall survival prediction.Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses were used to determine independent prognostic factors. The calibration curve and concordance index (C-index) were used to assess the accuracy of the nomogram. Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to compare survival outcomes.BCa patients with previous cancer had worse overall survival compared with those without previous cancer (HR = 1.37; 95%CI = 1.32-1.42, P < .001). Cancers in lung prior to BCa had the most adverse impact on overall survival (HR = 2.35; 95%CI = 2.10-2.63; P < .001), and the minimal impact was located in prostate (HR = 1.16; 95%CI = 1.10-1.22; P < .001) for male and in gynecological (HR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.02-1.30; P = .027) for female. The shorter interval time between 2 cancers and the higher stage of the previous cancer development, the higher risk of death. Age, race, sex, marital status, surgery, radiation, grade, stage, type of previous cancer as the independent prognostic factors were selected into the nomogram. The favorable calibration curve and C-index value (0.784, 95%CI = 0.782-0.786) indicated the nomogram could accurately predict the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rate of BCa patients.Previous cancer has a negative impact on the overall survival of BCa patients and requires more effective clinical management. The nomogram provides accurate survival prediction for BCa patients and might be helpful for clinical treatment selection and follow-up strategy adjustment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/mortalidade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nomogramas , Programa de SEER
14.
EBioMedicine ; 58: 102910, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of functional activation and cortical volume in brain regions involved in the neurobiology of fear and anxiety have been implicated in the pathophysiology of social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, few studies have performed separate measurements of cortical thickness (CT) and cortical surface area (CSA) which reflect different neurobiological processes. Thus, we aimed to explore the cortical morphological anomaly separately in SAD using FreeSurfer. METHODS: High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were obtained from 32 non-comorbid never-treated adult SAD patients and 32 demography-matched healthy controls. Cortical morphometry indices including CT and CSA were separately determined by FreeSurfer and compared between the two groups via whole-brain vertex-wise analysis, while partial correlation analysis using age and gender as covariates were conducted. FINDINGS: The patients with SAD showed decreased CT but increased CSA near-symmetrically in the bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the dorsolateral, dorsomedial, and ventromedial subdivisions, as well as the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex; increased CSA in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) was also observed in SAD. The CSA in the left PFC was negatively correlated with the disease duration. INTERPRETATION: As the balloon model hypothesis suggests that the tangentially stretched cortex may cause dissociations in cortical morphometry and affect the cortical capacity for information processing, our findings of dissociated morphological alterations in the PFC and cortical expansion in the STG may reflect the morphological alterations of the functional reorganization in those regions, and highlight the important role of those structures in the pathophysiology and neurobiology of SAD. FUNDING: This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31700964, 31800963, 81621003, and 81820108018).

16.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(10): 606-616, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721213

RESUMO

Objectives: Placebo response is one of the most significant barriers to detecting treatment effects in pediatric (and adult) clinical trials focusing on affective and anxiety disorders. We sought to identify neurofunctional predictors of placebo response in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by examining dynamic and static functional brain connectivity. Methods: Before randomization to blinded placebo, adolescents, aged 12-17 years, with GAD (N = 25) underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Whole brain voxelwise correlation analyses were used to determine the relationship between change in anxiety symptoms from baseline to week 8 and seed-based dynamic and static functional connectivity maps of regions in the salience and ventral attention networks (amygdala, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex [dACC], and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex [VLPFC]). Results: Greater dynamic functional connectivity variability in amygdala, dACC, VLPFC, and regions within salience, default mode, and frontoparietal networks was associated with greater placebo response. Lower static functional connectivity between amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, dACC and posterior cingulate cortex and greater static functional connectivity between VLPFC and inferior parietal lobule were associated with greater placebo response. Conclusion: Placebo response is associated with a distinct dynamic and static connectivity fingerprint characterized by "variable" dynamic but "weak" static connectivity in the salience, default mode, frontoparietal, and ventral attention networks. These data provide granular evidence of how circuit-based biotypes mechanistically relate to placebo response. Finding biosignatures that predict placebo response is critically important in clinical psychopharmacology and to improve our ability to detect medication-placebo differences in clinical trials.

17.
Eur J Radiol ; 126: 108962, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244066

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical benefits and complications of vesselplasty using the Mesh-Hold™ bone-filling container in the treatment of vertebral osteolytic fractures. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients with vertebral osteolytic pathological fractures treated by vesselplasty at Sichuan Cancer Hospital between 09/2014 and 01/2018. VAS1 (Visual analog scale) scores and ODI2 (Oswestry disability index) were recorded routinely 1 day preoperative, at 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperation, and at the last follow-up. V13 (The of bone cement injection volume) and V24 (vertebral body osteolytic volume) were evaluated, and the R5 (ratio) of bone cement filling was obtained according to the V1/V2. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients were included (105 segments with osteolytic fractures). The amount of bone cement for each vertebra was 2.4-5.2 ml (3.1 ± 0.7 ml). The ratio (R) of bone cement filling was not related to pain relief or functional recovery (all P > 0.05).The VAS scores and ODI at different time points after surgery were decreased compared with before surgery (all P < 0.05). The bone cement leakage rate was 16.2 % (17/105). The follow-up was 4-30 months (mean of 13 ± 6 months). Thirty patients had died by the last follow-up, all from their cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The Mesh-Hold™ bone-filling container in the treatment of vertebral fractures induced by osteolytic metastases could reduce pain, improve function, and reduce the bone cement leakage rate in the process of vesselplasty.


Assuntos
Cimentos para Ossos/uso terapêutico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/cirurgia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Telas Cirúrgicas , Vertebroplastia/instrumentação , Vertebroplastia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 45(5): 334-343, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293840

RESUMO

Background: The amygdala has been implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a common, disabling illness. However, the regional distribution of anatomic alterations in this structure and their association with the symptoms of OCD remains to be established. Methods: We collected high-resolution 3D T1-weighted images from 81 untreated patients with OCD and no lifetime history of comorbid psychotic, affective or anxiety disorders, and from 95 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We extracted the volume of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) and compared them across groups using FreeSurfer 6.0. In exploratory analyses, we evaluated other subnuclei, including the cortical medial nuclei, the anterior amygdaloid area, and the corticoamygdaloid transition area. Results: Patients with OCD had reduced amygdala volume bilaterally compared with healthy controls (left, p = 0.034; right, p = 0.002). Volume reductions were greater in the CeA (left: -11.9%, p = 0.002; right: -13.3%, p < 0.001) than in the BLA (left lateral nucleus: -3.3%, p = 0.029; right lateral nucleus: -3.9%, p = 0.018; right basal nucleus: -4.1%, p = 0.017; left accessory basal nucleus: -6.5%, p = 0.001; right accessory basal nucleus: -9.3%, p < 0.001). Volume reductions in the CeA were associated with illness duration. Exploratory analysis revealed smaller medial (left: -15.4%, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.101) and cortical (left: -9.1%, p = 0.001, η2 = 0.058; right: -15.4%, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.175) nuclei in patients with OCD compared with healthy controls. Limitations: Although the strict exclusion criteria used in the study helped us to identify OCD-specific alterations, they may have limited generalizability to the broader OCD population. Conclusion: Our results provide a comprehensive anatomic profile of alterations in the amygdala subnuclei in untreated patients with OCD and highlight a distinctive pattern of volume reductions across subnuclei in OCD. Based on the functional properties of the amygdala subnuclei established from preclinical research, CeA impairment may contribute to behavioural inflexibility, and BLA disruption may be responsible for altered fear conditioning and the affective components of OCD.

19.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 29(4): 549-557, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296566

RESUMO

The present work aimed to estimate the possible anti-fatigue effect and potential mechanism of Isochrysis galbana (IG) in mice. The anti-fatigue activity of IG (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) was elucidated by a weight-loaded forced swimming test, and the potential mechanism was explored by determination of fatigue-related biochemical parameters. The results showed that pretreatment with IG significantly extended the exhaustive swimming time and increased the levels of liver glycogen, muscle glycogen and blood glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, the increased levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood lactic acid, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and blood urea nitrogen by exhausted swimming, were dramatically attenuated by pretreatment with IG. Furthermore, supplementation with IG significantly enhanced the glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels, while attenuated the level of malonaldehyde. Taken together, IG possessed appreciable efficacy to alleviate fatigue, and the mechanism might be associated with favorably modulating the process of energy consumption, metabolism, and attenuating oxidative stress injury.

20.
Depress Anxiety ; 37(7): 620-631, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exploring white matter (WM) microstructural alterations is a momentous step for gaining insights about underlying mechanisms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and improving the efficacy of therapies for this condition. Many tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) studies have revealed abnormalities of fractional anisotropy (FA; an index of WM integrity) in OCD. However, research works have not drawn robust conclusions. Therefore, we integrated the findings of TBSS studies to identify the most consistent FA changes in OCD using meta-analytical approach. METHODS: Online databases were systematically searched for all TBSS studies comparing FA between patients with OCD and controls. A coordinate-based meta-analysis was performed using anisotropic effect size version of the seed-based d mapping software. Meanwhile, meta-regression was used to explore the potential association of clinical characteristics with regional FA abnormalities. RESULTS: Our meta-analysis included 488 OCD patients and 519 controls across 17 datasets. FA reductions were identified in the genu of the corpus callosum and the left orbitofrontal WM in OCD patients relative to controls. Metaregression analyses showed that the FA in the left orbitofrontal WM was negatively and independently correlated with symptom severity and illness duration in patients with OCD. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides a quantitative overview of TBSS findings in OCD and demonstrates the most prominent and replicable WM abnormalities in OCD are in the anterior part of the brain including interhemispheric connection and orbitofrontal region. Additionally, our findings suggest that FA reduction in the orbitofrontal WM might be a potential biomarker in predicting disease severity and progression in patients with OCD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Substância Branca , Anisotropia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Caloso , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...