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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601870

RESUMO

Heterojunction nanostructures usually exhibit enhanced properties in compariosn with their building blocks and are promising catalyst candidates due to their combined surface and unique interface. Here, for the first time we realized the oriented growth of ultrasmall metal nanoparticles (NPs) on metal-organic framework nanosheets (MOF NSs) by precisely regulating the reduction kinetics of metal ions with solvents. In particular, a rapid reduction of metal ions leads to the random distribution of metal NPs on the surface of MOF NSs, while a slow reduction of metal ions results in the oriented growth of NPs on the edge of MOF NSs. Impressively, the strong synergy between Pt NPs and MOF NSs significantly enhances the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) performance, and the optimal catalyst displays HER activities superior to those of a composite with a random growth of Pt NPs and commercial Pt/C under both acidic and alkaline conditions. Moreover, the versatility of such oriented growth has been extended to other metal NPs, such as Pd, Ag, and Au. We believe this work will promote research interest in material design for many potential applications.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2105308, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610648

RESUMO

To improve the electroactivity and stability of electrocatalysts, various modulation strategies have been applied in nanocatalysts. Among different methods, heteroatom doping has been considered as an effective method, which modifies the local bonding environments and the electronic structures. Meanwhile, the design of novel two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures also offers new opportunities for achieving efficient electrocatalysts. In this work, Mn-doped ultrathin Ru nanosheet branches (RuMn NSBs), a newly reported 2D nanostructure, is synthesized. With the ultrathin and naturally abundant edges, the RuMn NSBs have exhibited bifunctionalities of hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction with high electroactivity and durability in different electrolytes. Experimental characterizations have revealed that RuO bonds are shortened due to Mn doping, which is the key factor that leads to improved electrochemical performances. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have confirmed that the introduction of Mn enables flexible modulations on the valence states of Ru sites. The inversed redox state evolutions of Ru and Mn sites not only improve the electroactivity for the water splitting but also the long-term stability due to the pinning effect of Ru sites. This work has provided important inspirations for the design of future advanced Ru-based electrocatalysts with high performances and durability.

3.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112293, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474844

RESUMO

Due to increased requirements for precision cancer treatment, cancer chemotherapy and combination therapies have gradually developed in the direction of diagnosis and treatment integration. In this study, a non-toxic nano carrier that demonstrates integrated MRI signal enhancing performance, as well as better chemotherapy and photothermal conversion performance, was prepared and characterized. Furthermore, the carrier was used to construct an integrated system of tumor diagnosis and treatment. Our in vitro studies showed that this system has a considerable inhibition effect on tumor cells during the treatment of chemotherapy when combined with PTT, and in vivo studies showed that the system could improve the MRI signal of the tumor site with application of a safe dosage. Thus, this system based on NGO/USPIO has the potential to be a multi-functional nano drug delivery system integrating diagnosis and treatment benefits and applications that are worthy of further research.


Assuntos
Grafite , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Neoplasias , Dextranos , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Óxidos
4.
Adv Mater ; : e2105049, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510587

RESUMO

Breaking the bottleneck of hydrogen oxidation/evolution reactions (HOR/HER) in alkaline media is of tremendous importance for the development of anion exchange membrane fuel cells/water electrolyzers. Atomically dispersed active sites are known to exhibit excellent activity and selectivity toward diverse catalytic reactions. Here, a class of unique Rh2 Sb nanocrystals with multiple nanobranches (denoted as Rh2 Sb NBs) and atomically dispersed Rh sites are reported as promising electrocatalysts for alkaline HOR/HER. Rh2 Sb NBs/C exhibits superior HER performance with a low overpotential and a small Tafel slope, outperforming both Rh NBs/C and commercial Pt/C. Significantly, Rh2 Sb NBs show outstanding HOR performance of which the HOR specific activity and mass activity are about 9.9 and 10.1 times to those of Rh NBs/C, and about 4.2 and 3.7 times to those of Pt/C, respectively. Strikingly, Rh2 Sb NBs can also exhibit excellent CO tolerance during HOR, whose activity can be largely maintained even at 100 ppm CO impurity. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the unsaturated Rh sites on Rh2 Sb NBs surface are crucial for the enhanced alkaline HER and HOR activities. This work provides a unique catalyst design for efficient hydrogen electrocatalysis, which is critical for the development of alkaline fuel cells and beyond.

5.
Small ; : e2103798, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549505

RESUMO

The development of palladium-based catalysts for alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is highly desired for renewable hydrogen energy systems, yet still challenging due to the strong palladium-hydrogen bond. Herein, the bottleneck is largely overcome by constructing a nitridation-induced compressively strained-interface N-doped palladium/amorphous cobalt (II) interface (N-Pd/A-Co(II)), which dramatically boosts HER performance in alkaline condition. The optimized catalyst with the compressive strain of 2.7% exhibits the higher activity with an overpotential of only 58 mV to achieve the current density of 10 mA cm-2 , much better than those of pure Pd (327 mV), and the state-of-art Pt/C (78 mV). Notably, it also shows excellent stability with negligible decline during a 30 h stability test. Detailed analyses reveal that the strong absorption of Hads on Pd can be efficiently reduced via the compressively strained N-doped Pd. And the amorphous Co(II) component accelerates the water dissociation. Consequently, the cooperative effect between the compressed N-doped Pd and amorphous Co(II) creates the impressive HER performance in alkaline condition, highlighting the importance of the functional interface to develop efficient electrocatalysts for HER and beyond.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148220, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380245

RESUMO

With changing numbers, compositions, emission standards and fuel quality of on-road vehicles, it is imperative to accordingly characterize and update vehicular emissions of carbonaceous aerosols for better understanding their health and climatic effects. In this study, a 7-day field campaign was conducted in 2019 in a busy urban tunnel (>30,000 vehicles day-1) in south China with filter-based aerosol samples collected every 2 h at both the inlet and the outlet for measuring carbonaceous aerosols and their light absorbing properties. Observed fleet average emission factor (EF) of total carbon (TC) was 13.4 ± 8.3 mg veh-1 km-1, and 17.4 ± 11.3 mg veh-1 km-1 if electric and LPG-driven vehicles were excluded; and fleet average EF of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) was 8.5 ± 6.6 and 4.9 ± 2.6 mg veh-1 km-1 (11.0 ± 8.8 and 6.3 ± 3.6 mg veh-1 km-1 if excluding electric and LPG vehicles), respectively. Regression analysis revealed an average TC-EF of 319.8 mg veh-1 km-1 for diesel vehicles and 2.1 mg veh-1 km-1 for gasoline vehicles, and although diesel vehicles only shared ~4% in the fleet compositions, they still dominate on-road vehicular carbonaceous aerosol emissions due to their over 150 times higher average TC-EF than gasoline vehicles. Filter-based light absorption measurement demonstrated that on average brown carbon (BrC) could account for 19.1% of the total carbonaceous light absorption at 405 nm, and the average mass absorption efficiency of EC at 635 nm and that of OC at 405 nm were 5.2 m2 g-1 C and 1.0 m2 g-1 C, respectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 754, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disseminated nocardiosis is liable to be misdiagnosed owing to the non-specific clinical manifestations and laboratory/imaging findings. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is a culture-independent and rapid method for direct identification of all microorganisms in clinical specimens. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old man was admitted to our hospital on February 20, 2019 with a history of recurrent cough, expectoration, fever, and diarrhea since 1 month, and unconsciousness since 1 week. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of head showed multiple lesions in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres, brainstem, and cerebellar hemispheres. The presumptive diagnosis was disseminated tuberculosis, although all tests for mycobacterium were negative. However, the patient did not benefit from antituberculosis treatment. Repeat MRI showed multiple abnormal signals in the brain and progression of meningeal thickening. Cerebrospinal fluid and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens were subsequently sent for PMSeq metagenomics sequencing; the results indicated Nocardia. farcinica as the predominant pathogen. The anti-TB treatment was stopped and the patient was prescribed sulphamethoxazole in combination with linezolid and meropenem for nocardiosis. He showed gradual neurological improvement and was transferred to Huashan Hospital. He was discharged from the hospital on April 19, 2019, but died of persistent diarrhea on May 26, 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with suspected nocardiosis do not always respond to conventional treatment; therefore, mNGS can facilitate diagnosis and timely treatment decision-making.


Assuntos
Nocardiose , Nocardia , Tuberculose , Idoso , Erros de Diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Nocardia/genética , Nocardiose/diagnóstico , Nocardiose/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319751

RESUMO

Developing a large-scale method to produce platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is highly desirable to propel the commercialization of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Here, we successfully report the large-scale production of surfactant-free ruthenium-doped Pt-cobalt octahedra grown on carbon (Ru-Pt3Co/C), which display a much higher ORR activity and stability and MEA stability than Pt3Co/C and Pt/C. Significantly, the in-situ X-ray absorption fine structure result reveals that Ru can drive the reduced Pt atoms to reverse to their initial state after the ORR by transferring a redundant electron from Pt to Ru, preventing the over-reduction of Pt active sites and boosting the chemical stability. Theory investigations further confirm that the doped Ru can accelerate the breach and desorption of oxygen intermediates, making it active and durable for the ORR. The present work sheds light on the exploration of a large-scale strategy for producing advanced Pt-based nanocatalysts, which may offer significant advantages for practical fuel cell applications in the future.

9.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191534

RESUMO

Streptomyces sp. strain A2-16 was recently isolated from potato root zone soil and it could inhibit the hyphal growth of Phytophthora infestans. The A2-16 genome consisted of one chromosome of 9,765,518 bp and one plasmid of 30,948 bp with a GC content of 70.88% and 68.39%, respectively. A total of 8,518 predicted coding genes, 3 ncRNA,73 tRNA,18 rRNA genes and 28 secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters were identified. The products of the gene clusters included bioactive polyketides, terpenes, and siderophores, which might contribute to host plants against disease. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value (82.88-91.41%) among the genome of A2-16 and other Streptomyces species suggested it might not belong to any previously sequenced species in the Streptomyces genus.

10.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061555

RESUMO

Platinum (Pt) catalysts play a key role in energy conversion and storage processes, but the realization of further performance enhancement remains challenging. Herein, we report a new class of Pt superstructures (SSs) with surface distortion engineering by electrochemical leaching of PtTex SSs that can largely boost the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR), and the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In particular, the high-distortion (H)-Pt SSs achieve a mass activity of 2.24 A mg-1 at 0.90 VRHE for the ORR and 2.89 A mg-1 for the MOR as well as a low overpotential of 25.3 mV at 10 mA cm-2 for the HER. Moreover, the distorted surface features of Pt SSs can be preserved by mitigating the detrimental effects of agglomeration/degradation during long-time electrocatalysis. A multiscale modeling demonstrates that surface compressions, defects, and nanopores act in synergy for the enhanced ORR performance. This work highlights the advances of stable superstructure and distortion engineering for realizing high-performance Pt nanostructures.

11.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(3): 805-811, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the tripartite motif containing 31 (TRIM31) gene silencing on the proliferation and apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells and its possible mechanism. METHODS: The normal bone marrow plasma cells (nPCs) were selected as control, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of TRIM31 in human multiple myeloma cell lines (U266, RPMI-8226, NCI-H929 and KMS-11) were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot. Recombinant lentivirol vector containing shRNA-TRIM31 and its negative control were used to infect U266 cells respectively, and the mRNA expression level of TRIM31 in infected cells was detected by RT-qPCR. Then cell proliferation, colony forming and apoptosis were analyzed by CCK-8, soft agar assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. The protein expression levels of TRIM31, cleaved-caspase-3, BCL-2, Bax, p-Akt (Ser473), Akt and PI3K (p110α) were evaluated by Western blot. In addition, the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway-specific inhibitor LY294002 and TRIM31-shRNA lentivirus were used to interfere with U266 cells, and the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and protein expression of p-Akt (Ser473) and Akt were detected by CCK-8, flow cytometry and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with nPCs, the expression levels of TRIM31 mRNA and protein in U266, RPMI-8226, NCI-H929 and KMS-11 cells were significantly increased (P<0.001), especially in U266 cells. After lentivirus infection, the levels of TRIM31 mRNA and protein in U266 cells were significantly decreased (P<0.001). TRIM31 silencing significantly inhibited the proliferation of U266 cells (P<0.05), attenuated the ability of cell cloning, improved cell apoptosis, up-regulated the protein expressions of cleaved-caspase-3 and Bas as well as down-regulated expressions of BCL-2, p-Akt (Ser473) and PI3K (p110α). There was no significant effect on Akt protein. Intervention of LY294002 significantly enhanced the inhibition on cell proliferation and the promotion on apoptosis mediated by TRIM31 gene silencing in U266 cells. CONCLUSION: TRIM31 gene silencing can inhibit U266 cell proliferation and promote its apoptosis, which may be closely related to inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
12.
Biochem Genet ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132956

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is a common cancer affecting women with high morbidity and mortality globally. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been found play vital roles in multifarious cancers, including OC. This study aims to explore the biological role and underlying mechanism of circ_0072995 in OC progression. Circ_0072995 was upregulated in OC tissues and cells in a stable structure. Functional experiments indicated that circ_0072995 knockdown suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion and accelerated cell apoptosis of OC cells. Mechanistically, miR-122-5p was a direct target of circ_0072995, and its knockdown reversed the effects of circ_0072995 silence on inhibition of OC cell progression. Meanwhile, SLC1A5 was a downstream target gene of miR-122-5p, and miR-122-5p overexpression inhibited the progression of OC cells by targeting SLC1A5. Moreover, circ_0072995 positively regulated SLC1A5 expression via sponging miR-122-5p. Circ_0072995 could play oncogenic role in tumorigenesis and malignant development of OC by regulating miR-122-5p/SLC1A5 axis, providing a novel approach for OC treatment.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050593

RESUMO

Over the past decades, despite the substantial efforts that have been devoted to the modifications of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) to tailor their selectivities for hydrogenation reactions, there are still a lack of facile strategies for precisely regulation of the surface properties of NPs, especially for those with small sizes. In this work, we propose a top-down thermal annealing strategy for tuning the surface properties of Pt-based NPs (≈4 nm) without the occurrence of aggregation. Compared to conventional bottom-up methods, the present top-down strategy can precisely regulate the surface compositions of Pt-Cd NPs and other ternary Pt-Cd-M NPs (M=Fe, Ni, Co, Mn, and Sn). The optimized Pt-Cd NPs exhibit excellent selectivity toward phenylacetylene and 4-nitrostyrene hydrogenations with a styrene selectivity and 4-aminophenyl styrene selectivity of 95.2 % and 94.5 %, respectively. This work provides a general strategy for the surface reconstructions of Pt-based NPs, and promotes fundamental research on catalyst design for heterogeneous catalysis.

14.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878871

RESUMO

Searching for highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts for fuel cell technology, in which the crystal structure plays a powerful role in regulating the electrocatalysis, is urgent yet challenging. Herein, we have explored the active and stable Pd-Se alloy electrocatalysts with controlled phase toward alkaline ORR. The phase-controlled Pd-Se nanoparticles (NPs) show interesting phase-dependent electrocatalytic performance, in which the Pd17Se15 NPs/C exhibits much better ORR performance than its counterpart, Pd7Se4 NPs/C, and the commercial Pd/C and Pt/C. Based on the detailed analysis, Pd in Pd17Se15 possesses more Se atom coordination and a higher valence state, thus providing a stronger capacity for the absorption of oxygenated species. DFT further reveals more charge transfer from the Pd17Se15 surface to the *OOH intermediate, which is the reason for the activity enhancement.

15.
Small ; 17(14): e2007302, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719172

RESUMO

To explore nanocatalysts with high electro-catalytic performance and less loading of precious metals, efforts have been made to develop electrochemical methods with high spatial resolution at the single nanoparticle level. Herein, a highly sensitive single-nanoparticle coulometry method is successfully developed to study the electrochemical activity and oscillation of single PtTe nanocatalysts. Based on microbattery reactions involving the formic acid electro-oxidation and the deposition of Ag on the single PtTe nanocatalyst surface, this method enables the transition from the undetectable sub-fA electric signal of the formic acid electro-oxidation into strong localized surface plasmon resonance scattering signal of Ag detected by dark-field microscopy. The lowest limiting current for a single nanocatalyst is found to be as low as 25.8 aA. Different trends of activity versus the formic acid concentration and types of activity of the single nanocatalyst have been discovered. Unveiled frequency-amplitude graph shows that the two electrochemical oscillation modes of low frequency with high amplitude and vice versa coexist in a single PtTe nanocatalyst, indicating the abundantly smooth surfaces and defects of nanocatalysts. This conducted study will open up the new avenue for further behavioral and mechanistic investigation of more types of nanocatalysts in the electrochemistry community.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Catálise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletroquímica , Oxirredução
16.
Phytopathology ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787286

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for the growth, development, proliferation, and pathogenicity of microbial pathogens; however, excessive levels of ROS are toxic. Little is known regarding the signaling cascades in response to ROS stress in oomycetes such as Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Here, P. infestans was used as a model system to investigate the mechanism underlying the response to ROS stress in oomycete pathogens. Results showed severe defects in sporangium germination, mycelial growth, appressorium formation, and virulence of P. infestans in response to H2O2 stress. Importantly, these phenotypes mimic those of P. infestans treated with rapamycin, the inhibitor of target of rapamycin (TOR, 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase). Strong synergism occurred when P. infestans was treated with a combination of H2O2 and rapamycin, suggesting that a crosstalk exists between ROS stress and the TOR signaling pathway. Comprehensive analysis of transcriptome, proteome and phosphorylation omics showed that H2O2 stress significantly induced the operation of the TOR-mediated autophagy pathway. Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining showed that in the presence of H2O2 and rapamycin, the autophagosome level increased in a dosage-dependent manner. Furthermore, transgenic potatoes containing double-stranded RNA of PiTOR (TOR in P. infestans) displayed high resistance to P. infestans. Taken together, TOR is involved in the ROS response and is a potential target for control of oomycete diseases, as host-mediated silencing of PiTOR enhances potato resistance to late blight.

17.
Adv Mater ; : e2004243, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749035

RESUMO

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolyzers hold great significance for renewable energy storage and conversion. The acidic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is one of the main roadblocks that hinder the practical application of PEM water electrolyzers. Highly active, cost-effective, and durable electrocatalysts are indispensable for lowering the high kinetic barrier of OER to achieve boosted reaction kinetics. To date, a wide spectrum of advanced electrocatalysts has been designed and synthesized for enhanced acidic OER performance, though Ir and Ru based nanostructures still represent the state-of-the-art catalysts. In this Progress Report, recent research progress in advanced electrocatalysts for improved acidic OER performance is summarized. First, fundamental understanding about acidic OER including reaction mechanisms and atomic understanding to acidic OER for rational design of efficient electrocatalysts are discussed. Thereafter, an overview of the progress in the design and synthesis of advanced acidic OER electrocatalysts is provided in terms of catalyst category, i.e., metallic nanostructures (Ir and Ru based), precious metal oxides, nonprecious metal oxides, and carbon based nanomaterials. Finally, perspectives to the future development of acidic OER are provided from the aspects of reaction mechanism investigation and more efficient electrocatalyst design.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694245

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic framework nanosheets (MOF NSs) play a vital role in catalysis, but the most preparation is ultrasonication or solvothermal. Herein, a liquid-liquid interfacial synthesis method has been developed for the efficient fabrication of a series of 2D Ni MOF NSs. The active sites could be modulated by readily tuning the ratios of metal precursors and organic linkers (RM/L ). The Ni MOF NSs display highly RM/L dependent activities towards 2e oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), where the Ni MOF NSs with the RM/L of 6 exhibit the optimal near-zero overpotential, ca. 98 % H2 O2 selectivity and production rate of ca. 80 mmol gcat -1 h-1 in 0.1 M KOH. As evidenced by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, the coordination environment of active sites changed from saturation to unsaturation, and the partially unsaturated metal atoms are crucial to create optimal sites for enhancing the electrocatalysis.

19.
Chin J Integr Med ; 27(6): 446-454, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the pulse width of electroacupuncture (EA) in the treatment of denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in rats and examine the role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway during EA. METHODS: Sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), muscle wet weight and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the gastrocnemius muscle were analyzed after treatment in model rats with EA of various pulse widths (0.5, 50, 100 and 200 ms). The apoptosis index (AI) and paired box (PAX)3 and PAX7 protein expression were also determined. Further, the mRNA and protein expressions of components of IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway and their downstream targets were determined, along with the inhibiting effect of the pathway with a PI3-specific inhibitor. RESULTS: EA with a pulse width of 200 ms was found to have the best effect with regard to increasing SFI, CSA and muscle weight, decreasing AI, and increasing the expression of PAX3 and PAX7. The IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be activated by denervation, although the downstream forkhead box O (FoxO) pathway was not suppressed by its activation. The PI3K/Akt pathway and its downstream molecule mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were up-regulated further by EA to promote muscle protein synthesis. Meanwhile, the expressions of downstream FoxO and F-box protein 32 (ATROGIN-1) were down-regulated to reduce protein degradation. CONCLUSIONS: EA with 200-ms pulse width was found to have a more significant effect than 0.5-ms EA. The positive effects of EA disappeared after inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517654

RESUMO

Developing efficient adsorbents for the removal of water pollutants is of great significance for environmental protection. In this study, conjugated triaryl triazines (CTT), containing intramolecular hydrogen-bonding patterns, were recognized to be intriguing building blocks for the construction of porous organic polymer (POP) adsorbents. These planar monomers with multiple phenolic hydroxyl groups facilitated the formation of aza-linked polymers with hierarchical porous structures, sheet-like morphology, good surface wettability, and high degree of functionality. Such structural characteristics of the CTT-POP adsorbents provided superfast adsorption of various cationic dyes from water. For the adsorption of methylene blue dye, the pseudo-second-order rate constant of CTT-POP-1 is 12.9 g mg-1 min-1, superior to those reported in the existing literature. In addition, CTT-POP-1 can be regenerated at least seven times with no loss in performance, indicating its potential application in water treatment.

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