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1.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 114: 104594, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007669

RESUMO

Second generation antipsychotics, particularly olanzapine, induce severe obesity, which is associated with their antagonistic effect on the histamine H1 receptor (H1R). We have previously demonstrated that oral administration of olanzapine increases the concentration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus of rats, accompanied by hyperphagia and weight gain. However, it is unclear if the increased NPY after olanzapine administration is due to its direct effect on hypothalamic neurons and its H1R antagonistic property. In the present study, we showed that with an inverted U-shape dose-response curve, olanzapine increased NPY expression in the NPY-GFP hypothalamic neurons; however, this was not the case in the hypothalamic neurons of H1R knockout mice. Olanzapine inhibited the interaction of H1R and GHSR1a (ghrelin receptor) in the primary mouse hypothalamic neurons and NPY-GFP neurons examined by confocal fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technology. Furthermore, an H1R agonist, FMPH inhibited olanzapine activation of GHSR1a downstream signaling pAMPK and transcription factors of NPY (pFOXO1 and pCREB) in the hypothalamic NPY-GFP cell. However, an olanzapine analogue (E-Olan) with lower affinity to H1R presented negligible enhancement of pCREB within the nucleus of NPY neurons. These findings suggest that the H1R antagonist property of olanzapine inhibits the interaction of H1R and GHSR1a, activates GHSR1a downstream signaling pAMPK-FOXO1/pCREB and increases hypothalamic NPY: this could be one of the important molecular mechanisms of H1R antagonism of olanzapine-induced obesity in antipsychotic management of psychiatric disorders.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 717: 137280, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084696

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) is a potent antibacterial and antifungal compound that is extensively used in various daily products. TCS is also considered as an underlying endocrine disruptor and has anti-androgenic effects. In our previous work, we found that TCS suppressed testicular steroidogenesis via the miR-6321/JNK/Nur77 cascade, but roles of the abnormal expression of miR-142-5p and P450c17 in this molecular event were still unknown. Therefore, to verify the hypothesis that miR-142-5p and P450c17 might significantly function in other manner in testosterone decline after TCS exposure, Sprague-Dawley rats and the rat Leydig cell line were used in this study. Results showed that after TCS exposure, testicular histomorphology was abnormally changed and testosterone level was declined. Overexpressed miR-142-5p by TCS directly targeted the JAK1/STAT1 pathway. Bidirectional Co-IP assays and the use of STAT1 activator demonstrated that STAT1 could interact with and regulate Sp1. The activity, mRNA level, and protein expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3ß were all decreased after TCS treatment. Sp1 silencing, ChIP, and qPCR assays showed that Sp1 regulated DNMT1 expressions by directly binding to the promoter region of DNMT1. Though the DNA methylation status of the DAX1 promoter was not affected, TCS induced the transcription and translation of DAX1 by DNMT1, in turn leading to the inhibition of steroidogenic P450c17. Taken together, TCS-induced miR-142-5p inhibits P450c17 by the JAK1/STAT1 pathway and downstream Sp1/DNMT1/DAX1 cascade, finally facilitating the decrease in testosterone levels.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086392

RESUMO

Studies on myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) have led to the RNA-mediated disease model for hereditary disorders caused by noncoding microsatellite expansions. This model proposes that DM1 disease manifestations are caused by a reversion to fetal RNA processing patterns in adult tissues due to the expression of toxic CUG RNA expansions (CUGexp) leading to decreased muscleblind-like, but increased CUGBP1/ETR3-like factor 1 (CELF1), alternative splicing activities. Here, we test this model in vivo, using the mouse HSA LR poly(CUG) model for DM1 and recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated transduction of specific splicing factors. Surprisingly, systemic overexpression of HNRNPA1, not previously linked to DM1, also shifted DM1-relevant splicing targets to fetal isoforms, resulting in more severe muscle weakness/myopathy as early as 4 to 6 wk posttransduction, whereas rAAV controls were unaffected. Overexpression of HNRNPA1 promotes fetal exon inclusion of representative DM1-relevant splicing targets in differentiated myoblasts, and HITS-CLIP of rAAV-mycHnrnpa1-injected muscle revealed direct interactions of HNRNPA1 with these targets in vivo. Similar to CELF1, HNRNPA1 protein levels decrease during postnatal development, but are elevated in both regenerating mouse muscle and DM1 skeletal muscle. Our studies suggest that CUGexp RNA triggers abnormal expression of multiple nuclear RNA binding proteins, including CELF1 and HNRNPA1, that antagonize MBNL activity to promote fetal splicing patterns.

4.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 39(1): 49-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039824

RESUMO

As a naturally occurring flavone, luteolin has received much attention due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer functions. In the present study, we investigated the effect of luteolin on colonic motility and its mechanism using isometric muscle recording and the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in mice. Luteolin dose-dependently inhibited colonic smooth muscles motility and CMMC significantly. BayK8644, an L-type Ca2+ channel agonist, significantly attenuated the luteolin-induced inhibition. Moreover, the calcium currents recorded in colonic smooth muscle cells were dramatically inhibited by luteolin. However, no significant changes were found in the luteolin-induced inhibitory effect in the presence of TEA, a nonselective K+ channel blocker, glibenclamide, an ATP-dependent K+ channel blocker, and apamin, a small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker. Additionally, luteolin did not affect potassium currents. Furthermore, TTX, a Na+ channel blocker, L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, ODQ, an inhibitor of NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase, and Ani9, a specific ANO1 channels blocker, had no effect on the luteolin-induced suppression. These results suggest that luteolin inhibited colonic smooth muscle motility by inhibiting L-type calcium channels in mice but not through potassium channels, the enteric nervous system (ENS), NO signaling pathways or ANO1 channels of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs).

5.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 66-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914639

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is critical for the development, progression, and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the roles of miR-3064-5p in HCC angiogenesis are still unknown. In this study, the roles of miR-3064-5p in HCC angiogenesis were studied in 192 HCC patients, xenograft mouse models, and HCC cell lines. The results showed that miR-3064-5p expression was significantly decreased in HCC tissues and cells, and downregulated miR-3064-5p was associated with upregulated angiogenic potential of HCC. MiR-3064-5p inhibited proangiogenic VEGFA and angiogenin expressions but induced antiangiogenic endostatin and MMP12 expressions, finally leading to suppression of HCC angiogenesis, as shown by the decline in intratumoral microvessel density (MVD). Moreover, miR-3064-5p was inversely correlated with lncRNA MALAT1 and FOXA1. FOXA1 bound to and interacted with CD24 and then regulated Src phosphorylation. MiR-3064-5p played an antiangiogenic role by inhibiting the FOXA1/CD24/Src pathway, whereas oncogenic MALAT1 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) by sponging miR-3064-5p to alleviate the suppressive effect on the FOXA1 pathway. HCC patients with high miR-3064-5p, low MALAT1, or low FOXA1 expression had a better prognosis with longer overall survival and recurrence-free survival. In univariate and multivariate analyses, miR-3064-5p was identified as the independent prognostic predicator for HCC progression and patient survival. Taken together, miR-3064-5p exerts an antiangiogenic role by targeting the FOXA1/CD24/Src pathway but oncogenic lncRNA MALAT1 acts as a ceRNA to sponge miR-3064-5p. MiR-3064-5p is of great clinical significance and is a novel prognostic indicator and an attractive therapeutic target for HCC.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy performance varies among endoscopists, impairing the discovery of colorectal cancers and precursor lesions. We aimed to construct a real-time quality improvement system (ENDOANGEL) to monitor real-time withdrawal speed and colonoscopy withdrawal time and to remind endoscopists of blind spots caused by endoscope slipping. We also aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of this system for improving adenoma yield of everyday colonoscopy. METHODS: The ENDOANGEL system was developed using deep neural networks and perceptual hash algorithms. We recruited consecutive patients aged 18-75 years from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University in China who provided written informed consent. We randomly assigned patients (1:1) using computer-generated random numbers and block randomisation (block size of four) to either colonoscopy with the ENDOANGEL system or unassisted colonoscopy (control). Endoscopists were not masked to the random assignment but analysts and patients were unaware of random assignments. The primary endpoint was the adenoma detection rate (ADR), which is the proportion of patients having one or more adenomas detected at colonoscopy. The primary analysis was done per protocol (ie, in all patients having colonoscopy done in accordance with the assigned intervention) and by intention to treat (ie, in all randomised patients). This trial is registered with http://www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR1900021984. FINDINGS: Between June 18, 2019, and Sept 6, 2019, 704 patients were randomly allocated colonoscopy with the ENDOANGEL system (n=355) or unassisted (control) colonoscopy (n=349). In the intention-to-treat population, ADR was significantly greater in the ENDOANGEL group than in the control group, with 58 (16%) of 355 patients allocated ENDOANGEL-assisted colonoscopy having one or more adenomas detected, compared with 27 (8%) of 349 allocated control colonoscopy (odds ratio [OR] 2·30, 95% CI 1·40-3·77; p=0·0010). In the per-protocol analysis, findings were similar, with 54 (17%) of 324 patients assigned ENDOANGEL-assisted colonoscopy and 26 (8%) of 318 patients assigned control colonoscopy having one or more adenomas detected (OR 2·18, 95% CI 1·31-3·62; p=0·0026). No adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: The ENDOANGEL system significantly improved the adenoma yield during colonoscopy and seems to be effective and safe for use during routine colonoscopy. FUNDING: Hubei Provincial Clinical Research Center for Digestive Disease Minimally Invasive Incision, Hubei Province Major Science and Technology Innovation Project, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 90: 5-17, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogens that cause acute respiratory infections in children and immunocompromised adults. This work was conducted to understand the epidemiological and phylogenetic features of RSV in southern China during 2011-2016. METHODS: A total of 16 024 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from patients with respiratory infections in 14 hospitals, and screened for RSV and seven other respiratory viruses using real-time PCR. Six hundred and twenty-three RSV-positive samples from 13 hospitals were further analyzed for subtypes. G gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed based on 46 RSV-A and 15 RSV-B strains. RESULTS: RSV was detected in 9.5% of the 16 024 specimens, the highest among the eight respiratory viruses screened. Most of these specimens came from inpatients and children under 3 years of age. The incidence of RSV-A (9.4%) was higher than that of RSV-B (4.4%) in children (<15 years), but not in adults (0.64% vs. 0.58%). A 2-year RSV-A dominance followed by a 1-year RSV-B dominance pattern was found. The co-detection rate of RSV was 25.1%. The main prevalent genotypes were NA1, ON1, and BA9. The prevalent RSV-A genotype in 2011-2012 was NA1, close to Chongqing and Brazil, but a new Hong Kong ON1 genotype was introduced and became the prevalent genotype in Guangzhou in 2014-2015. Deduced amino acid sequence analysis confirmed the ongoing evolution and a high selection pressure of RSV-A and B strains, especially in RSV-A ON1 and NA1 genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the molecular epidemiological characteristics of RSV in patients with respiratory infections in southern China.

8.
Amyloid ; 27(1): 36-44, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635489

RESUMO

Background: Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is characterized by tissue deposition of amyloid fibres derived from immunoglobulin that can lead to irreversible organ damage. Information about genomic profiles of AL amyloidosis is lacking.Methods: In this study, we adopted a two-step strategy to investigate the mutational profile of AL amyloidosis bone marrow plasma cells (PCs) and their clinical implications. In step one, whole-exome sequencing was performed in bone marrow PCs and paired with normal tissue from 10 AL amyloidosis patients, by which we identified 10 significantly mutated genes (SMGs). In step two, we constituted a targeted gene sequencing (TGS) panel covering the frequently mutated genes identified in step one, genes reported in prior AL amyloidosis studies, and known cancer driver mutations. Then, we analysed an expanded cohort of AL amyloidosis patients (N = 48) with this panel comprising 98 genes.Results: Four recurrent mutations were identified by TGS and verified by Sanger sequencing: ASB15 (c. 844 C > T), ASCC3 (c. 1595 A > G), HIST1H1E (c. 311 C > T) and KRAS (c. 35 G > A), among which the first three mutations were associated with inferior overall survival (OS). Additionally, we found that the number of mutations identified by the TGS panel of 98 genes could be a prognostic predictor for OS.Conclusions: In summary, we revealed genomic profiling in AL amyloidosis and found mutation profiles associated with OS.

9.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2645-2649, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492290

RESUMO

Three-dimensional porous materials, especially graphene hydrogel, have been widely used as promising supports for catalysts. In this study, Ni Foam-TiO2-graphene hydrogel composite (NFTGH) with three-dimensional porous structure was successfully fabricated. NF-TGH exhibited remarkable photoelectrocatalysis (PEC) performance for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). Due to its cross-porous network structure, NF-TGH can immobilize additional TiO2 nanoparticles and expose more catalytic sites than thin film materials. Meanwhile, the inherent conductivity of graphene can greatly raise the charge-transfer rate of 3D network catalyst as compared to the poor performance of the thin film semiconductor catalyst. The MO degradation rate increased by more than 30% after a 1.5 V bias voltage was applied. This promoted activity demonstrates that bias voltage will greatly enhance the electron-hole separation. In addition, NF-TGH electrode can potentially be utilized in water purification due to its high degradation activity, stable porous structure and easy separation from waste water.

10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 237, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in awake, spontaneously breathing and non-intubated patients (awake ECMO) may be a novel therapeutic strategy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility and safety of awake ECMO in severe ARDS patients receiving prolonged ECMO (> 14 days). METHODS: We describe our experience with 12 consecutive severe ARDS patients (age, 39.1 ± 16.4 years) supported with awake ECMO to wait for native lung recovery during prolonged ECMO treatment from July 2013 to January 2018. Outcomes are reported including the hospital mortality, ECMO-related complications and physiological data on weaning from invasive ventilation. RESULTS: The patients received median 26.0 (15.5, 64.8) days of total ECMO duration in the cohort. The longest ECMO support duration was 121 days. Awake ECMO and extubation was implemented after median 10.2(5.0, 42.9) days of ECMO. Awake ECMO was not associated with increased morbidity. The total invasive ventilation duration, lengths of stay in the ICU and hospital in the cohort were 14.0(12.0, 37.3) days, 33.0(22.3, 56.5) days and 46.5(27.3, 84.8) days, respectively. The hospital mortality rate was 33.3% (4/12) in the cohort. Survivors had more stable respiratory rate and heart rate after extubation when compared to the non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: With carefully selected patients, awake ECMO is a feasible and safe strategy for severe pulmonary ARDS patients receiving prolonged ECMO support to wait for native lung recovery.

11.
Burns ; 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Thermal injury repair is a complex process during which maintaining the proliferation of human dermis fibroblasts (HDFs) and synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a critical role. In the present study, we analyzed potential molecular markers and the probable association between differentially-expressed lncRNAs and protein-coding genes within denatured dermis following thermal injury, attempting to provide further insights to thermal injury repair pathogenesis. METHODS AND MAIN RESULTS: We found that the expression of 3940 lncRNAs was increased, while that of 1438 lncRNAs was reduced in the denatured dermis following thermal injury when compared to normal tissue. Of them, 338 were upregulated and 154 were downregulated by more than 128 times. Via cross-check with another microarray profile analysis on differentially-expressed lncRNAs after thermal injury, LINC00302 was found to be downregulated after thermal injury; more importantly, this skin-specially expressed lncRNA is located near a series of genes related to multiple skin inflammation and skin barrier-associated genomes. LINC00302 overexpression promoted the cell viability and the protein levels of α-SMA and Collagen I in HDFs. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, mRNAs and lncRNAs could be differentially expressed in the denatured dermis following thermal injury. mRNA and lncRNA regulatory signaling pathways could participate in thermal injury repair pathogenesis. More importantly, LINC00302 may play a critical role in thermal injury repair.

12.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880085

RESUMO

AIMS: Many patients taking risperidone for the treatment of psychiatric disorders experience substantial body weight gain. Researchers have speculated that risperidone induces obesity by modulating central signals; however, the precise central mechanisms involved remain to be fully elucidated. METHODS: Twenty-four C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: a control group; a risperidone-treated group; a lorcaserin-treated group; and a combined risperidone + lorcaserin-treated group. The mice were received the corresponding treatments for 4 weeks, and their brains were collected for in situ hybridization analysis. A subset of C57BL/6J mice was administrated with risperidone or placebo, and brains were collected 60 minutes post-treatment for determination of c-fos activity. In addition, brains of NPY-GFP mice treated with or without risperidone were collected to perform colocalization of NPY and c-fos, as well as NPY and 5-HT2c receptor using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: There was significantly elevated c-fos expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc) of risperidone-treated mice. More than 68% c-fos-positive neurons were NPY-expressing neurons. Furthermore, in situ hybridization revealed that Arc NPY mRNA expression was significantly increased in the risperidone-treated group compared with control group. Moreover, we identified that 95% 5-HT2c receptors were colocalized with NPY positive neurons, and increased Arc NPY mRNA expression induced by risperidone was markedly reduced by cotreatment with lorcaserin, a specific 5-HT2c receptor agonist. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide critical insight into the mechanisms underlying antipsychotic-induced obesity, which may assist the development of therapeutic strategies to address metabolic side effects of risperidone.

13.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113821, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884212

RESUMO

Human-induced temperature changes influence coastal regions, both via thermal pollution and ocean warming, which exerts profound effects on the chemistry of metals and the physiology of organisms. However, it remains unknown whether the increased temperature of discharged water or ocean warming, as a result of climate change, lead to an increase of human health risks associated with the consumption of sea foods. In this study, the influence of temperature on metal accumulation by oysters was studied in individuals collected from a coastal area affected by the thermal water discharge of the Houshi Power Plant, China. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and oral bioavailability (OBA) of metals in oysters was determined. Elevated temperatures led to an increase in BAF for Cu, Zn, Hg, and Cd (p < 0.05), but no change was observed for As and Pb (p > 0.05). The OBA for Cd, As, and Pb correlated positively to elevated temperatures (p < 0.05). However, for Cu and Zn, OBA was negatively correlated with increasing temperature (p < 0.05). As, Pb, and Cd in the trophically available metal (defined as a sum of heat-stable proteins, heat-denaturable proteins, and organelles) was significantly elevated at the highest temperature seawater site (site A) compared to the lowest seawater site (site B). Thus, the irregular variation of OBA for each metal may be the result of variations in the subcellular distribution of metals and the protein quality influenced by the increased temperature. Moreover, the increased temperature and increased the hazard quotient values of As and Cd (p < 0.05 for As, n = 6, p < 0.05 for Cd, n = 6), which provided an indication of the potential risks of the consumption of oysters or other seafood to future warming under climate change scenarios.

14.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(6): 7921-7933, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698647

RESUMO

Background: An increasing number of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have a poor prognosis and develop progressive disease after receiving conventional treatments. In recent years, several novel therapies have been approved for later lines of therapy of previously treated NSCLC. Erlotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was recommended as the second-line therapy for pre-treated patients. However, the use of erlotinib has been reported to represent different clinical effects and adverse effects. Objectives: The current study was aim to investigate the efficacy and safety of erlotinib versus chemotherapy in pre-treated patients with advanced NSCLC. Methods: Electronic databases were searched for eligible literatures updated on June 2018. Randomized-controlled trials assessing the efficacy and safety of erlotinib in pre-treated NSCLC were included, of which the main outcomes were ORR (objective response rate), PFS (progression-free survival), OS (overall survival) and AEs (adverse events). All the data were pooled with the corresponding 95% confidence interval using RevMan software. Sensitivity analyses and heterogeneity were quantitatively evaluated. Results: A total of 11 randomized controlled trials were included in this analysis. The group of erlotinib did not achieved benefit in progression-free survival (OR = 0.61, 95%CI = 0.33-1.12, P = 0.11), overall survival (OR = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.84-1.15, P = 0.81) as well with the objective response rate (OR = 0.77, 95%CI = 0.36-1.63, P = 0.49), respectively. In the results of subgroup analysis among the patients with EGFR wild-type, there is also no significant differences in overall survival with erlotinib (OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.78-1.04, P = 0.15) and progression-free survival (OR = 0.33, 95%CI = 0.09-1.18, P = 0.09). The most common treatment-related adverse events in the erlotinib group is rash (OR = 5.79, 95%CI = 2.12-15.77, P = 0.0006), and neutropenia (OR = 0.02, 95%CI = 0.01-0.10, P ≤ 0.00001) is more found in the control group. In addition, fatigue (P = 0.09) and diarrhea (P = 0.52), the difference between the two groups had no statistical significance. Conclusions: There was no significant difference noted with regard to efficacy and safety between erlotinib vs. chemotherapy as the later-line therapy for previously treated patients with NSCLC, even with subgroup patients who have wild-type EGFR tumors. While, erlotinib might increase the risk of rash, and decrease the risk of neutropenia, compared with the chemotherapy. Further research is needed to develop a database of all EGFR mutations and their individual impact on the differing treatments.

15.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 767, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736796

RESUMO

Background: Evidence indicates that the serum concentration of uric acid (UA) in patients may relate both to the pathophysiology and therapeutics of bipolar disorder (BPD). The purpose of this study was to examine the changes and clinical significance of serum UA concentrations in first-episode manic patients suffering from BPD. Methods: Seventy-six drug-naive patients with first-episode bipolar mania and 76 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited. Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to assess clinical symptoms. We tested serum UA concentrations by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at baseline and at the end of 8-week treatment in BPD patients and in the control group. Results: After 8-week quetiapine and sodium valproate treatment, this study revealed that the serum UA concentrations in remitted patients were significantly lower than nonremitted patients; however, those remitted patients still had higher serum UA than healthy controls. We discovered that the baseline UA concentration was higher in nonremitted than remitted patients after 8 weeks of treatment. Finally, a positive association was found between serum UA and symptom relief in the first episode of manic disorder patients. Conclusion: Patients with first-episode BPD had high levels of serum UA, which responds to treatment mainly in remitted patients. Our results suggest that serum UA concentrations might present potentially a trait marker in bipolar patients.

16.
Int J Med Sci ; 16(9): 1221-1230, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588187

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies in human subjects have mostly been confined to peripheral blood lymphocytes for Pneumocystis infection. We here aimed to compare circulating and pulmonary T-cell populations derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected immunocompromised patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in order to direct new therapies. Methods: Peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected from patients with and without PCP. Populations of Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th9/Tc9, and Th17/Tc17 CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified using multiparameter flow cytometry. Results: No significant differences were found between PCP and non-PCP groups in circulating T cells. However, significantly higher proportions of pulmonary Th1 and Tc9 were observed in the PCP than in the non-PCP group. Interestingly, our data indicated that pulmonary Th1 was negatively correlated with disease severity, whereas pulmonary Tc9 displayed a positive correlation in PCP patients. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that pulmonary expansion of Th1 and Tc9 subsets may play protective and detrimental roles in PCP patients, respectively. Thus, these specific T-cell subsets in the lungs may serve as targeted immunotherapies for patients with PCP.

17.
Hepatol Commun ; 3(10): 1296-1310, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592075

RESUMO

Current therapeutics for chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) rarely induce functional cure due to the immunotolerant status of patients. Small molecule agonists targeting toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) have been shown to elicit a functional cure in animal models of HBV but sometimes with poor tolerability due to immune-related toxicities. In an effort to increase the therapeutic window of TLR7 agonists to treat chronic hepatitis B (CHB), we developed an oral TLR7 agonist, APR002, designed to act locally in the gastrointestinal tract and liver, thus minimizing systemic exposure and improving tolerability. Here, we describe the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profile of APR002 in mice and uninfected woodchucks as well as the safety and antiviral efficacy in combination with entecavir (ETV) in woodchucks with CHB. Treatment of woodchucks chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) with weekly oral doses of APR002 was well-tolerated. While APR002 and ETV single agents did not elicit sustained viral control, combination therapy resulted in durable immune-mediated suppression of the chronic infection. These woodchucks also had detectable antibodies to viral antigens, enhanced interferon-stimulated gene expression, and loss of WHV covalently closed circular DNA. Conclusion: APR002 is a novel TLR7 agonist exhibiting a distinct PK/PD profile that in combination with ETV can safely attain a functional cure in woodchucks with chronic WHV infection. Our results support further investigation of liver-targeted TLR7 agonists in human CHB.

18.
Infect Drug Resist ; 12: 3029-3038, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576153

RESUMO

Purpose: The emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae deserves special concern worldwide. Unlike the epidemiological characteristics reported in other studies, we found that the production of New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase 5 was the main mechanism for the resistance of Escherichia coli to carbapenems. Methods: All carbapenem-resistant strains were collected from July 2017 to July 2018 of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. The presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes was detected using PCR and gene sequencing. Genetic relatedness of the bla NDM-5-positive E. coli strains was determined with PFGE and MLST. Susceptibility profiles were measured with broth microdilution method and E-test strips. Transferability features of bla NDM-5 gene were assessed by conjugation experiments, S1-PFGE, southern blotting and PCR-based replicon typing methods. The genetic structures surrounding bla NDM-5 were acquired by whole genome sequencing and PCR mapping. Results: Among the 28 carbapenem-resistant E. coli strains, 18 (64%) were verified as NDM-5 producers. The 18 bla NDM-5-positive E. coli strains showed high resistance to most antibiotics, but 100% were sensitive to colistin and tigecycline. In addition, the 18 bla NDM-5-positive E. coli strains belonged to eight STs, among which ST167, ST410 and ST101 were found to cause clonal spread in the hospital. Further studies found that the bla NDM-5 gene was located on an IncX3-type plasmid, and all plasmids harbored an IS3000-ΔISAba125-IS5-bla NDM-5-bleMBL-trpF-dsbC-IS26 structure. Conclusion: The clonal spread of bla NDM-5-positive E. coli strains and horizontal dissemination via the pNDM-MGR 194-like plasmids should draw more attention. Appropriate infection control operations should be performed to prevent the further spread of bla NDM-5.

19.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 25(4): 589-601, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587550

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Interstitial cells play important roles in gastrointestinal (GI) neuro-smooth muscle transmission. The underlying mechanisms of colonic dysmotility have not been well illustrated. We established a partial colon obstruction (PCO) mouse model to investigate the changes of interstitial cells and the correlation with colonic motility. Methods: Western blot technique was employed to observe the protein expressions of Kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (Pdgfra), Ca2+-activated Cl- (Ano1) channels, and small conductance Ca2+- activated K+ (SK) channels. Colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) and isometric force measurements were employed in control mice and PCO mice. Results: PCO mice showed distended abdomen and feces excretion was significantly reduced. Anatomically, the colon above the obstructive silicone ring was obviously dilated. Kit and Ano1 proteins in the colonic smooth muscle layer of the PCO colons were significantly decreased, while the expression of Pdgfra and SK3 proteins were significantly increased. The effects of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) and an Ano1 channel inhibitor (NPPB) on CMMC and colonic spontaneous contractions were decreased in the proximal and distal colons of PCO mice. The SK agonist, CyPPA and antagonist, apamin in PCO mice showed more effect to the CMMCs and colonic smooth muscle contractions. Conclusion: Colonic transit disorder may be due to the downregulation of the Kit and Ano1 channels and the upregulation of SK3 channels in platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α positive (PDGFRα+) cells. The imbalance between interstitial cells of Cajal-Ano1 and PDGFRαSK3 distribution might be a potential reason for the colonic dysmotility.

20.
Br J Cancer ; 121(11): 912-921, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is a highly invasive cancer with poor prognosis. Recent research has found that the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) plays an inhibitory role in the development of pancreatic cancer. It has been reported that tubulin polymerisation-promoting protein (TPPP) plays an indispensable role in a variety of tumours, but its expression and role in pancreatic cancer have not yet been elucidated. METHODS: In this study, we performed ChIP-sequencing and found that YY1 directly binds to the promoter region of TPPP. The expression of TPPP in pancreatic cancer was detected by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Four-week-old male BALB/c-nude mice were used to assess the effect of TPPP on pancreatic cancer. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry revealed that TPPP was expressed at low levels in pancreatic cancer tissues, and was associated with blood vessel invasion. The results from vivo experiments have showed that TPPP could enhance the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer. Further experiments showed that YY1 could inhibit the migration, invasion and angiogenesis of pancreatic cancer cells by downregulating TPPP via p38/MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that TPPP may act as a promoter and may serve as a novel target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

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