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1.
Environ Int ; 170: 107635, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the increasing burden of chronic conditions, multimorbidity is now a priority for public health systems worldwide. However, the relationship between household air pollution (HAP) exposure with multimorbidity remains unclear. METHODS: We used three waves data (2011, 2013, and 2015) including 19,295 participants aged ≥ 45 years from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, to investigate the association between HAP exposure from solid fuel use for heating and cooking with the risk of chronic multimorbidity. Multimorbidity was defined as the coexistence of two or more of 15 chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, asthma, kidney disease, liver disease, digestive disease, cancer, psychiatric disease, memory-related disease, and arthritis). Multiple logistic regression investigated the association between solid fuel use for heating and cooking, separately or simultaneously, with the risk of multimorbidity. Poisson regression with quasi-likelihood estimation explored whether solid fuel exposure could increase the number of morbidities. Stratified analyses and sensitivity analyses examined the effect modification and robustness of the association. RESULTS: Of the 19,295 participants (mean age: 58.9 years), 40.9 % have multimorbidity. Compared with participants who used clean fuels for heating and cooking, the risk was higher in mixed fuel (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 1.26, 95 %CI:1.16-1.36) and solid fuel users (aOR = 1.81, 1.67-1.98) separately. HAP from solid fuel use was positively associated with an increased number of morbidities (adjusted ß = 0.329, 0.290 to 0.368), after controlling for confounders. Those living in a one-story building, with poor household cleanliness have a higher risk of multimorbidity. No significant modifications of those associations by the socio-demographic and behaviour characteristics was observed. CONCLUSIONS: HAP from solid fuel use is associated with a high risk of chronic multimorbidity in Chinese adults. Our findings provide important implications for reducing chronic disease burden by restricting solid fuel use.

2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6518, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316354

RESUMO

Physically transient forms of electronics enable unique classes of technologies, ranging from biomedical implants that disappear through processes of bioresorption after serving a clinical need to internet-of-things devices that harmlessly dissolve into the environment following a relevant period of use. Here, we develop a sustainable manufacturing pathway, based on ultrafast pulsed laser ablation, that can support high-volume, cost-effective manipulation of a diverse collection of organic and inorganic materials, each designed to degrade by hydrolysis or enzymatic activity, into patterned, multi-layered architectures with high resolution and accurate overlay registration. The technology can operate in patterning, thinning and/or cutting modes with (ultra)thin eco/bioresorbable materials of different types of semiconductors, dielectrics, and conductors on flexible substrates. Component-level demonstrations span passive and active devices, including diodes and field-effect transistors. Patterning these devices into interconnected layouts yields functional systems, as illustrated in examples that range from wireless implants as monitors of neural and cardiac activity, to thermal probes of microvascular flow, and multi-electrode arrays for biopotential sensing. These advances create important processing options for eco/bioresorbable materials and associated electronic systems, with immediate applicability across nearly all types of bioelectronic studies.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Eletrônica , Semicondutores , Eletrodos , Lasers
3.
Nature ; 609(7928): 701-708, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131035

RESUMO

Dynamic shape-morphing soft materials systems are ubiquitous in living organisms; they are also of rapidly increasing relevance to emerging technologies in soft machines1-3, flexible electronics4,5 and smart medicines6. Soft matter equipped with responsive components can switch between designed shapes or structures, but cannot support the types of dynamic morphing capabilities needed to reproduce natural, continuous processes of interest for many applications7-24. Challenges lie in the development of schemes to reprogram target shapes after fabrication, especially when complexities associated with the operating physics and disturbances from the environment can stop the use of deterministic theoretical models to guide inverse design and control strategies25-30. Here we present a mechanical metasurface constructed from a matrix of filamentary metal traces, driven by reprogrammable, distributed Lorentz forces that follow from the passage of electrical currents in the presence of a static magnetic field. The resulting system demonstrates complex, dynamic morphing capabilities with response times within 0.1 second. Implementing an in situ stereo-imaging feedback strategy with a digitally controlled actuation scheme guided by an optimization algorithm yields surfaces that can follow a self-evolving inverse design to morph into a wide range of three-dimensional target shapes with high precision, including an ability to morph against extrinsic or intrinsic perturbations. These concepts support a data-driven approach to the design of dynamic soft matter, with many unique characteristics.

5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5571, 2022 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137999

RESUMO

In vivo optogenetics and photopharmacology are two techniques for controlling neuronal activity that have immense potential in neuroscience research. Their applications in tether-free groups of animals have been limited in part due to tools availability. Here, we present a wireless, battery-free, programable multilateral optofluidic platform with user-selected modalities for optogenetics, pharmacology and photopharmacology. This system features mechanically compliant microfluidic and electronic interconnects, capabilities for dynamic control over the rates of drug delivery and real-time programmability, simultaneously for up to 256 separate devices in a single cage environment. Our behavioral experiments demonstrate control of motor behaviors in grouped mice through in vivo optogenetics with co-located gene delivery and controlled photolysis of caged glutamate. These optofluidic systems may expand the scope of wireless techniques to study neural processing in animal models.


Assuntos
Neurociências , Optogenética , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Glutamatos , Camundongos , Optogenética/métodos , Tecnologia sem Fio
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5576, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151092

RESUMO

Low modulus materials that can shape-morph into different three-dimensional (3D) configurations in response to external stimuli have wide-ranging applications in flexible/stretchable electronics, surgical instruments, soft machines and soft robotics. This paper reports a shape-programmable system that exploits liquid metal microfluidic networks embedded in an elastomer matrix, with electromagnetic forms of actuation, to achieve a unique set of properties. Specifically, this materials structure is capable of fast, continuous morphing into a diverse set of continuous, complex 3D surfaces starting from a two-dimensional (2D) planar configuration, with fully reversible operation. Computational, multi-physics modeling methods and advanced 3D imaging techniques enable rapid, real-time transformations between target shapes. The liquid-solid phase transition of the liquid metal allows for shape fixation and reprogramming on demand. An unusual vibration insensitive, dynamic 3D display screen serves as an application example of this type of morphable surface.

7.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Commercially available near infrared spectroscopy devices for continuous free flap tissue oxygenation (StO2) monitoring can only be used on flaps with a cutaneous component. Additionally, differences in skin quality and pigmentation may alter StO2 measurements. Here, we present a novel implantable heat convection probe that measures microvascular blood flow for peripheral monitoring of free flaps, and is not subject to the same issues that limit the clinical utility of near-infrared spectroscopy. METHODS: The intratissue microvascular flow-sensing device includes a resistive heater, 4 thermistors, a small battery, and a Bluetooth chip, which allows connection to a smart device. Convection of applied heat is measured and mathematically transformed into a measurement of blood flow velocity. This was tested alongside Vioptix T.Ox in a porcine rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap model of arterial and venous occlusion. After flap elevation, the thermal device was deployed intramuscularly, and the cutaneous T.Ox device was applied. Acland clamps were alternately applied to the flap artery and veins to achieve 15 minutes periods of flap ischemia and congestion with a 15 minutes intervening recovery period. In total, five devices were tested in three flaps in three separate pigs over 16 vaso-occlusive events. RESULTS: Flow measurements were responsive to both ischemia and congestion, and returned to baseline during recovery periods. Flow measurements corresponded closely with measured StO2. Cross-correlation at zero lag showed agreement between these two sensing modalities. Two novel devices tested simultaneously on the same flap showed only minor variations in flow measurements. CONCLUSION: This novel probe is capable of detecting changes in tissue microcirculatory blood flow. This device performed well in a swine model of flap ischemia and congestion, and shows promise as a potentially useful clinical tool. Future studies will investigate performance in fasciocutaneous flaps and characterize longevity of the device over a period of several days.

8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 883682, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898495

RESUMO

Mesalamine (MES), also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid, is effective in treating mild to moderate ulcerative colitis (UC). The mechanisms of its actions are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MES treatment on intestinal microbiota and immune system in an dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC model in postweaning piglets. Eighteen weaned piglets were assigned randomly to the following treatments: control group (CON, distilled water), DSS group (DSS, 3% DSS), and MES group (MES, 3% DSS + 2 g/day MES). Our results showed that MES treatment alleviates DSS-induced colitis in piglets, as evidenced by a reduced diarrhea index score and increased average daily gain (P < 0.05). This is accompanied by decreased diamine oxidase activity, D-lactate level (P < 0.05), and attenuated mucosal damage. MES treatment also decreased the abundance of Methanogens and reduced colon CD11b+ macrophage and CD3+ T-cell infiltrations in piglets with DSS-induced colitis (P < 0.05). Collectively, these data indicate that MES treatment-mediated colitis protection may involve microbiota and immune cell alterations.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Mesalamina/efeitos adversos , Suínos
9.
Asian J Surg ; 2022 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794039

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several modifications to the anterior component separation technique (ACST) have been reported to facilitate the closure of abdominal wall defects. In this study, the external oblique (EO) muscle flap for modified ACST during major abdominal wall defect reconstructions has been described. METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive patients undergoing modified ACST was conducted. The clinical data were collected and retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 36 patients admitted to our hospital from December 2014 to December 2020, 9 cases had rectus abdominis tumors, 1 case had rectus abdominis trauma, and 26 cases had incisional hernias. The average age was 61.17 ± 13.76 years, and the mean BMI was 24.25 ± 3.18 kg/m2. The average width of the defect was 14.33 ± 2.90 cm. Unilateral EO muscle flap technique was used to reconstruct the abdominal wall. 3 cases of surgical site infection (8.3%), 4 cases of grade III or IV seroma (11.1%) and 2 cases of intestinal obstruction (5.5%)were reported postoperatively. Ischemic necrosis of the abdominal EO muscle flap, incision dehiscence, intestinal fistula, or other complications were not observed. 1 case of incisional hernia recurrence (2.8%) was reported. Recurrence of tumors or abdominal wall bulging were not noted during the follow-up period of 32.53 ± 14.21 months. CONCLUTIONS: The EO muscle flap technique is associated with low postoperative morbidity and recurrence rate, which approves it a reliable technique for selected groups of patients. Further research are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this technique.

10.
Sci Adv ; 8(23): eabo0537, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687686

RESUMO

Continuous health monitoring is essential for clinical care, especially for patients in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units. Monitoring currently requires wired biosensors affixed to the skin with strong adhesives that can cause irritation and iatrogenic injuries during removal. Emerging wireless alternatives are attractive, but requirements for skin adhesives remain. Here, we present a materials strategy enabling wirelessly triggered reductions in adhesive strength to eliminate the possibility for injury during removal. The materials involve silicone composites loaded with crystallizable oils with melting temperatures close to, but above, surface body temperature. This solid/liquid phase transition occurs upon heating, reducing the adhesion at the skin interface by more than 75%. Experimental and computational studies reveal insights into effects of oil mixed randomly and patterned deterministically into the composite. Demonstrations in skin-integrated sensors that include wirelessly controlled heating and adhesion reduction illustrate the broad utility of these ideas in clinical-grade health monitoring.

11.
Science ; 377(6601): 109-115, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771907

RESUMO

Implantable devices capable of targeted and reversible blocking of peripheral nerve activity may provide alternatives to opioids for treating pain. Local cooling represents an attractive means for on-demand elimination of pain signals, but traditional technologies are limited by rigid, bulky form factors; imprecise cooling; and requirements for extraction surgeries. Here, we introduce soft, bioresorbable, microfluidic devices that enable delivery of focused, minimally invasive cooling power at arbitrary depths in living tissues with real-time temperature feedback control. Construction with water-soluble, biocompatible materials leads to dissolution and bioresorption as a mechanism to eliminate unnecessary device load and risk to the patient without additional surgeries. Multiweek in vivo trials demonstrate the ability to rapidly and precisely cool peripheral nerves to provide local, on-demand analgesia in rat models for neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Bloqueio Nervoso , Neuralgia , Manejo da Dor , Nervos Periféricos , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Bloqueio Nervoso/instrumentação , Neuralgia/terapia , Manejo da Dor/instrumentação , Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Ratos
12.
Science ; 376(6596): 1006-1012, 2022 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617386

RESUMO

Temporary postoperative cardiac pacing requires devices with percutaneous leads and external wired power and control systems. This hardware introduces risks for infection, limitations on patient mobility, and requirements for surgical extraction procedures. Bioresorbable pacemakers mitigate some of these disadvantages, but they demand pairing with external, wired systems and secondary mechanisms for control. We present a transient closed-loop system that combines a time-synchronized, wireless network of skin-integrated devices with an advanced bioresorbable pacemaker to control cardiac rhythms, track cardiopulmonary status, provide multihaptic feedback, and enable transient operation with minimal patient burden. The result provides a range of autonomous, rate-adaptive cardiac pacing capabilities, as demonstrated in rat, canine, and human heart studies. This work establishes an engineering framework for closed-loop temporary electrotherapy using wirelessly linked, body-integrated bioelectronic devices.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Marca-Passo Artificial , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Tecnologia sem Fio , Animais , Cães , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/instrumentação , Ratos
13.
Sci Robot ; 7(66): eabn0602, 2022 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613299

RESUMO

Robots with submillimeter dimensions are of interest for applications that range from tools for minimally invasive surgical procedures in clinical medicine to vehicles for manipulating cells/tissues in biology research. The limited classes of structures and materials that can be used in such robots, however, create challenges in achieving desired performance parameters and modes of operation. Here, we introduce approaches in manufacturing and actuation that address these constraints to enable untethered, terrestrial robots with complex, three-dimensional (3D) geometries and heterogeneous material construction. The manufacturing procedure exploits controlled mechanical buckling to create 3D multimaterial structures in layouts that range from arrays of filaments and origami constructs to biomimetic configurations and others. A balance of forces associated with a one-way shape memory alloy and the elastic resilience of an encapsulating shell provides the basis for reversible deformations of these structures. Modes of locomotion and manipulation span from bending, twisting, and expansion upon global heating to linear/curvilinear crawling, walking, turning, and jumping upon laser-induced local thermal actuation. Photonic structures such as retroreflectors and colorimetric sensing materials support simple forms of wireless monitoring and localization. These collective advances in materials, manufacturing, actuation, and sensing add to a growing body of capabilities in this emerging field of technology.


Assuntos
Robótica , Materiais Inteligentes , Biomimética , Locomoção , Caminhada
14.
Appl Opt ; 61(8): 1947-1957, 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35297886

RESUMO

A rigid fiber-optic imaging element with high fidelity, high resolution, and high contrast is applied in low-level-light night vision and particle detection devices. Any optical fiber in elements is an image transmission unit. However, the independence and integrity of image transmission are disturbed constantly, resulting in blemishes. This paper studies the formation mechanism of the blemishes of rigid fiber-optic imaging elements. The existence of defects with different sizes in or among the optical fibers, and fiber deformation decreasing light transmission ability are simulated theoretically. Then experiments are carried out to verify the simulation results. It is theoretically concluded that a blemish forms when the equivalent sphere radius (RES) of a stone defect is greater than 1.2 µm in a normal fiber, and 1.1 µm in a taper fiber. The RES of a bubble defect is greater than 1.3 µm in the fiber, which can form blemishes. Excessive deformation of fibers behaving as a clad layer with thickness less than 0.3 µm also results in the formation of blemishes. When fiber deformation and the existence of stone are considered, blemishes can occur as long as the size of the stone defect among the fibers is greater than 0.823 µm. The results provide data support and theoretical guidance in solving blemishes and other fixed pattern noises, and significantly improve the engineering and application level of fiber-optic imaging elements.

15.
Research (Wash D C) ; 2022: 9805932, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35316891

RESUMO

Flowrate control in flexible bioelectronics with targeted drug delivery capabilities is essential to ensure timely and safe delivery. For neuroscience and pharmacogenetics studies in small animals, these flexible bioelectronic systems can be tailored to deliver small drug volumes on a controlled fashion without damaging surrounding tissues from stresses induced by excessively high flowrates. The drug delivery process is realized by an electrochemical reaction that pressurizes the internal bioelectronic chambers to deform a flexible polymer membrane that pumps the drug through a network of microchannels implanted in the small animal. The flowrate temporal profile and global maximum are governed and can be modeled by the ideal gas law. Here, we obtain an analytical solution that groups the relevant mechanical, fluidic, environmental, and electrochemical terms involved in the drug delivery process into a set of three nondimensional parameters. The unique combinations of these three nondimensional parameters (related to the initial pressure, initial gas volume, and microfluidic resistance) can be used to model the flowrate and scale up the flexible bioelectronic design for experiments in medium and large animal models. The analytical solution is divided into (1) a fast variable that controls the maximum flowrate and (2) a slow variable that models the temporal profile. Together, the two variables detail the complete drug delivery process and control using the three nondimensional parameters. Comparison of the analytical model with alternative numerical models shows excellent agreement and validates the analytic modeling approach. These findings serve as a theoretical framework to design and optimize future flexible bioelectronic systems used in biomedical research, or related medical fields, and analytically control the flowrate and its global maximum for successful drug delivery.

16.
Small ; 18(17): e2107879, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307953

RESUMO

Island-bridge architectures represent a widely used structural design in stretchable inorganic electronics, where deformable interconnects that form the bridge provide system stretchability, and functional components that reside on the islands undergo negligible deformations. These device systems usually experience a common strain concentration phenomenon, i.e., "island effect", because of the modulus mismatch between the soft elastomer substrate and its on-top rigid components. Such an island effect can significantly raise the surrounding local strain, therefore increasing the risk of material failure for the interconnects in the vicinity of the islands. In this work, a systematic study of such an island effect through combined theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experimental measurements is presented. To relieve the island effect, a buffer layer strategy is proposed as a generic route to enhanced stretchabilities of deformable interconnects. Both experimental and numerical results illustrate the applicability of this strategy to 2D serpentine and 3D helical interconnects, as evidenced by the increased stretchabilities (e.g., by 1.5 times with a simple buffer layer, and 2 times with a ring buffer layer, both for serpentine interconnects). The application of the patterned buffer layer strategy in a stretchable light emitting diodes system suggests promising potentials for uses in other functional device systems.

17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 206: 114145, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278852

RESUMO

Vascular pedicle thrombosis after free flap transfer or solid organ transplantation surgeries can lead to flap necrosis, organ loss requiring re-transplantation, or even death. Although implantable flow sensors can provide early warning of malperfusion and facilitate operative salvage, measurements performed with existing technologies often depend on extrinsic conditions such as mounting methods and environmental fluctuations. Furthermore, the mechanisms for fixing such probes to vascular or skeletal structures may disrupt the normal blood flow or cause unnecessary tissue damage. Requirements for wired connections to benchtop readout systems also increase costs, complicate clinical care and constrain movements of the patient. Here, we report a wireless, miniaturized flow sensing system that exploits sub-millimeter scale, multi-nodal thermal probes, with biodegradable barbs that secure the probes to the surrounding tissues in a manner that facilitates removal after a period of use. These smartphone-readable devices, together with experimentally validated analytical models of the thermal transport physics, enable reliable, accurate flow sensing in ways that are largely immune to variations in temperature and mechanical perturbations. In vivo demonstrations of this technology in porcine myocutaneous flap and kidney malperfusion models highlight the essential capabilities in microsurgical and transplantation-related biomedical application scenarios.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Transplantes , Animais , Humanos , Microcirculação , Próteses e Implantes , Suínos
18.
Nat Protoc ; 17(4): 1073-1096, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35173306

RESUMO

Wireless battery-free optogenetic devices enable behavioral neuroscience studies in groups of animals with minimal interference to natural behavior. Real-time independent control of optogenetic stimulation through near-field communication dramatically expands the realm of applications of these devices in broad contexts of neuroscience research. Dissemination of these tools with advanced functionalities to the neuroscience community requires protocols for device manufacturing and experimental implementation. This protocol describes detailed procedures for fabrication, encapsulation and implantation of recently developed advanced wireless devices in head- and back-mounted forms. In addition, procedures for standard implementation of experimental systems in mice are provided. This protocol aims to facilitate the application of wireless optogenetic devices in advanced optogenetic experiments involving groups of freely moving rodents and complex environmental designs. The entire protocol lasts ~3-5 weeks.


Assuntos
Neurociências , Optogenética , Animais , Camundongos , Optogenética/métodos , Tecnologia sem Fio
19.
Adv Mater ; 34(12): e2109416, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35067974

RESUMO

3D, hierarchical micro/nanostructures formed with advanced functional materials are of growing interest due to their broad potential utility in electronics, robotics, battery technology, and biomedical engineering. Among various strategies in 3D micro/nanofabrication, a set of methods based on compressive buckling offers wide-ranging material compatibility, fabrication scalability, and precise process control. Previously reports on this type of approach rely on a single, planar prestretched elastomeric platform to transform thin-film precursors with 2D layouts into 3D architectures. The simple planar configuration of bonding sites between these precursors and their assembly substrates prevents the realization of certain types of complex 3D geometries. In this paper, a set of hierarchical assembly concepts is reported that leverage multiple layers of prestretched elastomeric substrates to induce not only compressive buckling of 2D precursors bonded to them but also of themselves, thereby creating 3D mesostructures mounted at multiple levels of 3D frameworks with complex, elaborate configurations. Control over strains used in these processes provides reversible access to multiple different 3D layouts in a given structure. Examples to demonstrate these ideas through both experimental and computational results span vertically aligned helices to closed 3D cages, selected for their relevance to 3D conformal bio-interfaces and multifunctional microsystems.

20.
Mater Horiz ; 8(2): 383-400, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821261

RESUMO

Advances in materials and mechanics designs have led to the development of flexible electronics, which have important applications to human healthcare due to their good biocompatibility and conformal integration with biological tissue. Material innovation and mechanics design have played a key role in designing the substrates and encapsulations of flexible electronics for various bio-integrated systems. This review first introduces the inorganic materials and novel organic materials used for the substrates and encapsulation of flexible electronics, and summarizes their mechanics properties, permeability and optical transmission properties. The structural designs of the substrates are then introduced to ensure the reliability of flexible electronics, including the patterned and pre-strained designs to improve the stretchability, and the strain-isolation and -limiting substrates to reduce the deformation. Some emerging encapsulations are presented to protect the flexible electronics from degradation, environmental erosion or contamination, though they may slightly reduce the stretchability of flexible electronics.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Eletrônica , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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