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2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 250: 112519, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883475

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pogostemon cablin, commonly named "Guang-Huo-Xiang" in China, has long been renowned for its ability to dispel dampness and regulate gastrointestinal functions. Patchouli oil (P.oil), the major active fraction of Pogostemon cablin, has been traditionally used as the principal component of Chinese medicinal formulae to treat exterior syndrome and diarrhea. However, the effects of P.oil in treating 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis have not yet been reported. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the protective effects of P.oil against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis and the mechanisms underlying these effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with 5-FU (30 mg/kg) to establish an intestinal mucositis model. Meanwhile, rats with intestinal mucositis were orally administered with P.oil (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg). Histological analysis, ELISA (for detecting inflammatory cytokines and aquaporins), immunohistochemistry analysis (for examining caspases), qRT-PCR analysis (for assessment tight junctions), and western blotting analysis (for the assessment of TLR2/TLR4-MyD88 and VIP-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway-related proteins) were performed to estimate the protective effects of P.oil against intestinal mucositis and the mechanisms underlying these effects. RESULTS: The histopathological assessment preliminarily exhibited that P.oil alleviated the 5-FU-induced damage to the intestinal structure. After P.oil administration, the elevation of the expression of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-13) decreased markedly and the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling was significantly inhibited. P.oil also increased the mRNA expression of ZO-1 and Occludin, thereby stabilizing intestinal barrier. In addition, P.oil decreased the expressions of caspase-8, caspase-3, and Bax, and increased the expression of Bcl-2, thereby reducing the apoptosis of the intestinal mucosa. These results were closely related to the regulation of the TLR2/TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathway. It has been indicated that P.oil possibly protected the intestinal barrier by reducing inflammation and apoptosis. Furthermore, this study showed that P.oil inhibited the abnormal expression of AQP3, AQP7, and AQP11 by regulating the VIP-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. Furthermore, it restored the intestinal water absorption, thereby alleviating diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: P.oil ameliorated 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in rats via protecting intestinal barrier and regulating water transport.

3.
Pharmacol Res ; 152: 104603, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863867

RESUMO

Berberine (BBR), a naturally-occurring isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from several Chinese herbal medicines, has been widely used for the treatment of dysentery and colitis. However, its blood concentration was less than 1 %, and intestinal microflora-mediated metabolites of BBR were considered to be the important material basis for the bioactivities of BBR. Here, we investigated the anti-colitis activity and potential mechanism of oxyberberine (OBB), a novel gut microbiota metabolite of BBR, in DSS-induced colitis mice. Balb/C mice treated with 3 % DSS in drinking water to induce acute colitis were orally administrated with OBB once daily for 8 days. Clinical symptoms were analyzed, and biological samples were collected for microscopic, immune-inflammation, intestinal barrier function, and gut microbiota analysis. Results showed that OBB significantly attenuated DSS-induced clinical manifestations, colon shortening and histological injury in the mice with colitis, which achieved similar therapeutic effect to azathioprine (AZA) and was superior to BBR. Furthermore, OBB remarkably ameliorated colonic inflammatory response and intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. OBB appreciably inhibited TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway through down-regulating the protein expressions of TLR4 and MyD88, inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα, and the translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. Moreover, OBB markedly modulated the gut dysbiosis induced by DSS and restored the dysbacteria to normal level. Taken together, the result for the first time revealed that OBB effectively improved DSS-induced experimental colitis, at least partly through maintaining the colonic integrity, inhibiting inflammation response, and modulating gut microflora profile.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836827

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

5.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroanatomical abnormalities in first-episode psychosis (FEP) tend to be subtle and widespread. The vast majority of previous studies have used small samples, and therefore may have been underpowered. In addition, most studies have examined participants at a single research site, and therefore the results may be specific to the local sample investigated. Consequently, the findings reported in the existing literature are highly heterogeneous. This study aimed to overcome these issues by testing for neuroanatomical abnormalities in individuals with FEP that are expressed consistently across several independent samples. METHODS: Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging data were acquired from a total of 572 FEP and 502 age and gender comparable healthy controls at five sites. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate differences in grey matter volume (GMV) between the two groups. Statistical inferences were made at p < 0.05 after family-wise error correction for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: FEP showed a widespread pattern of decreased GMV in fronto-temporal, insular and occipital regions bilaterally; these decreases were not dependent on anti-psychotic medication. The region with the most pronounced decrease - gyrus rectus - was negatively correlated with the severity of positive and negative symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a consistent pattern of fronto-temporal, insular and occipital abnormalities in five independent FEP samples; furthermore, the extent of these alterations is dependent on the severity of symptoms and duration of illness. This provides evidence for reliable neuroanatomical alternations in FEP, expressed above and beyond site-related differences in anti-psychotic medication, scanning parameters and recruitment criteria.

6.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 45(1): 190024, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765114

RESUMO

Background: The specific role of the corticospinal tract with respect to inattention and impulsive symptoms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been explored in the past. However, to our knowledge, no study has identified the exact regions of the corticospinal tract that are affected in ADHD. We aimed to determine comprehensive alterations in the white matter microstructure of the corticospinal tract and underlying neuropsychological substrates in ADHD. Methods: We recruited 38 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 34 typically developing controls. We employed a tract-based quantitative approach to measure diffusion parameters along the trajectory of the corticospinal tract, and we further correlated alterations with attention and response inhibition measures. Results: Compared with controls, children with ADHD demonstrated significantly lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity at the level of cerebral peduncle, and higher fractional anisotropy at the level of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in the right corticospinal tract only. As well, increased fractional anisotropy in the posterior limb of the internal capsule was negatively correlated with continuous performance test attention quotients and positively correlated with reaction time on the Stroop Colour­Word Test; increased radial diffusivity in the right peduncle region was positively correlated with omissions in the Stroop test. Limitations: The sample size was relatively small. Moreover, we did not consider the different subtypes of ADHD and lacked sufficient power to analyze subgroup differences. Higher-order diffusion modelling is needed in future white matter studies. Conclusion: We demonstrated specific changes in the right corticospinal tract in children with ADHD. Correlations with measures of attention and response inhibition underscored the functional importance of corticospinal tract disturbance in ADHD.

7.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 102040, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subcortical nuclei are important components in the pathology model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and subregions of these structures subserve different functions that may distinctively contribute to OCD symptoms. Exploration of the subregional-level profile of structural abnormalities of these nuclei is needed to develop a better understanding of the neural mechanism of OCD. METHODS: A total of 83 medication-free, non-comorbid OCD patients and 93 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited, and high-resolution T1-weighted MR images were obtained for all participants. The volume and shape of the subcortical nuclei (including the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, pallidum, putamen and thalamus) were quantified and compared with an automated parcellation approach and vertex-wise shape analysis using FSL-FIRST software. Sex differences in these measurements were also explored with an exploratory subgroup analysis. RESULTS: Volumetric analysis showed no significant differences between patients and healthy control subjects. Relative to healthy control subjects, the OCD patients showed an expansion of the lateral amygdala (right hemisphere) and right pallidum. These deformities were associated with illness duration and symptom severity of OCD. Exploratory subgroup analysis by sex revealed amygdala deformity in male patients and caudate deformity in female patients. CONCLUSIONS: The lateral amygdala and the dorsal pallidum were associated with OCD. Neuroanatomic evidence of sexual dimorphism was also found in OCD. Our study not only provides deeper insight into how these structures contribute to OCD symptoms by revealing these subregional-level deformities but also suggests that gender effects may be important in OCD studies.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694045

RESUMO

Alterations in cortical thickness have been identified in major depressive disorder (MDD), but findings have been variable and inconsistent. To date, no reliable tools have been available for the meta-analysis of surface-based morphometric (SBM) studies to effectively characterize what has been learned in previous studies, and drug treatments may have differentially impacted findings. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies that explored cortical thickness in medication-free patients with MDD, using a newly developed meta-analytic mask compatible with seed-based d mapping (SDM) meta-analytic software. We performed the meta-regression to explore the effects of demographics and clinical characteristics on variation in cortical thickness in MDD. Fifteen studies describing 529 patients and 586 healthy controls (HCs) were included. Medication-free patients with MDD, relative to HCs, showed a complex pattern of increased cortical thickness in some areas (posterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex) and decreased cortical thickness in others (gyrus rectus, orbital segment of the superior frontal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus). Most findings in the whole sample analysis were confirmed in a meta-analysis of studies recruiting medication-naive patients. Using the new mask specifically developed for SBM studies, this SDM meta-analysis provides evidence for regional cortical thickness alterations in MDD, mainly involving increased cortical thickness in the default mode network and decreased cortical thickness in the orbitofrontal and temporal cortex.

9.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737978

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with both structural and functional brain abnormalities. In the past few years, there has been growing interest in the application of machine learning techniques to neuroimaging data for the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of this disorder. However, the vast majority of studies published so far have used either structural or functional neuroimaging data, without accounting for the multimodal nature of the disorder. Structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from a total of 295 patients with schizophrenia and 452 healthy controls at five research centers. We extracted features from the data including gray matter volume, white matter volume, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, regional homogeneity and two connectome-wide based metrics: structural covariance matrices and functional connectivity matrices. A support vector machine classifier was trained on each dataset separately to distinguish the subjects at individual level using each of the single feature as well as their combination, and 10-fold cross-validation was used to assess the performance of the model. Functional data allow higher accuracy of classification than structural data (mean 82.75% vs. 75.84%). Within each modality, the combination of images and matrices improves performance, resulting in mean accuracies of 81.63% for structural data and 87.59% for functional data. The use of all combined structural and functional measures allows the highest accuracy of classification (90.83%). We conclude that combining multimodal measures within a single model is a promising direction for developing biologically informed diagnostic tools in schizophrenia.

10.
Exp Ther Med ; 18(5): 3877-3884, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616514

RESUMO

The present study aimed to compare the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of resting-state brain function between subjects with strabismic amblyopia and normal controls. A total of 12 adult patients with strabismic amblyopia and 34 age- and gender-matched normal controls were enrolled in the present study. All patients were subjected to resting-state magnetic resonance imaging using a Siemens Trio 3.0T magnetic resonance scanner. ReHo values of the whole brain were calculated and standardized. An independent-samples t-test was used to analyze the differences in ReHo values between the two groups. Patients with strabismic amblyopia exhibited reduced ReHo values in certain parts of the occipital lobe, including the lingual gyrus, cuneus and superior occipital gyrus. Increased ReHo values were observed in the precuneus and certain parts of the prefrontal cortex of patients with strabismic amblyopia, including the superior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. The ReHo index of the precuneus was negatively correlated with age. However, there was no correlation between the ReHo values and the visual acuity of patients with strabismic amblyopia. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that the greatest area under curve (AUC) value was in the medial prefrontal cortex (AUC=0.864). The results of the present study suggested that visual information processing may be impaired in visual areas V1 and V2. Furthermore, adult patients with strabismic amblyopia exhibited brain plasticity that compensated for visuomotor coordination and visuospatial imagery deficits.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 1134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632274

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic hepatic disorder worldwide. The earliest stage of NAFLD is simple steatosis, which is characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes. Inhibition of steatosis is a potential treatment for NAFLD. Patchouli alcohol (PA) is an active component of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Labiatae), which is a medicinal food in Asia countries and proved to possess hepatoprotective effect. This research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of PA against high fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in rats. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a HFD for 4 weeks to induce NAFLD. Oral administration with PA significantly reduced pathological severity of steatosis in HFD-fed rats. It was associated with suppressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and regulating very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism. Our data showed that PA treatment effectively attenuated ER stress by inhibiting the activation of protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Moreover, PA decreased hepatic VLDL uptake by suppressing very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) expression. It also restored VLDL synthesis and export by increasing apolipoprotein B100 (apoB 100) secretion and microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein (MTP) activity. Taken together, PA exerted a protective effect on the treatment of NAFLD in HFD-fed rats and may be potential therapeutic agent acting on hepatic steatosis.

12.
Psychol Med ; 49(15): 2475-2485, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500674

RESUMO

Altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) has been noted in large-scale functional networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, identifying consistent abnormalities of functional networks is difficult due to varied methods and results across studies. To integrate rsFC alterations and search for coherent patterns of intrinsic functional network impairments in ADHD, this research conducts a coordinate-based meta-analysis of voxel-wise seed-based rsFC studies comparing rsFC between ADHD patients and healthy controls. A total of 25 datasets from 21 studies including 700 ADHD patients and 580 controls were analyzed. We extracted the coordinates of seeds and between-group effects. Each seed was then categorized into a seed-network by its location within priori 7-network parcellations. Then, pooled meta-analyses were conducted for the default mode network (DMN), frontoparietal network (FPN) and affective network (AN) separately, but not for the ventral attention network (VAN), dorsal attention network (DAN), somatosensory network (SSN) and visual network due to a lack of primary studies. The results showed that ADHD was characterized by hyperconnectivity between the FPN and regions of the DMN and AN as well as hypoconnectivity between the FPN and regions of the VAN and SSN. These findings not only support the triple-network model of pathophysiology associated with ADHD but also extend this model by highlighting the involvement of the SSN and AN in the mechanisms of network interactions that may account for motor hyperactivity and impulsive symptoms.

13.
Data Brief ; 25: 104322, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453297

RESUMO

This data article provided additional data related to the research article entitled "Brain structural abnormalities in emotional regulation and sensory processing regions associated with anxious depression" Peng et al.,2019. Correlation analyses were conducted for clinical information (HAMD total, anxiety/somatization scores, HAMA total and illness duration) and identified regional gray matter volumes in all patients with anxious depression and non-anxious depression. More detailed correlation analysis was applied for each item of anxiety factor and reginal gray matter volumes to find which items were more associated with structural alterations in patients. Data showed that mean values of regional gray matter volumes in left postcentral gyrus (PCG) were positively associated with HAMD total and anxiety factor scores in anxious depression group. More detailed correlation analysis considering each item of anxiety factor revealed that, item 10 (psychic anxiety) and Item15 (hypochondriasis) were most significantly and positively associated with regional gray matter volumes in left PCG in anxious group. While HAMA scores and illness duration showed no significant correlation with any regional gray matter volume in both patient groups. Sample size matched groups were selected to explore possible replicability of imaging results. It revealed that different gray matter volumes in right inferior frontal gyrus were most robust findings among three groups. And anxious group had larger gray matter volumes in left PCG than non-anxious depression, despite of not survived after multiple comparisons corrections.

14.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(16): 4801-4812, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365184

RESUMO

Recently, graph theoretical approaches applied to neuroimaging data have advanced understanding of the human brain connectome and its abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about the topological organization of brain white matter networks in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-six patients with PTSD and 76 age, gender, and years of education-matched trauma-exposed controls were studied after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake using diffusion tensor imaging and graph theoretical approaches. Topological properties of brain networks including global and nodal measurements and modularity were analyzed. At the global level, patients showed lower clustering coefficient (p = .016) and normalized characteristic path length (p = .035) compared with controls. At the nodal level, increased nodal centralities in left middle frontal gyrus, superior and inferior temporal gyrus and right inferior occipital gyrus were observed (p < .05, corrected for false-discovery rate). Modularity analysis revealed that PTSD patients had significantly increased inter-modular connections in the fronto-parietal module, fronto-striato-temporal module, and visual and default mode modules. These findings indicate a PTSD-related shift of white matter network topology toward randomization. This pattern was characterized by an increased global network integration, reflected by increased inter-modular connections with increased nodal centralities involving fronto-temporo-occipital regions. This study suggests that extremely stressful life experiences, when they lead to PTSD, are associated with large-scale brain white matter network topological reconfiguration at global, nodal, and modular levels.

15.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies using resting-state functional neuroimaging have revealed alterations in whole-brain images, connectome-wide functional connectivity and graph-based metrics in groups of patients with schizophrenia relative to groups of healthy controls. However, it is unclear which of these measures best captures the neural correlates of this disorder at the level of the individual patient. METHODS: Here we investigated the relative diagnostic value of these measures. A total of 295 patients with schizophrenia and 452 healthy controls were investigated using resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging at five research centres. Connectome-wide functional networks were constructed by thresholding correlation matrices of 90 brain regions, and their topological properties were analyzed using graph theory-based methods. Single-subject classification was performed using three machine learning (ML) approaches associated with varying degrees of complexity and abstraction, namely logistic regression, support vector machine and deep learning technology. RESULTS: Connectome-wide functional connectivity allowed single-subject classification of patients and controls with higher accuracy (average: 81%) than both whole-brain images (average: 53%) and graph-based metrics (average: 69%). Classification based on connectome-wide functional connectivity was driven by a distributed bilateral network including the thalamus and temporal regions. CONCLUSION: These results were replicated across the three employed ML approaches. Connectome-wide functional connectivity permits differentiation of patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls at single-subject level with greater accuracy; this pattern of results is consistent with the 'dysconnectivity hypothesis' of schizophrenia, which states that the neural basis of the disorder is best understood in terms of system-level functional connectivity alterations.

16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 210, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies have revealed intrinsic regional activity alterations in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but those results were based on group analyses, which limits their applicability to clinical diagnosis and treatment at the level of the individual. METHODS: We examined fractional amplitude low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and applied support vector machine (SVM) to discriminate OCD patients from healthy controls on the basis of rs-fMRI data. Values of fALFF, calculated from 68 drug-naive OCD patients and 68 demographically matched healthy controls, served as input features for the classification procedure. RESULTS: The classifier achieved 72% accuracy (p ≤ 0.001). This discrimination was based on regions that included the left superior temporal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, the left supramarginal gyrus and the superior parietal lobule. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that OCD-related abnormalities in temporal and parietal lobe activation have predictive power for group membership; furthermore, the findings suggest that machine learning techniques can be used to aid in the identification of individuals with OCD in clinical diagnosis.

17.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(17): 4877-4887, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361385

RESUMO

Neuroimaging studies have revealed functional brain network abnormalities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the results have been inconsistent, potentially related to confounding medication effects. Furthermore, specific topological alterations in functional networks and their role in behavioral inhibition dysfunction remain to be established. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 51 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 55 age-matched healthy controls. Brain functional networks were constructed by thresholding the partial correlation matrices of 90 brain regions, and graph theory was used to analyze network topological properties. The Stroop test was used to assess cognitive inhibitory abilities. Nonparametric permutation tests were used to compare the topological architectures in the two groups. Compared with healthy subjects, brain networks in ADHD patients demonstrated altered topological characteristics, including lower global (FDR q = 0.01) and local efficiency (p = 0.032, uncorrected) and a longer path length (FDR q = 0.01). Lower nodal efficiencies were found in the left inferior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex in the ADHD group (FDR both q < 0.05). Altered global and nodal topological efficiencies were associated with the severity of inhibitory cognitive control deficits and hyperactivity symptoms in ADHD (p <0 .05). Alterations in network topologies in drug-naïve ADHD patients indicate weaker small-worldization with decreased segregation and integration of functional brain networks. Deficits in the cingulo-fronto-parietal attention network were associated with inhibitory control deficits.

18.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1101): 20181000, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170803

RESUMO

Psychoradiology is an emerging field that applies radiological imaging technologies to psychiatric conditions. In the past three decades, brain imaging techniques have rapidly advanced understanding of illness and treatment effects in psychiatry. Based on these advances, radiologists have become increasingly interested in applying these advances for differential diagnosis and individualized patient care selection for common psychiatric illnesses. This shift from research to clinical practice represents the beginning evolution of psychoradiology. In this review, we provide a summary of recent progress relevant to this field based on their clinical functions, namely the (1) classification and subtyping; (2) prediction and monitoring of treatment outcomes; and (3) treatment selection. In addition, we provide guidelines for the practice of psychoradiology in clinical settings and suggestions for future research to validate broader clinical applications. Given the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the importance of increased participation of radiologists in this field, a guide regarding advances in this field and a description of relevant clinical work flow patterns help radiologists contribute to this fast-evolving field.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Psiquiatria/métodos , Humanos
19.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(14): 4105-4113, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188536

RESUMO

In this study, we sought to identify alterations of hippocampal shape and subfield volumes in a relatively large sample of medication-free obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients without comorbid depression. 3D T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans were collected from 81 medication-free OCD patients and 95 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Total hippocampal volume and volume of eight bilateral subfields were measured using FreeSurfer software. Subregional shape deformity was examined via FSL software. Volumetric and shape differences between groups and correlations with OCD symptoms were examined. The volume of right hippocampus was significantly reduced in OCD patients (p = .001, η2 = 0.065). Follow-up analysis of right hemisphere subfields showed reduced volume in right subiculum (p < .001, η2 = 0.081), presubiculum (p < .001, η2 = 0.125), CA2/3 (p = .001, η2 = 0.06), and hippocampal tail (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.105), while the volume of right fimbria was increased (p = .001, η2 = 0.058). Shape analysis revealed a bilateral outward bending in the hippocampal body related to a lateral displacement of hippocampus from the body to the tail. Symptom severity was correlated with volumes of presubiculum (with compulsions, r = -0.25, p = .024) and fimbria (with obsessions, r = -0.28, p = .012), and with the lateral shift of middle and posterior hippocampus (with obsessions). Alterations across hippocampal subfields and overall shape may contribute to the distinctive cognitive and affective abnormalities associated with OCD.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considerable patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) comorbid with anxious symptoms, referred as anxious depression. The neural structural basis of this MDD specifier remains largely unknown. METHODS: 104 patients with anxious depression, 57 MDD patients without significant anxious symptoms, and 160 healthy controls from single research center participated in the study with age and sex well-matched. We investigated gray matter alterations in anxious and non-anxious depression, explored different brain alterations between these two patient groups, and possible relationships between brain structural parameter and clinical information in patients. RESULTS: Gray matter volumes differed in the right inferior frontal gyrus, right orbital frontal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, bilateral culmen and left cuneus among the three groups. Anxious depression had smaller gray matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus and orbital frontal gyrus relative to both non-anxious depression and healthy controls. Patients with anxious depression presented larger gray matter volumes in the left postcentral gyrus than non-anxious depression, and larger gray matter volumes in the left cuneus than healthy controls. In addition, both patient groups showed larger gray matter volumes in bilateral culmen relative to healthy controls. Gray matter volumes in the left postcentral gyrus were positively associated with overall depression severity and anxiety factor scores in anxious depression. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed brain structural abnormalities in emotional regulation and sensory processing regions of anxious depression, which may suggested distinct neurobiological mechanisms of this MDD specifier and could help explain different clinical manifestations in anxious depression from pure depression.

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