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1.
J Vis Exp ; (176)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747395

RESUMO

Peripheral nerve interfaces are frequently used in experimental neuroscience and regenerative medicine for a wide variety of applications. Such interfaces can be sensors, actuators, or both. Traditional methods of peripheral nerve interfacing must either tether to an external system or rely on battery power that limits the time frame for operation. With recent developments of wireless, battery-free, and fully implantable peripheral nerve interfaces, a new class of devices can offer capabilities that match or exceed those of their wired or battery-powered precursors. This paper describes methods to (i) surgically implant and (ii) wirelessly power and control this system in adult rats. The sciatic and phrenic nerve models were selected as examples to highlight the versatility of this approach. The paper shows how the peripheral nerve interface can evoke compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), deliver a therapeutic electrical stimulation protocol, and incorporate a conduit for the repair of peripheral nerve injury. Such devices offer expanded treatment options for single-dose or repeated dose therapeutic stimulation and can be adapted to a variety of nerve locations.

2.
Mater Horiz ; 8(2): 383-400, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821261

RESUMO

Advances in materials and mechanics designs have led to the development of flexible electronics, which have important applications to human healthcare due to their good biocompatibility and conformal integration with biological tissue. Material innovation and mechanics design have played a key role in designing the substrates and encapsulations of flexible electronics for various bio-integrated systems. This review first introduces the inorganic materials and novel organic materials used for the substrates and encapsulation of flexible electronics, and summarizes their mechanics properties, permeability and optical transmission properties. The structural designs of the substrates are then introduced to ensure the reliability of flexible electronics, including the patterned and pre-strained designs to improve the stretchability, and the strain-isolation and -limiting substrates to reduce the deformation. Some emerging encapsulations are presented to protect the flexible electronics from degradation, environmental erosion or contamination, though they may slightly reduce the stretchability of flexible electronics.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(43)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663725

RESUMO

Early identification of atypical infant movement behaviors consistent with underlying neuromotor pathologies can expedite timely enrollment in therapeutic interventions that exploit inherent neuroplasticity to promote recovery. Traditional neuromotor assessments rely on qualitative evaluations performed by specially trained personnel, mostly available in tertiary medical centers or specialized facilities. Such approaches are high in cost, require geographic proximity to advanced healthcare resources, and yield mostly qualitative insight. This paper introduces a simple, low-cost alternative in the form of a technology customized for quantitatively capturing continuous, full-body kinematics of infants during free living conditions at home or in clinical settings while simultaneously recording essential vital signs data. The system consists of a wireless network of small, flexible inertial sensors placed at strategic locations across the body and operated in a wide-bandwidth and time-synchronized fashion. The data serve as the basis for reconstructing three-dimensional motions in avatar form without the need for video recordings and associated privacy concerns, for remote visual assessments by experts. These quantitative measurements can also be presented in graphical format and analyzed with machine-learning techniques, with potential to automate and systematize traditional motor assessments. Clinical implementations with infants at low and at elevated risks for atypical neuromotor development illustrates application of this system in quantitative and semiquantitative assessments of patterns of gross motor skills, along with body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate, from long-term and follow-up measurements over a 3-mo period following birth. The engineering aspects are compatible for scaled deployment, with the potential to improve health outcomes for children worldwide via early, pragmatic detection methods.

5.
Adv Mater ; 33(44): e2103974, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510572

RESUMO

Continuous monitoring of vital signs is an essential aspect of operations in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units (NICUs and PICUs), of particular importance to extremely premature and/or critically ill patients. Current approaches require multiple sensors taped to the skin and connected via hard-wired interfaces to external data acquisition electronics. The adhesives can cause iatrogenic injuries to fragile, underdeveloped skin, and the wires can complicate even the most routine tasks in patient care. Here, materials strategies and design concepts are introduced that significantly improve these platforms through the use of optimized materials, open (i.e., "holey") layouts and precurved designs. These schemes 1) reduce the stresses at the skin interface, 2) facilitate release of interfacial moisture from transepidermal water loss, 3) allow visual inspection of the skin for rashes or other forms of irritation, 4) enable triggered reduction of adhesion to reduce the probability for injuries that can result from device removal. A combination of systematic benchtop testing and computational modeling identifies the essential mechanisms and key considerations. Demonstrations on adult volunteers and on a neonate in an operating NICUs illustrate a broad range of capabilities in continuous, clinical-grade monitoring of conventional vital signs, and unconventional indicators of health status.

6.
Nature ; 597(7877): 503-510, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552257

RESUMO

Large, distributed collections of miniaturized, wireless electronic devices1,2 may form the basis of future systems for environmental monitoring3, population surveillance4, disease management5 and other applications that demand coverage over expansive spatial scales. Aerial schemes to distribute the components for such networks are required, and-inspired by wind-dispersed seeds6-we examined passive structures designed for controlled, unpowered flight across natural environments or city settings. Techniques in mechanically guided assembly of three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures7-9 provide access to miniature, 3D fliers optimized for such purposes, in processes that align with the most sophisticated production techniques for electronic, optoelectronic, microfluidic and microelectromechanical technologies. Here we demonstrate a range of 3D macro-, meso- and microscale fliers produced in this manner, including those that incorporate active electronic and colorimetric payloads. Analytical, computational and experimental studies of the aerodynamics of high-performance structures of this type establish a set of fundamental considerations in bio-inspired design, with a focus on 3D fliers that exhibit controlled rotational kinematics and low terminal velocities. An approach that represents these complex 3D structures as discrete numbers of blades captures the essential physics in simple, analytical scaling forms, validated by computational and experimental results. Battery-free, wireless devices and colorimetric sensors for environmental measurements provide simple examples of a wide spectrum of applications of these unusual concepts.

7.
Adv Mater ; 33(39): e2103857, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369002

RESUMO

Wireless, skin-integrated devices for continuous, clinical-quality monitoring of vital signs have the potential to greatly improve the care of patients in neonatal and pediatric intensive-care units. These same technologies can also be used in the home, across a broad spectrum of ages, from beginning to end of life. Although miniaturized forms of such devices minimize patient burden and improve compliance, they represent life-threatening choking hazards for infants. A materials strategy is presented here to address this concern. Specifically, composite materials are introduced as soft encapsulating layers and gentle adhesives that release chemical compounds designed to elicit an intense bitter taste when placed in the mouth. Reflexive reactions to this sensation strongly reduce the potential for ingestion, as a safety feature. The materials systems described involve a non-toxic bitterant (denatonium benzoate) as a dopant in an elastomeric (poly(dimethylsiloxane)) or hydrogel matrix. Experimental and computational studies of these composite materials and the kinetics of release of the bitterant define the key properties. Incorporation into various wireless skin-integrated sensors demonstrates their utility in functional systems. This simple strategy offers valuable protective capabilities, with broad practical relevance to the welfare of children monitored with wearable devices.

8.
Nat Mater ; 20(11): 1559-1570, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326506

RESUMO

Flexible electronic/optoelectronic systems that can intimately integrate onto the surfaces of vital organ systems have the potential to offer revolutionary diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities relevant to a wide spectrum of diseases and disorders. The critical interfaces between such technologies and living tissues must provide soft mechanical coupling and efficient optical/electrical/chemical exchange. Here, we introduce a functional adhesive bioelectronic-tissue interface material, in the forms of mechanically compliant, electrically conductive, and optically transparent encapsulating coatings, interfacial layers or supporting matrices. These materials strongly bond both to the surfaces of the devices and to those of different internal organs, with stable adhesion for several days to months, in chemistries that can be tailored to bioresorb at controlled rates. Experimental demonstrations in live animal models include device applications that range from battery-free optoelectronic systems for deep-brain optogenetics and subdermal phototherapy to wireless millimetre-scale pacemakers and flexible multielectrode epicardial arrays. These advances have immediate applicability across nearly all types of bioelectronic/optoelectronic system currently used in animal model studies, and they also have the potential for future treatment of life-threatening diseases and disorders in humans.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(30)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301889

RESUMO

Wireless, battery-free, and fully subdermally implantable optogenetic tools are poised to transform neurobiological research in freely moving animals. Current-generation wireless devices are sufficiently small, thin, and light for subdermal implantation, offering some advantages over tethered methods for naturalistic behavior. Yet current devices using wireless power delivery require invasive stimulus delivery, penetrating the skull and disrupting the blood-brain barrier. This can cause tissue displacement, neuronal damage, and scarring. Power delivery constraints also sharply curtail operational arena size. Here, we implement highly miniaturized, capacitive power storage on the platform of wireless subdermal implants. With approaches to digitally manage power delivery to optoelectronic components, we enable two classes of applications: transcranial optogenetic activation millimeters into the brain (validated using motor cortex stimulation to induce turning behaviors) and wireless optogenetics in arenas of more than 1 m2 in size. This methodology allows for previously impossible behavioral experiments leveraging the modern optogenetic toolkit.

10.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(10): 1228-1238, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183859

RESUMO

Temporary cardiac pacemakers used in periods of need during surgical recovery involve percutaneous leads and externalized hardware that carry risks of infection, constrain patient mobility and may damage the heart during lead removal. Here we report a leadless, battery-free, fully implantable cardiac pacemaker for postoperative control of cardiac rate and rhythm that undergoes complete dissolution and clearance by natural biological processes after a defined operating timeframe. We show that these devices provide effective pacing of hearts of various sizes in mouse, rat, rabbit, canine and human cardiac models, with tailored geometries and operation timescales, powered by wireless energy transfer. This approach overcomes key disadvantages of traditional temporary pacing devices and may serve as the basis for the next generation of postoperative temporary pacing technology.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Marca-Passo Artificial , Animais , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Camundongos , Coelhos , Ratos , Tecnologia sem Fio
11.
Sci Adv ; 7(20)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980495

RESUMO

Soft, skin-integrated electronic sensors can provide continuous measurements of diverse physiological parameters, with broad relevance to the future of human health care. Motion artifacts can, however, corrupt the recorded signals, particularly those associated with mechanical signatures of cardiopulmonary processes. Design strategies introduced here address this limitation through differential operation of a matched, time-synchronized pair of high-bandwidth accelerometers located on parts of the anatomy that exhibit strong spatial gradients in motion characteristics. When mounted at a location that spans the suprasternal notch and the sternal manubrium, these dual-sensing devices allow measurements of heart rate and sounds, respiratory activities, body temperature, body orientation, and activity level, along with swallowing, coughing, talking, and related processes, without sensitivity to ambient conditions during routine daily activities, vigorous exercises, intense manual labor, and even swimming. Deployments on patients with COVID-19 allow clinical-grade ambulatory monitoring of the key symptoms of the disease even during rehabilitation protocols.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Acelerometria/métodos , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Temperatura Corporal , COVID-19 , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(7): 759-771, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045731

RESUMO

Evaluating the biomechanics of soft tissues at depths well below their surface, and at high precision and in real time, would open up diagnostic opportunities. Here, we report the development and application of miniaturized electromagnetic devices, each integrating a vibratory actuator and a soft strain-sensing sheet, for dynamically measuring the Young's modulus of skin and of other soft tissues at depths of approximately 1-8 mm, depending on the particular design of the sensor. We experimentally and computationally established the operational principles of the devices and evaluated their performance with a range of synthetic and biological materials and with human skin in healthy volunteers. Arrays of devices can be used to spatially map elastic moduli and to profile the modulus depth-wise. As an example of practical medical utility, we show that the devices can be used to accurately locate lesions associated with psoriasis. Compact electronic devices for the rapid and precise mechanical characterization of living tissues could be used to monitor and diagnose a range of health disorders.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Pele/química , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miniaturização , Pele/metabolismo , Suínos , Vibração , Adulto Jovem
13.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(17): e2100383, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938638

RESUMO

Indwelling arterial lines, the clinical gold standard for continuous blood pressure (BP) monitoring in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), have significant drawbacks due to their invasive nature, ischemic risk, and impediment to natural body movement. A noninvasive, wireless, and accurate alternative would greatly improve the quality of patient care. Recently introduced classes of wireless, skin-interfaced devices offer capabilities in continuous, precise monitoring of physiologic waveforms and vital signs in pediatric and neonatal patients, but have not yet been employed for continuous tracking of systolic and diastolic BP-critical for guiding clinical decision-making in the PICU. The results presented here focus on materials and mechanics that optimize the system-level properties of these devices to enhance their reliable use in this context, achieving full compatibility with the range of body sizes, skin types, and sterilization schemes typically encountered in the PICU. Systematic analysis of the data from these devices on 23 pediatric patients, yields derived, noninvasive BP values that can be quantitatively validated against direct recordings from arterial lines. The results from this diverse cohort, including those under pharmacological protocols, suggest that wireless, skin-interfaced devices can, in certain circumstances of practical utility, accurately and continuously monitor BP in the PICU patient population.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Sinais Vitais , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Monitorização Fisiológica , Pele
14.
Nat Protoc ; 16(6): 3072-3088, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031611

RESUMO

The use of optogenetics to regulate neuronal activity has revolutionized the study of the neural circuitry underlying a number of complex behaviors in rodents. Advances have been particularly evident in the study of brain circuitry and related behaviors, while advances in the study of spinal circuitry have been less striking because of technical hurdles. We have developed and characterized a wireless and fully implantable optoelectronic device that enables optical manipulation of spinal cord circuitry in mice via a microscale light-emitting diode (µLED) placed in the epidural space (NeuroLux spinal optogenetic device). This protocol describes how to surgically implant the device into the epidural space and then analyze light-induced behavior upon µLED activation. We detail optimized optical parameters for in vivo stimulation and demonstrate typical behavioral effects of optogenetic activation of nociceptive spinal afferents using this device. This fully wireless spinal µLED system provides considerable versatility for behavioral assays compared with optogenetic approaches that require tethering of animals, and superior temporal and spatial resolution when compared with other methods used for circuit manipulation such as chemogenetics. The detailed surgical approach and improved functionality of these spinal optoelectronic devices substantially expand the utility of this approach for the study of spinal circuitry and behaviors related to mechanical and thermal sensation, pruriception and nociception. The surgical implantation procedure takes ~1 h. The time required for the study of behaviors that are modulated by the light-activated circuit is variable and will depend upon the nature of the study.


Assuntos
Implantes Experimentais , Optogenética , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Animais , Espaço Epidural/cirurgia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Medula Espinal/fisiologia
15.
Adv Mater ; 33(25): e2100026, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984170

RESUMO

Recently developed methods for transforming 2D patterns of thin-film materials into 3D mesostructures create many interesting opportunities in microsystems design. A growing area of interest is in multifunctional thermal, electrical, chemical, and optical interfaces to biological tissues, particularly 3D multicellular, millimeter-scale constructs, such as spheroids, assembloids, and organoids. Herein, examples of 3D mechanical interfaces are presented, in which thin ribbons of parylene-C form the basis of transparent, highly compliant frameworks that can be reversibly opened and closed to capture, envelop, and mechanically restrain fragile 3D tissues in a gentle, nondestructive manner, for precise measurements of viscoelastic properties using techniques in nanoindentation. Finite element analysis serves as a design tool to guide selection of geometries and material parameters for shape-matching 3D architectures tailored to organoids of interest. These computational approaches also quantitate all aspects of deformations during the processes of opening and closing the structures and of forces imparted by them onto the surfaces of enclosed soft tissues. Studies of cerebral organoids by nanoindentation show effective Young's moduli in the range from 1.5 to 2.5 kPa depending on the age of the organoid. This collection of results suggests broad utility of compliant 3D mesostructures in noninvasive mechanical measurements of millimeter-scale, soft biological tissues.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941674

RESUMO

Tissue-on-chip systems represent promising platforms for monitoring and controlling tissue functions in vitro for various purposes in biomedical research. The two-dimensional (2D) layouts of these constructs constrain the types of interactions that can be studied and limit their relevance to three-dimensional (3D) tissues. The development of 3D electronic scaffolds and microphysiological devices with geometries and functions tailored to realistic 3D tissues has the potential to create important possibilities in advanced sensing and control. This study presents classes of compliant 3D frameworks that incorporate microscale strain sensors for high-sensitivity measurements of contractile forces of engineered optogenetic muscle tissue rings, supported by quantitative simulations. Compared with traditional approaches based on optical microscopy, these 3D mechanical frameworks and sensing systems can measure not only motions but also contractile forces with high accuracy and high temporal resolution. Results of active tension force measurements of engineered muscle rings under different stimulation conditions in long-term monitoring settings for over 5 wk and in response to various chemical and drug doses demonstrate the utility of such platforms in sensing and modulation of muscle and other tissues. Possibilities for applications range from drug screening and disease modeling to biohybrid robotic engineering.

17.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(7): 1035-1045, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972800

RESUMO

Advanced technologies for controlled delivery of light to targeted locations in biological tissues are essential to neuroscience research that applies optogenetics in animal models. Fully implantable, miniaturized devices with wireless control and power-harvesting strategies offer an appealing set of attributes in this context, particularly for studies that are incompatible with conventional fiber-optic approaches or battery-powered head stages. Limited programmable control and narrow options in illumination profiles constrain the use of existing devices. The results reported here overcome these drawbacks via two platforms, both with real-time user programmability over multiple independent light sources, in head-mounted and back-mounted designs. Engineering studies of the optoelectronic and thermal properties of these systems define their capabilities and key design considerations. Neuroscience applications demonstrate that induction of interbrain neuronal synchrony in the medial prefrontal cortex shapes social interaction within groups of mice, highlighting the power of real-time subject-specific programmability of the wireless optogenetic platforms introduced here.


Assuntos
Optogenética/instrumentação , Comportamento Social , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Camundongos
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(11)2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836614

RESUMO

Structures that significantly and rapidly change their shapes and sizes upon external stimuli have widespread applications in a diversity of areas. The ability to miniaturize these deployable and morphable structures is essential for applications in fields that require high-spatial resolution or minimal invasiveness, such as biomechanics sensing, surgery, and biopsy. Despite intensive studies on the actuation mechanisms and material/structure strategies, it remains challenging to realize deployable and morphable structures in high-performance inorganic materials at small scales (e.g., several millimeters, comparable to the feature size of many biological tissues). The difficulty in integrating actuation materials increases as the size scales down, and many types of actuation forces become too small compared to the structure rigidity at millimeter scales. Here, we present schemes of electromagnetic actuation and design strategies to overcome this challenge, by exploiting the mechanics-guided three-dimensional (3D) assembly to enable integration of current-carrying metallic or magnetic films into millimeter-scale structures that generate controlled Lorentz forces or magnetic forces under an external magnetic field. Tailored designs guided by quantitative modeling and developed scaling laws allow formation of low-rigidity 3D architectures that deform significantly, reversibly, and rapidly by remotely controlled electromagnetic actuation. Reconfigurable mesostructures with multiple stable states can be also achieved, in which distinct 3D configurations are maintained after removal of the magnetic field. Demonstration of a functional device that combines the deep and shallow sensing for simultaneous measurements of thermal conductivities in bilayer films suggests the promising potential of the proposed strategy toward multimodal sensing of biomedical signals.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(11)2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836613

RESUMO

Drug delivery systems featuring electrochemical actuation represent an emerging class of biomedical technology with programmable volume/flowrate capabilities for localized delivery. Recent work establishes applications in neuroscience experiments involving small animals in the context of pharmacological response. However, for programmable delivery, the available flowrate control and delivery time models fail to consider key variables of the drug delivery system--microfluidic resistance and membrane stiffness. Here we establish an analytical model that accounts for the missing variables and provides a scalable understanding of each variable influence in the physics of delivery process (i.e., maximum flowrate, delivery time). This analytical model accounts for the key parameters--initial environmental pressure, initial volume, microfluidic resistance, flexible membrane, current, and temperature--to control the delivery and bypasses numerical simulations allowing faster system optimization for different in vivo experiments. We show that the delivery process is controlled by three nondimensional parameters, and the volume/flowrate results from the proposed analytical model agree with the numerical results and experiments. These results have relevance to the many emerging applications of programmable delivery in clinical studies within the neuroscience and broader biomedical communities.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Modelos Químicos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Implantes de Medicamento , Eletroquímica , Desenho de Equipamento , Membranas Artificiais , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Sci Adv ; 7(12)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731359

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D), submillimeter-scale constructs of neural cells, known as cortical spheroids, are of rapidly growing importance in biological research because these systems reproduce complex features of the brain in vitro. Despite their great potential for studies of neurodevelopment and neurological disease modeling, 3D living objects cannot be studied easily using conventional approaches to neuromodulation, sensing, and manipulation. Here, we introduce classes of microfabricated 3D frameworks as compliant, multifunctional neural interfaces to spheroids and to assembloids. Electrical, optical, chemical, and thermal interfaces to cortical spheroids demonstrate some of the capabilities. Complex architectures and high-resolution features highlight the design versatility. Detailed studies of the spreading of coordinated bursting events across the surface of an isolated cortical spheroid and of the cascade of processes associated with formation and regrowth of bridging tissues across a pair of such spheroids represent two of the many opportunities in basic neuroscience research enabled by these platforms.

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