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1.
Food Res Int ; 161: 111910, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193000

RESUMO

Alkaline-extracted walnut protein isolate (AWPI) shows poor solubility in aqueous solutions, resulting in relatively low emulsion capacity. This work investigated the influence of ellagic acid (EA) or epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) conjugation on the solubility and emulsifying properties of AWPI. The increase in polyphenol content and decrease in free amino and thiol groups of walnut proteins confirmed successful conjugation. AWPI polyphenol conjugates showed significantly reduced surface hydrophobicity, greatly enhanced surface charge, and consequently improved solubility. Circular dichroism (CD) results indicated that the polyphenol-conjugated AWPI contained relatively higher α-helical and lower ß-sheet contents than AWPI. The antioxidant capacity of the polyphenol-conjugated AWPI was significantly enhanced. Additionally, polyphenol conjugation resulted in decreased mean particle sizes and increased surface charges of the walnut protein-covered oil droplets. The emulsions stabilized by AWPI-polyphenol conjugates were relatively more stable over a range of pH values (7.0-11.0) and thermal treatments (25 °C-90 °C). Moreover, they exhibited greater storage stability than those stabilized by unmodified AWPI.


Assuntos
Juglans , Polifenóis , Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Elágico , Emulsões/química , Polifenóis/química , Solubilidade , Compostos de Sulfidrila
2.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 5160624, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36105254

RESUMO

Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation and maintenance depend on the proper localization and concentration of various molecules at synaptic contact sites. Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering on the postsynaptic membrane is a cardinal event in NMJ formation. Muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK), which functions depending on its phosphorylation, plays an essential role in AChR clustering. In the present study, we used plasmid-based biochemical screening and determined that protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type R (PTPRR) is responsible for dephosphorylating MuSK on tyrosine residue 754. Furthermore, we showed that PTPRR significantly reduced MuSK-dependent AChR clustering in C2C12 myotubes. Collectively, these data illustrate a negative regulation function of PTPRR in AChR clustering.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina , Receptores Colinérgicos , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 7 Semelhantes a Receptores , Receptores Colinérgicos/química , Receptores Colinérgicos/genética , Receptores Colinérgicos/metabolismo
3.
Front Oncol ; 12: 763480, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36110943

RESUMO

Research on the mechanism and new targets of ovarian cancer is of great significance to reduce the high mortality and drug resistance of ovarian cancer. Human La protein has been found to be highly expressed in a variety of malignant tumors and plays a role in tumorigenesis and development through its RNA-binding function. However, its role and mechanism in ovarian cancer are not completely clear. The present study showed that La protein was highly expressed in serum and tissues of patients with ovarian cancer by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, and the high expression of La protein was associated with the increased degree of malignancy and poor prognosis by searching the KM plotter database. Interference of the La gene resulted in a significant decrease in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells with growth block in the G1 phase and increasing apoptosis. By RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation, transcriptome sequencing, and proteomics, 14 downstream target genes were screened. The La protein might affect the protein expression of these 14 genes by binding with the mRNAs. Therefore, it played a role in the pathological process of ovarian cancer.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100784

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current trials support the application of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in node-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with a lower false-negative rate (FNR) if dual-tracer (radioisotope and blue-dye) is used. However, radioisotopes are not available in many areas of the world. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of SLNB mapped with methylene-blue-dye alone. METHODS: This study enrolled 132 patients with biopsy-proven node-positive breast cancer with a clip placed in the positive node who then received NAC. After chemotherapy and before operation, all patients underwent axillary ultrasound (AUS) assessment and were classified as either negative (AUS-) or positive (AUS +) according to the axillary status. All patients underwent both SLNB and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). SLNB was mapped with methylene-blue-dye alone. FNRs were evaluated on factors potentially affecting false-negative SLN finding. RESULTS: Using methylene-blue-dye alone, the FNR of SLNB was 9.9%. Post-NAC AUS assessment (p = 0.009) and the number of SLNs retrieved (p = 0.029) showed association with FNRs in multivariate analysis. In AUS- group, FNR was as low as 2.5%. In AUS + group, retrieving ≥ 4 SLNs including the clipped node improved FNR from 17.1% to 4.8%. A flowchart was designed with the combination of post-NAC AUS assessment, retrieved SLN number, and the retrieved of clipped node further improve overall FNR to 3.3%. CONCLUSION: In biopsy-proven node-positive breast cancer treated with NAC, using a flowchart to optimize patient selection reduces the FNR of single-tracer (methylene-blue-dye) guided SLNB.

5.
Curr Oncol ; 29(9): 6137-6153, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135051

RESUMO

The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, in addition to standard anticancer therapy. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy and safety of celecoxib-combined cancer therapy were systematically searched in PubMed and Embase databases. The endpoints were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), disease-free survival (DFS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), pathological complete response (pCR), and adverse events (AEs). The results of 30 RCTs containing 9655 patients showed limited benefits in celecoxib-combined cancer therapy. However, celecoxib-combined palliative therapy prolonged PFS in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild-type patients (HR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.35-0.94). Moreover, despite a slight increase in thrombocytopenia (RR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.08-1.69), there was no increase in other toxicities. Celecoxib combined with adjuvant therapy indicated a better OS (HR = 0.850, 95%CI = 0.725-0.996). Furthermore, celecoxib plus neoadjuvant therapy improved the ORR in standard cancer therapy, especially neoadjuvant therapy (overall: RR = 1.13, 95%CI = 1.03-1.23; neoadjuvant therapy: RR = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.09-1.44), but not pCR. Our study indicated that adding celecoxib to palliative therapy prolongs the PFS of EGFR wild-type patients, with good safety profiles. Celecoxib combined with adjuvant therapy prolongs OS, and celecoxib plus neoadjuvant therapy improves the ORR. Thus, celecoxib-combined cancer therapy may be a promising therapy strategy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Celecoxib/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2 , Receptores ErbB , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 8458122, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081425

RESUMO

For the purpose of coping with or eliminating the influence of carbon dioxide emissions effectively, it is crucial to apply the green investment models to carry out a qualitative analysis of carbon dioxide emission evolution. The effect of financial risks on the implementation of the carbon dioxide emission limit is essential for the distribution of resources, and it is necessary to summarize the patterns and make innovations in the process of limiting the emissions of carbon dioxide effectively. In the case of fully complying with the principles of low-carbon economic development and related policy protection, the appropriate model for low-carbon economic development is identified. In this article, the multivariate primary nonlinear model is applied to the analysis of the nonlinear influence of financial risks on carbon dioxide emissions to cope with the problem of financial risks on carbon dioxide emissions at present. In this method, a multivariate primary nonlinear model is established based on the detailed analysis of the financial development features, and the parameters are optimized mainly from various aspects such as the structure of the model, the features of data, and the dynamic changes of the model so as to obtain the optimal values for the parameters of the constructed multivariate primary nonlinear model. The results of the practical case analysis indicate that the influence of financial risks on the limits of domestic carbon dioxide emissions is differentiated in accordance with the results and related categories. Only in this way can the regional division of carbon emission factors be properly classified. The relationship between economic growth and carbon emission increase and changes indicates that effective strategies for carbon emission reduction should be adopted. The established panel data model is used to carry out an in-depth analysis of the influence of carbon dioxide limitations in Asian countries.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Ásia , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054461

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the relationship between erythrocyte folate levels and cervical lesions. METHODS: Using a case-control method, patients with cervical lesions from September 2021 to February 2022 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jiangnan University Hospital were selected as study subjects. After cervical biopsy, 40 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) CIN3 and 65 cases of cervical cancer as case group. The normal population of 120 cases attending the same period served as the control group. A competitive model was used to establish a chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for human erythrocyte folate. Erythrocyte folate levels of 225 subjects were determined. RESULTS: Serum folate levels were 7.82 ± 3.13, 8.04 ± 3.58, and 7.58 ± 4.30 ng/ml in the control, CIN3, and cervical cancer groups, with no statistically significant differences (p = 0.959). Erythrocyte folate levels were 307.27 ± 122.95, 306.52 ± 189.77, and 285.42 ± 125.74 ng/ml, respectively, with statistically significant differences (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In a population of middle-aged Chinese women, the lower the erythrocyte folate value, the greater the risk of cervical cancer. In addition, serum folate levels were not associated with cervical lesions.

8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 933165, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935941

RESUMO

Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) has been demonstrated to be able to promote tumor invasion and metastasis and being closely related to tumor immune infiltration. However, DDR1 has rarely been studied in gastric cancer. Here, we primarily evaluated DDR1 expression in gastric cancer and its cell lines using multiple databases. Subsequently, the cancer prognosis was investigated in relation to DDR1 expression. After analysis, we discovered that DDR1 was highly expressed and significantly connected with poor prognosis in gastric cancer. To comprehensively understand the molecular mechanism of DDR1, we explored genes and proteins interacting with DDR1 in gastric cancer using databases. Additionally, we found that the expression level of DDR1 was inversely correlated with immune infiltration and significantly relative to various immune cell markers. Overall, DDR1 was implicated in invasion, metastasis, and immune infiltration of gastric cancer. Inhibition of DDR1 may have the potential to alleviate the strong invasiveness and metastasis of advanced gastric cancer. Meanwhile, immune exclusion by DDR1 may also provide a new strategy for improving the efficacy of immune checkpoints inhibitors (ICIs), such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) antibody.


Assuntos
Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 1/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
9.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(16)2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36009602

RESUMO

Egg production is a pivotal indicator for evaluating the fertility of poultry, and the ovary is an essential organ for egg production and plays an indispensable role in poultry production and reproduction. In order to investigate different aspects of egg production mechanisms in different poultry, in this study we performed a metabolomic analysis of the transcriptomic combination of the ovaries of two chicken breeds, the high-production Ninghai indigenous chickens and the low-production Wuliangshan black-boned chickens, to analyze the biosynthesis and potential key genes and metabolic pathways in the ovaries during egg production. We predicted four genes in the transcriptomic that are associated with egg production, namely P2RX1, INHBB, VIPR2, and FABP3, and identified three important pathways during egg production, "Calcium signaling pathway", "Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction" and "Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction", respectively. In the metabolomic 149 significantly differential metabolites were identified, 99 in the negative model and 50 in the positive model, of which 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, iloprost, spermidine, and adenosine are important metabolites involved in reproduction. By integrating transcriptomics and metabolomics, the correlation between specific differential genes and differential metabolites identified important gene-metabolite pairs "VIPR2-Spermidine" and "P2RX1-Spermidine" in egg production. In conclusion, these data provide a better understanding of the molecular differences between the ovaries of low- and high-production hens and provide a theoretical basis for further studies on the mechanics of poultry egg production.

10.
Org Lett ; 24(32): 6099-6104, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939042

RESUMO

A highly efficient visible light-induced regioselective and stereoselective oxysulfonylation of alkynes with arylsulfonate phenol esters has been developed. This photocatalyst- and metal-free method proceeds smoothly under very mild conditions and exhibits a broad substrate scope, providing (E)-ß-phenoxy vinylsulfones in moderate to excellent yields. Mechanistic studies indicated the involvement of an electron donor-acceptor complex-mediated radical process.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 920113, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35903330

RESUMO

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) salvage pathway in mammals. It is of great significance in the metabolic homeostasis and cell survival via synthesizing nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) through enzymatic activities, serving as a key protein involved in the host's defense mechanism. The NAMPT metabolic pathway connects NAD-dependent sirtuin (SIRT) signaling, constituting the NAMPT-NAD-SIRT cascade, which is validated as a strong intrinsic defense system. Neurodegenerative diseases belong to the central nervous system (CNS) disease that seriously endangers human health. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed that neurodegenerative diseases will become the second leading cause of human death in the next two decades. However, effective drugs for neurodegenerative diseases are scant. NAMPT is specifically highly expressed in the hippocampus, which mediates cell self-renewal and proliferation and oligodendrocyte synthesis by inducing the biosynthesis of NAD in neural stem cells/progenitor cells. Owing to the active biological function of NAMPT in neurogenesis, targeting NAMPT may be a powerful therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. This study aims to review the structure and biological functions, the correlation with neurodegenerative diseases, and treatment advance of NAMPT, aiming to provide a novel idea for targeted therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

12.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 935525, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35875500

RESUMO

Using chicken manure as raw material to prepare activated carbon as a dispersant, a novel biochar-loaded nano-zerovalent iron composite (nZVI@CMBC) was developed and applied to remove hexavalent chromium, i.e., Cr(VI), in wastewater. The dispersion of nano-zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles on the surface of chicken manure-derived biochar (CMBC) successfully inhibited the aggregation of magnetic iron particles and effectively reduced the size of nZVI particles. The results demonstrated that under acidic conditions, the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) by the nZVI@CMBC composite could reach 124.12 mg g-1. The pseudosecond-order kinetic model had a good agreement with the adsorption kinetics of the nZVI@CMBC composite, implying that the adsorption of Cr(VI) is based on the multi-layer chemical adsorption. Therefore, this study provides a new clue and strategy for removing Cr(VI) in wastewater.

13.
Front Neuroinform ; 16: 876927, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784186

RESUMO

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new type of tomography that has experienced rapid development and potential in recent years. It is playing an increasingly important role in retinopathy diagnoses. At present, due to the uneven distributions of medical resources in various regions, the uneven proficiency levels of doctors in grassroots and remote areas, and the development needs of rare disease diagnosis and precision medicine, artificial intelligence technology based on deep learning can provide fast, accurate, and effective solutions for the recognition and diagnosis of retinal OCT images. To prevent vision damage and blindness caused by the delayed discovery of retinopathy, a fusion network (FN)-based retinal OCT classification algorithm (FN-OCT) is proposed in this paper to improve upon the adaptability and accuracy of traditional classification algorithms. The InceptionV3, Inception-ResNet, and Xception deep learning algorithms are used as base classifiers, a convolutional block attention mechanism (CBAM) is added after each base classifier, and three different fusion strategies are used to merge the prediction results of the base classifiers to output the final prediction results (choroidal neovascularization (CNV), diabetic macular oedema (DME), drusen, normal). The results show that in a classification problem involving the UCSD common retinal OCT dataset (108,312 OCT images from 4,686 patients), compared with that of the InceptionV3 network model, the prediction accuracy of FN-OCT is improved by 5.3% (accuracy = 98.7%, area under the curve (AUC) = 99.1%). The predictive accuracy and AUC achieved on an external dataset for the classification of retinal OCT diseases are 92 and 94.5%, respectively, and gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM) is used as a visualization tool to verify the effectiveness of the proposed FNs. This finding indicates that the developed fusion algorithm can significantly improve the performance of classifiers while providing a powerful tool and theoretical support for assisting with the diagnosis of retinal OCT.

14.
Org Lett ; 24(29): 5474-5479, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857420

RESUMO

A carbene-catalyzed enantio- and diastereoselective [2 + 4] cycloaddition reaction is developed for quick and efficient access to structurally complex multicyclic pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole molecules. The reaction tolerates a broad scope of substrates bearing various substitution patterns, with the multicyclic pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole products afforded in generally good to excellent yields and optical purities. The chiral molecules obtained from this approach has found promising applications in the development of novel bacteriacides for plant protection.

15.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 234: 112500, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: A photosensitizer (PS) delivery and comprehensive tumor targeting platform was developed that is centered on the photosensitization of key pharmacological targets in solid tumors (cancer cells, tumor vascular endothelium, and cellular and non-cellular components of the tumor microenvironment) before photodynamic therapy (PDT). Interstitially targeted liposomes (ITLs) encapsulating zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPC) and aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPC) were formulated for passive targeting of the tumor microenvironment. In previous work it was established that the PEGylated ITLs were taken up by cultured cholangiocarcinoma cells. The aim of this study was to verify previous results in cancer cells and to determine whether the ITLs can also be used to photosensitize cells in the tumor microenvironment and vasculature. Following positive results, rudimentary in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed with ZnPC-ITLs and AlPC-ITLs as well as their water-soluble tetrasulfonated derivatives (ZnPCS4 and AlPCS4) to assemble a research dossier and bring this platform closer to clinical transition. METHODS: Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were employed to determine ITL uptake and PS distribution in cholangiocarcinoma (SK-ChA-1) cells, endothelial cells (HUVECs), fibroblasts (NIH-3T3), and macrophages (RAW 264.7). Uptake of ITLs by endothelial cells was verified under flow conditions in a flow chamber. Dark toxicity and PDT efficacy were determined by cell viability assays, while the mode of cell death and cell cycle arrest were assayed by flow cytometry. In vivo systemic toxicity was assessed in zebrafish and chicken embryos, whereas skin phototoxicity was determined in BALB/c nude mice. A PDT efficacy pilot was conducted in BALB/c nude mice bearing human triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) xenografts. RESULTS: The key findings were that (1) photodynamically active PSs (i.e., all except ZnPCS4) were able to effectively photosensitize cancer cells and non-cancerous cells; (2) following PDT, photodynamically active PSs were highly toxic-to-potent as per anti-cancer compound classification; (3) the photodynamically active PSs did not elicit notable systemic toxicity in zebrafish and chicken embryos; (4) ITL-delivered ZnPC and ZnPCS4 were associated with skin phototoxicity, while the aluminum-containing PSs did not exert detectable skin phototoxicity; and (5) ITL-delivered ZnPC and AlPC were equally effective in their tumor-killing capacity in human tumor breast cancer xenografts and superior to other non-phthalocyanine PSs when appraised on a per mole administered dose basis. CONCLUSIONS: AlPC(S4) are the safest and most effective PSs to integrate into the comprehensive tumor targeting and PS delivery platform. Pending further in vivo validation, these third-generation PSs may be used for multi-compartmental tumor photosensitization.


Assuntos
Colangiocarcinoma , Compostos Organometálicos , Fotoquimioterapia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Embrião de Galinha , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Lipossomos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral , Peixe-Zebra
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 907427, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35669774

RESUMO

Kunitz-type protease inhibitors (KPIs) are ubiquitously found in many organisms, and participate in various physiological processes. However, their function in insects remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we characterized and functionally analyzed silkworm KPI5. Sequence analysis showed that KPI5 contains 85 amino acids with six conserved cysteine residues, and the P1 site is a phenylalanine residue. Inhibitory activity and stability analyses indicated that recombinant KPI5 protein significantly inhibited the activity of chymotrypsin and was highly tolerant to temperature and pH. The spatio-temporal expression profile analysis showed that KPI5 was synthesized in the fat body and secreted into the hemolymph. In vivo induction analysis showed that the expression of KPI5 in the fat body was significantly upregulated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Binding assays suggested that KPI5 can bind to pathogens and PAMPs. In vitro pathogen growth inhibition assay and encapsulation analysis indicated that KPI5 can neither kill pathogenic bacteria directly nor promote the encapsulation of agarose beads by silkworm hemocytes. Recombinant protein injection test and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockdown showed that KPI5 promotes the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the fat body. Moreover, the survival rate of individuals in the KPI5 knockdown group was significantly lower than that of the control group after pathogen infection. Phenoloxidase (PO) activity assays showed that KPI5 significantly inhibited the hemolymph PO activity and melanization induced by PAMPs. These findings suggested that KPI5 plays a dual regulatory role in innate immunity by promoting the expression of antimicrobial peptides in the fat body and inhibiting hemolymph melanization. Our study furthers the understanding of the function of insect KPIs and provides new insights into the regulatory mechanism of insect immune homeostasis.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bombyx/metabolismo , Hemolinfa , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(5): 1191-1198, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730076

RESUMO

To analyze the effects of forest edge on radial growth and cell characteristics in different stand types of Larix principis-rupprechtii, we investigated the differences on radial growth, cell size and numbers between edge trees and inner trees of L. principis-rupprechtii in pure L. principis-rupprechtii forests and mixed forests of L. principis-rupprechtii and Betula platyphylla in Saihanba mechanical forest farm, China. The results showed that radial growth of the edge trees was significantly faster than that of the inner trees in pure forests, with the total ring width, earlywood width and latewood width of edge trees being 48.9%, 58.9% and 29.6% higher than those of inner trees, respectively. However, there was no difference in radial growth between edge trees and inner trees in mixed forest. The total number of earlywood cells, the number of large cells and small cells in earlywood of edge trees were increased by 63.3%, 55.6% and 70.0%, while the total number of latewood cells, the number of large cells and small cells in latewood of edge trees were increased by 35.4%, 37.5% and 28.5% compared with those of inner trees. There was no significant difference in the cell sizes between edge trees and inner trees. The cell numbers of earlywood and latewood of edge trees were not significantly different from those of inner trees in mixed forest, but the cell size in the earlywood of edge trees was 50.0% larger than those of inner trees in mixed forest. The sizes of the largest cells, the smallest cells, the large cells and the small cells in the earlywood of edge trees were increased by 28.6%, 33.3%, 16.6% and 25.0% compared with those of inner trees, respectively. The fast growth of edge trees and slow growth of inner trees in the pure forests could be effectively alleviated by cultivating mixed forests.


Assuntos
Larix , Betula , China , Florestas , Árvores
18.
Dose Response ; 20(2): 15593258221105370, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35663493

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of baricitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, in treating patient with progressing vitiligo, and to further explore the regulation of baricitinib on melanocytes (MCs) in vitro. Methods: Four patients with progressing vitiligo were treated with oral baricitinib for a total of 12 weeks. MCs were cultured in vitro and irradiated by high-dose ultraviolet B (UVB, 150mJ/cm2) to make an MC damaged model (MC-Ds). Baricitinib was added at a final concentration of 25 µM. Dopamine staining and NaOH method were used to measure the tyrosinase activity and melanin level, respectively, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to measure the mRNA levels of tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1). Results: Significant re-pigmentation was observed in the week 12 without obvious side effects. Depigmentation occurred in 2 patients at the 3-month follow-up. Laboratory research found that higher doses of UVB irradiation (150mJ/cm2) could decrease melanin content of MCs, baricitinib (25 µM) could significantly promote tyrosinase activity, melanin content, and TYR, TRP-1 gene expression of MC-Ds. Conclusion: Our preliminary study showed that baricitinib was effective and safe in treating progressing vitiligo. Baricitinib could promote tyrosinase activity, melanin content and TYR, TRP1 gene expression of MC-Ds in vitro.

19.
J Appl Microbiol ; 133(4): 2167-2181, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490292

RESUMO

AIMS: The emerging of drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a critical challenge and renders an urgent action to discover innovative antimicrobial interventions. One of these interventions is to disrupt the pseudomonas quinolone signal (pqs) quorum sensing (QS) system, which governs multiple virulence traits and biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the QS inhibitory activity of a series of new PqsR inhibitors bearing a quinoline scaffold against Ps. aeruginosa. METHODS AND RESULTS: The results showed that compound 1 suppressed the expression of QS-related genes and showed the best inhibitory activity to the pqs system of wild-type Ps. aeruginosa PAO1 with an IC50 of 20.22 µmol L-1 . The virulence factors including pyocyanin, total protease, elastase and rhamnolipid were significantly suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner with the compound. In addition, compound 1 in combination with tetracycline inhibited synergistically the bacterial growth and suppressed the biofilm formation of PAO1. The molecular docking studies also suggested that compound 1 could potentially interact with the ligand-binding domain of the Lys-R type transcriptional regulator PqsR as a competitive antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: The quinoline-based derivatives were found to interrupt the quorum sensing system via the pqs pathway and thus the production of virulence factors was inhibited and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Ps. aeruginosa was enhanced. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: The study showed that the quinoline-based derivatives could be used as an anti-virulence agent for treating Ps. aeruginosa infections.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Piocianina , Antibacterianos/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Endopeptidases/farmacologia , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Piocianina/metabolismo , Percepção de Quorum , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
20.
PeerJ ; 10: e13293, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502205

RESUMO

Background: Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) protects plants against a wide variety of pathogens. In recent decades, numerous studies have focused on the induction of SAR, but its molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Methods: We used a metabolomics approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) and mass spectrometric (MS) techniques to identify SAR-related lipid metabolites in an Arabidopsis thaliana model. Multiple statistical analyses were used to identify the differentially regulated metabolites. Results: Numerous lipids were implicated as potential factors in both plant basal resistance and SAR; these include species of phosphatidic acid (PA), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and triacylglycerol (TG). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that lipids accumulated in both local and systemic leaves, while other lipids only accumulated in local leaves or in systemic leaves. PA (16:0_18:2), PE (34:5) and PE (16:0_18:2) had higher levels in both local leaves inoculated with Psm ES4326 or Psm avrRpm1 and systemic leaves of the plants locally infected with Psm avrRpm1 or Psm ES4326. PC (32:5) had high levels in leaves inoculated with Psm ES4326. Other differentially regulated metabolites, including PA (18:2_18:2), PA (16:0_18:3), PA (18:3_18:2), PE (16:0_18:3), PE (16:1_16:1), PE (34:4) and TGs showed higher levels in systemic leaves of the plants locally infected with Psm avrRpm1 or Psm ES4326. These findings will help direct future studies on the molecular mechanisms of SAR.

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