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1.
Breast ; 59: 102-109, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a significant worldwide health crisis. Breast cancer patients with COVID-19 are fragile and require particular clinical care. This study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients with COVID-19 and the risks associated with anti-cancer treatment. METHODS: The medical records of breast cancer patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were collected among 9559 COVID-19 patients from seven designated hospitals from 13th January to 18th March 2020 in Hubei, China. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: Of the 45 breast cancer patients with COVID-19, 33 (73.3%) developed non-severe COVID-19, while 12 (26.7%) developed severe COVID-19, of which 3 (6.7%) patients died. The median age was 62 years, and 3 (6.7%) patients had stage IV breast cancer. Univariate analysis showed that age over 75 and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score were associated with COVID-19 disease severity (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that patients who received chemotherapy within 7 days had a significantly higher risk for severe COVID-19 (logistic regression model: RR = 13.886, 95% CI 1.014-190.243, P = 0.049; Cox proportional hazards model: HR = 13.909, 95% CI 1.086-178.150, P = 0.043), with more pronounced neutropenia and higher LDH, CRP and procalcitonin levels than other patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In our breast cancer cohort, the severity of COVID-19 could be associated with baseline factors such as age over 75 and ECOG scores. Chemotherapy within 7 days before symptom onset could be a risk factor for severe COVID-19, reflected by neutropenia and elevated LDH, CRP and procalcitonin levels.

2.
Chin Med Sci J ; 36(2): 79-84, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231455

RESUMO

Objectives To validate the reliability of the Chinese version of the Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) in physician-standardized patient (SP) encounter. We also tried to examine the agreement between video-based ratings and in-room ratings, as well as the agreement between the faculty ratings and SP ratings. Methods The CARE was translated into Chinese. Forty-eight anesthesia residents were recruited to make preoperative interview in SP-counter. Performance of each resident was graded by in-room raters, video raters and SP raters. Consistency between different raters was examined. Results The Chinese-CARE measure demonstrated high scale reliability with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.95 and high consistency in the in-room ratings in intraclass correlation (coefficient=0.888,P<0.001). Despite a good consistency in intraclass correlation, video ratings were significantly higher than in-room ratings (39.6±7.1vs. 24.0±10.0,P<0.001), and Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated that the pass/fail rate was significantly higher based on video ratings than based on in-room ratings (45/48vs. 22/48, P<0.001). SP ratings had a moderate consistency with in-room faculty ratings (coefficient=0.568,P<0.001), and there was no significant difference between the pass/fail rates based on the in-room ratings and SP ratings (22/48vs. 28/48, P=0.12). Conclusions The Chinese-CARE measure is reliable in the assessment of empathy during preoperative anesthesia interview. In-room and video ratings are not equivalent, while SP may provide a feasible alternative for the faculty rater in the assessment of communication skills with an appropriate measure.

3.
Chin Med Sci J ; 36(2): 97-102, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231457

RESUMO

Objective Burnout is a triad of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment resulting from job stress. Although with distinct regional and cultural characteristics, burnout among anesthesiologists in the Tibet has not been described. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of burnout among anesthesiologists in Tibet and its associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Tibet, China, with an anonymous questionnaire. Social-demographic characteristics, work status, three dimensions of burnout assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey were collected and analyzed. Results A total of 133 individuals from 17 hospitals completed the survey from March to June 2018. The prevalence of moderate- to high-level of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and burnout in personal accomplishment was 65.4% (95%CI, 57.0%-72.9%), 66.9% (95%CI, 58.5%-74.3%), and 83.5% (95%CI, 76.2%-88.8%), respectively. An annual caseload ≥500, frequent overtime work and fair to poor sleep quality were significantly associated with a higher level of emotional exhaustion ( P<0.001,P=0.001, and P<0.0001, respectively). 5-9 years in anesthesiology experience was significantly associated with a high level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (P=0.002 and P=0.003, respectively). Conclusions More than half of anesthesiologists working in Tibet experience a moderate- to high- level of burnout in at least one dimensional scale. Anesthesiologists having 5-9 years of experience are more prone to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Efforts to decrease burnout through reducing the working load and raising the social recognition of anesthesiologists in Tibet should be considered.

5.
Ageing Res Rev ; : 101409, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273589

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder where the accumulation of amyloid plaques and the formation of tau tangles are the prominent pathological hallmarks. Increasing preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that different components of the immune system may act as important contributors to AD etiology and pathogenesis. The recognition of misfolded Aß and tau by immune cells can trigger a series of complex immune responses in AD, and then lead to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In parallel, genome-wide association studies have also identified several immune related loci associated with increased the risk of AD by interfering with the function of immune cells. Other immune related factors, such as impaired immunometabolism, defective meningeal lymphatic vessels and autoimmunity might also be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Here, we review the data showing the alterations of immune cells in the AD trajectory and seek to demonstrate the crosstalk between the immune cell dysfunction and AD pathology. We then discuss the most relevant research findings in regards to the influences of gene susceptibility of immune cells for AD. We also consider impaired meningeal lymphatics, immunometabolism and autoimmune mechanisms in AD. In addition, immune related biomarkers and immunotherapies for AD are also mentioned in order to offer novel insights for future research.

6.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine and cabergoline have been found to be an effective treatment for hyperprolactinemia, not only inducing adenoma shrinkage but also lowering serum prolactin levels. Among known dopamine agonists, cabergoline is the drug of choice due to its enhanced tolerability compared with bromocriptine. This study aimed to evaluate cabergoline's effectiveness, along with transsphenoidal surgery, in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. METHODS: We retrieved all patients with a diagnosis of prolactinoma who were treated in our hospital during 2000-2018. A total of 208 patients were enrolled in the analysis after applying exclusion criteria. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the treatments received. The demographic data, dosage and duration of cabergoline, and serum prolactin levels at different time points were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Normalization was achieved in 59 patients (83.10%) within a short median duration of 2.80 months among those treated with cabergoline only. Although cabergoline alone was effective and well-tolerated, our data showed that long-term remission rates were more favorable when surgery was involved. The long-term remission rate of all patients enrolled was 53.8% (112 patients among 208 patients). The long-term remission rates for the different treatment groups were 17.8% (8/45 patients) in Group 1 (Operation→Drug), 83.3% (5/6 patients) in Group 2 (Drug→Operation), 79.0% (68/86 patients) in Group 3 (Operation only), and 43.7% (31/71 patients) in Group 4 (Drug only). CONCLUSION: Cabergoline has been demonstrated to be effective and should be considered as a first-line treatment for hyperprolactinemia. In our study, transsphenoidal surgery was also demonstrated to achieve good results compared with medical treatment. Surgical intervention may resurface as an alternative first-line treatment. When used in combination with cabergoline, surgery offers a higher disease remission rate than either drug or operation alone.

7.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204643

RESUMO

Plant-derived protein hydrolysates have potential applications in nutrition. Rice protein hydrolysates (RPHs), an excellent source of proteins, have attracted attention for the development of cosmeceuticals. However, few studies have reported the potential application of RPH in analysis, and this study examined their antioxidant activities and the inhibitory activities of skin aging enzymes. The results indicated that the total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations were 2.06 ± 0.13 mg gallic acid equivalent/g RPHs and 25.96 ± 0.52 µg quercetin equivalent/g RPHs, respectively. RPHs demonstrated dose-dependent activity for scavenging free radicals from 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 42.58 ± 2.1 mg/g RPHs] and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (IC50 = 2.11 ± 0.88 mg/g RPHs), dose-dependent reduction capacity (6.95 ± 1.40 mg vitamin C equivalent/g RPHs) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (473 µmol Trolox equivalent/g RPHs). The concentrations of the RPH solution required to achieve 50% inhibition of hyaluronidase and tyrosinase activities were determined to be 8.91 and 107.6 mg/mL, respectively. This study demonstrated that RPHs have antioxidant, antihyaluronidase, and antityrosinase activities for future cosmetic applications.


Assuntos
Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Clareadores/química , Clareadores/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Camundongos , Oryza/química , Oryza/enzimologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fenóis/farmacologia , Picratos/química , Picratos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quercetina/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia , Tiazóis/química , Tiazóis/farmacologia
8.
Breast ; 59: 102-109, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a significant worldwide health crisis. Breast cancer patients with COVID-19 are fragile and require particular clinical care. This study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients with COVID-19 and the risks associated with anti-cancer treatment. METHODS: The medical records of breast cancer patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were collected among 9559 COVID-19 patients from seven designated hospitals from 13th January to 18th March 2020 in Hubei, China. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: Of the 45 breast cancer patients with COVID-19, 33 (73.3%) developed non-severe COVID-19, while 12 (26.7%) developed severe COVID-19, of which 3 (6.7%) patients died. The median age was 62 years, and 3 (6.7%) patients had stage IV breast cancer. Univariate analysis showed that age over 75 and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score were associated with COVID-19 disease severity (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that patients who received chemotherapy within 7 days had a significantly higher risk for severe COVID-19 (logistic regression model: RR = 13.886, 95% CI 1.014-190.243, P = 0.049; Cox proportional hazards model: HR = 13.909, 95% CI 1.086-178.150, P = 0.043), with more pronounced neutropenia and higher LDH, CRP and procalcitonin levels than other patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In our breast cancer cohort, the severity of COVID-19 could be associated with baseline factors such as age over 75 and ECOG scores. Chemotherapy within 7 days before symptom onset could be a risk factor for severe COVID-19, reflected by neutropenia and elevated LDH, CRP and procalcitonin levels.

9.
Chemosphere ; 285: 131515, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265705

RESUMO

In this study, we have investigated the purification efficiency during enhanced coagulation, ozone oxidation and their combined processes for the removal of trace amounts of EDCs in different DOM matrices. The results indicated that the maximum removal efficiency of EDCs occurred at or near pH 7.0 when measured over a pH range of 4.0-10.0. The addition of natural colloids had a two-part influence. While the floc generated by polyaluminium chloride (PAC) significantly increased in size from 198.0 µm to 290.4 µm with a simultaneous improvement in the removal efficiency of EDCs, the floc size generated by polyferric sulfate (PFS) had no worthwhile change except for a slight decrement. The removal efficiency of EDCs and the decrease in spectral parameters including UVA254, UVA280 and humic-like fluorescence during ozonation processes with and without pre-coagulation were investigated. During the ozonation process, efficient elimination of target EDCs are achieved at low O3 doses (O3/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) < 0.2) in different water matrices. The pH-titration differential absorbance spectra technique further demonstrated that the high reactivity of O3 to EDCs is owing to their phenolic moieties. In addition, when mgO3/mgDOC ratio reaches to ~0.40, >90% of estrogenic activity was eliminated. In a nutshell, ozonation with pre-coagulation together leads to considerably higher abatement of EDCs and estradiol (E2) equivalent values (EEQ) at the same ozone dosage than ozonation only process for wastewater treatment.

10.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279310

RESUMO

It has been well known that electric pulse can be utilized to enhance the plasticity of metals, which is attributed to the change of dislocation dynamics, e.g., localized planar slip to homogeneous wavy slip. Here, we show another effect of pulse current, which facilitates texture weakening through room-temperature dynamic recrystallization and additionally improve the plasticity of a polycrystalline Mg-3Al-1Sn-1Zn alloy. By conducting a tensile test under electrical pulse, we found that the peak flow stress and fracture strain depend strongly on current density. As peak current densities increases, the flow stress drops and the fracture strain increases. Our Electron Backscatter Diffraction results suggest that dynamic recrystallization occurs at room temperature, which develops a weakened texture. Our work provides a new insight into electroplasticity mechanism in Mg alloys.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13855, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226598

RESUMO

This study aims to apply a CCTA-derived territory-based patient-specific estimation of boundary conditions for coronary artery fractional flow reserve (FFR) and wall shear stress (WSS) simulation. The non-invasive simulation can help diagnose the significance of coronary stenosis and the likelihood of myocardial ischemia. FFR is often regarded as the gold standard to evaluate the functional significance of stenosis in coronary arteries. In another aspect, proximal wall shear stress ([Formula: see text]) can also be an indicator of plaque vulnerability. During the simulation process, the mass flow rate of the blood in coronary arteries is one of the most important boundary conditions. This study utilized the myocardium territory to estimate and allocate the mass flow rate. 20 patients are included in this study. From the knowledge of anatomical information of coronary arteries and the myocardium, the territory-based FFR and the [Formula: see text] can both be derived from fluid dynamics simulations. Applying the threshold of distinguishing between significant and non-significant stenosis, the territory-based method can reach the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.88, 0.90, and 0.80, respectively. For significantly stenotic cases ([Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] 0.80), the vessels usually have higher wall shear stress in the proximal region of the lesion.

14.
EClinicalMedicine ; : 100989, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293747

RESUMO

Background: This was a phase 1, dose-escalation open-label trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901, a SARS-CoV-2 S-2P protein vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide and CpG 1018. Methods: Between September 28 and November 13 2020, 77 participants were screened. Of these, 45 healthy adults from 20 to 49 years of age were to be administered two doses of MVC-COV1901 in doses of 5 µg, 15 µg, or 25 µg of spike protein at 28 days apart. There were 15 participants in each dose group; all were followed for 28 days after the second dose at the time of the interim analysis. Adverse events and laboratory data were recorded for the safety evaluation. Blood samples were collected for humoral, and cellular immune response at various time points. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04487210. Findings: Solicited adverse events were mostly mild and similar. No subject experienced fever. After the second dose, the geometric mean titers (GMTs) for SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific immunoglobulin G were 7178.2, 7746.1, 11,220.6 in the 5 µg, 15 µg, and 25 µg dose groups, respectively. The neutralizing activity were detected in both methods. (Day 43 GMTs, 538.5, 993.1, and 1905.8 for pseudovirus; and 33.3, 76.3, and 167.4 for wild-type virus). The cellular immune response induced by MVC-COV1901 demonstrated substantially higher numbers of IFN-γ- producing cells, suggesting a Th1-skewed immune response. Interpretation: The MVC-COV1901 vaccine was well tolerated and elicited robust immune responses and is suitable for further development. Funding: Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208103

RESUMO

TAFRO syndrome is an extremely rare form of idiopathic MCD, characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis on bone marrow biopsy, and organomegaly. Like idiopathic MCD, renal involvement is also a common presentation in patients with TAFRO syndrome. Furthermore, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)-like injury and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) are the most reported histopathologic findings of renal biopsy. Several molecular mechanisms have been previously postulated in order to explain the TAFRO syndrome symptoms, including abnormal production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), etc. The role of these cytokines in renal injury, however, is not well understood. The aim of this review article is to summarize the latest knowledge of molecular mechanisms behind the TAFRO syndrome and their potential role in renal damage.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/complicações , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/terapia , Rim/patologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/complicações , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/terapia , Animais , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/fisiopatologia
16.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 340, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246253

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: To date, there is still no consensus about the clinical efficacy of non-surgical periodontal therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with periodontitis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to summarize clinical data regarding the efficacy of scaling and root planing (SRP) in patients with RA and periodontitis compared to non-RA periodontitis patients. METHODS: We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared periodontal clinical data in RA as compared to non-RA periodontitis patients by searching Embase, PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and by manually retrieving from the earliest records to March 8, 2021. The overall effect size of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), attachment loss (AL), probing depth (PD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were calculated by either a fixed or random-effect model, and subgroup analyses were conducted according to the different time points of follow-up. Two investigators extracted the data and assess the accuracy of the obtained results with 95% of Confidence Intervals (CI). Cochrane Collaboration's tool was responsible for the evaluation of the literature quality and the inter-study heterogeneity was evaluated by Q test and I2 statistic. Sensitivity analyses were applied for results with heterogeneity. Publication bias was determined by Begg's test, Egger's test and the trim-and-fill method. RESULTS: Seven RCTs including 212 patients eventually met the inclusion criteria for the study. As the primary results, the change of PD was not statistically significant and in the secondary results changes of PI, GI, AL and BOP were also not statistically significant in RA patients with periodontitis compared to non-RA periodontitis patients. In subgroup analysis, a larger BOP reduction at 3 months, PI and AL reduction at 6 months were observed in patients with RA and periodontitis group. The results of sensitivity analyses had no significant effect. No evidence of potential publication bias was tested. There were some limitations due to the small number of eligible RCTs. CONCLUSIONS: SRP is equally effective in RA as compared to non-RA periodontitis patients. It suggests RA does not affect the clinical efficacy of non-surgical periodontal therapy. These results could serve evidence-based practice.

17.
J Digit Imaging ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244880

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) based on color fundus photographs using a deep learning model. A total of 1670 color fundus photographs from the Taiwan inherited retinal degeneration project and National Taiwan University Hospital were acquired and preprocessed. The fundus photographs were labeled RP or normal and divided into training and validation datasets (n = 1284) and a test dataset (n = 386). Three transfer learning models based on pre-trained Inception V3, Inception Resnet V2, and Xception deep learning architectures, respectively, were developed to classify the presence of RP on fundus images. The model sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve were compared. The results from the best transfer learning model were compared with the reading results of two general ophthalmologists, one retinal specialist, and one specialist in retina and inherited retinal degenerations. A total of 935 RP and 324 normal images were used to train the models. The test dataset consisted of 193 RP and 193 normal images. Among the three transfer learning models evaluated, the Xception model had the best performance, achieving an AUROC of 96.74%. Gradient-weighted class activation mapping indicated that the contrast between the periphery and the macula on fundus photographs was an important feature in detecting RP. False-positive results were mostly obtained in cases of high myopia with highly tessellated retina, and false-negative results were mostly obtained in cases of unclear media, such as cataract, that led to a decrease in the contrast between the peripheral retina and the macula. Our model demonstrated the highest accuracy of 96.00%, which was comparable with the average results of 81.50%, of the other four ophthalmologists. Moreover, the accuracy was obtained at the same level of sensitivity (95.71%), as compared to an inherited retinal disease specialist. RP is an important disease, but its early and precise diagnosis is challenging. We developed and evaluated a transfer-learning-based model to detect RP from color fundus photographs. The results of this study validate the utility of deep learning in automating the identification of RP from fundus photographs.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nail braces are reportedly effective for treating both acute inflamed and chronic dystrophic type ingrown toenails. AIMS: In this study, risk factors for poorly controlled and recurrence-prone ingrown toenails treated with nail braces were identified. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on patients with ingrown toenails between June 1, 2015, and May 31, 2018. The last follow-up date was January 31, 2019. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the possible factors associated with poorly controlled status (ongoing paronychia during treatment) and recurrence. RESULTS: There were 120 (244 sides) and 118 patients (167 sides) with chronic dystrophic and acute inflamed type ingrown toenails, respectively. The mean treatment duration and follow-up period were 161.2 ± 98.3 days and 432.7 ± 320.9 days, respectively. Poor control and recurrence were seen in 7.3% (17/232) and 12.2% (27/221) of the patients, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, acute inflamed ingrown toenails, previous nail avulsion, proximal nail fold hypertrophy and more than one affected side remained significantly associated with poorly controlled ingrown toenails. Foot bone deformity was significantly associated with recurrence. LIMITATIONS: This study was a retrospective study so that confounding factors such as comorbidities, body mass index, accompanying nail changes and lifestyle could not be evaluated. CONCLUSION: Several risk factors related to poor control and recurrence were identified. Patients could therefore benefit from more suitable treatment plans with reasonable expectation.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228623

RESUMO

Increasing the local concentration of microbubbles (MBs) within the blood flow plays a crucial role in several medical applications, but there are few imaging modalities available for volumetric tracking of the aggregated MBs in real time. Here we describe a device integrating acoustic vortex tweezers (AVT) and ultrasound plane-wave imaging to achieve the goal of controlling the spatial distribution of MBs in blood vessels and simultaneously monitoring this process using the same probe. Experiments were conducted using a 5-MHz 2D array ultrasound probe (with three cycles of excitation at an acoustic pressure of 2000 kPa) and 1.2-µm-diameter MBs at a flow rate of 20 mm/s. The AVT waveform was produced by modulating the repetition frequency of the transmitted pulse asymmetrically (4 and 8 kHz at the inflow and outflow ends, respectively). In order to simultaneously capture MBs and perform imaging with the same probe, the asymmetric AVT pulse signal and the ultrasound-imaging pulse signal were arranged in a staggered series, and the imaging was performed using plane-wave pulses at nine angles (-7° to 7°) in compounded plane-wave imaging (volume rate: 200 Hz). Microscopy observations showed that freely suspended MBs could indeed be gathered by the asymmetric AVT in the flow field to form an MBs cluster with a spot size of about 4022 µm2, which could resist the flow to remain at a fixed location for about 22 s. After the asymmetric AVT signal and the ultrasound-imaging pulse signal was turned on for 1 s, the ultrasound 3D image showed that the signal intensity of the MB clusters increased by 13.1±2.9 dB relative to the background area. These results show that the proposed strategy can be used to accumulate flowing MBs at a desired location and to simultaneously observe this phenomenon. This tool could be used in the future to improve the outcomes of MB-related treatments for various diseases.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200176

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may increase the risk of abnormal birth outcomes, and DNA methylation might mediate these adverse effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal BPA exposure on maternal and fetal DNA methylation levels and explore whether epigenetic changes are related to the associations between BPA and low birth weight. We collected urine and blood samples originating from 162 mother-infant pairs in a Taiwanese cohort study. We measured DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip in 34 maternal blood samples with high and low BPA levels based on the 75th percentile level (9.5 µg/g creatinine). Eighty-seven CpGs with the most differentially methylated probes possibly interacting with BPA exposure or birth weight were selected using two multiple regression models. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was utilized to narrow down 18 candidate CpGs related to disease categories, including developmental disorders, skeletal and muscular disorders, skeletal and muscular system development, metabolic diseases, and lipid metabolism. We then validated these genes by pyrosequencing, and 8 CpGs met the primer design score requirements in 82 cord blood samples. The associations among low birth weight, BPA exposure, and DNA methylation were analyzed. Exposure to BPA was associated with low birth weight. Analysis of the epigenome-wide findings did not show significant associations between BPA and DNA methylation in cord blood of the 8 CpGs. However, the adjusted odds ratio for the dehydrogenase/reductase member 9 (DHRS9) gene, at the 2nd CG site, in the hypermethylated group was significantly associated with low birth weight. These results support a role of BPA, and possibly DHRS9 methylation, in fetal growth. However, additional studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Taiwan/epidemiologia
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