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1.
Talanta ; 206: 120194, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514904

RESUMO

Phthalate esters (PAEs), a category of widely used plasticizers, are tend to migrate from plastic packaging to drinks. In this paper, we develop a simple and rapid coprecipitation method for synthesis of a magnetic covalent organic framework (COF) adsorbent. The fabricated COF-(TpBD)/Fe3O4 was applied to magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of 15 phthalate esters (PAEs) for subsequent GC-MS/MS determination in beverage samples. The as-synthesized magnetic adsorbent exhibited great potential in PAEs analysis with a limit of detection of 15 PAEs ranged from 0.005 to 2.748 µg L-1 (S/N = 3). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSD) value of the PAEs were less than 8.8% and 9.9%, respectively. The adsorbent can be reused after washing with methanol. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of trace PAEs in eight beverages with recoveries ranging from 79.3% to 121.8% and RSDs were less than 11.9%. This work provides a simple magnetization process, which facilitates the application of COFs for enrichment and separation of PAEs in beverages with different matrices.

2.
Opt Lett ; 44(19): 4741-4744, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568431

RESUMO

We report, to our best knowledge, the first observation of enhanced third upconversion Raman overtone of water in the ultraviolet region 240-380 nm by Rhodamine 6G (R6G) under intense excitation of a 532 nm laser. Its spectral peak is mostly around 288 nm. This ultraviolet spectrum has also been obtained for purified water on the Raman spectrometer LRS-3 and fluorescence spectrometer RF-5301PC, which have photomultiplier tubes. The spectral profile is approximately a triangle in most cases. Moreover, an intense and broad background is also observed to appear in the spectrum. Additionally, the conventional visible luminescence spectrum of R6G is discovered to coexist with the ultraviolet one. In comparison, the visible spectrum is much more intense.

3.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568653

RESUMO

LncRNA and miRNA are key molecules in mechanism of competing endogenous RNAs(ceRNA), and their interactions have been discovered with important roles in gene regulation. As supplementary to the identification of lncRNA-miRNA interactions from CLIP-seq experiments, in silico prediction can select the most potential candidates for experimental validation. Although developing computational tool for predicting lncRNA-miRNA interaction is of great importance for deciphering the ceRNA mechanism, little effort has been made towards this direction. In this paper, we propose an approach based on linear neighbour representation to predict lncRNA-miRNA interactions (LNRLMI). Specifically, we first constructed a bipartite network by combining the known interaction network and similarities based on expression profiles of lncRNAs and miRNAs. Based on such a data integration, linear neighbour representation method was introduced to construct a prediction model. To evaluate the prediction performance of the proposed model, k-fold cross validations were implemented. As a result, LNRLMI yielded the average AUCs of 0.8475 ± 0.0032, 0.8960 ± 0.0015 and 0.9069 ± 0.0014 on 2-fold, 5-fold and 10-fold cross validation, respectively. A series of comparison experiments with other methods were also conducted, and the results showed that our method was feasible and effective to predict lncRNA-miRNA interactions via a combination of different types of useful side information. It is anticipated that LNRLMI could be a useful tool for predicting non-coding RNA regulation network that lncRNA and miRNA are involved in.

4.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573024

RESUMO

Electrocatalysis plays an essential role in diverse electrochemical energy conversion processes that are vital for improving energy utilization efficiency and mitigating the aggravating global warming challenge. The noble metals such as platinum are generally the most frequently used electrocatalysts to drive these reactions and facilitate the relevant energy conversion processes. The high cost and scarcity of these materials pose a serious challenge for the wide-spread adoption and the sustainability of these technologies in the long run, which have motivated considerable efforts in searching for alternative electrocatalysts with reduced loading of precious metals or based entirely on earth-abundant metals. Of particular interest are graphene-supported single atom catalysts (G-SACs) that integrate the merits of heterogeneous catalysts and homogeneous catalysts, such as high activity, selectivity, stability, maximized atom utilization efficiency and easy separation from reactants/products. The graphene support features a large surface area, high conductivity and excellent (electro)-chemical stability, making it a highly attractive substrate for supporting single atom electrocatalysts for various electrochemical energy conversion processes. In this review, we highlight the recent advancements in G-SACs for electrochemical energy conversion, from the synthetic strategies and identification of the atomistic structure to electrocatalytic applications in a variety of reactions, and finally conclude with a brief prospect on future challenges and opportunities.

5.
Microb Pathog ; : 103766, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580957

RESUMO

Recently, a novel goose astrovirus (N-GoAstV) was discovered in China, with the transmission route of N-GoAstV unclear. In this study, we developed a TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay for the detection of N-GoAstV infection. After the optimization of the qRT-PCR assay conditions, the results demonstrated that the lower limit of detection for N-GoAstV was 33.4 copies/µL. No cross-reactivity was observed with other goose-origin viruses. Intra-assay and inter-assay variability were ≤1.36% and 2.34%, respectively. N-GoAstV was detected in both field samples, embryos and newly hatched goslings by qRT-PCR assay, provided the view that N-GoAstV may be both horizontally and vertically transmitted. The established qRT-PCR method showed high specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility, which can be used in future investigations on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of N-GoAstV.

6.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122161, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581041

RESUMO

A two-sludge system with separated phosphorus removal unit and nitrification unit was used to treat the actual municipal sewage deficient in organic carbon sources, with the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 4.39. The system was first operated as anaerobic/oxic-nitrification (A/O-N) mode for 60 days (phase I), and then transformed into anaerobic/anoxic/oxic-nitrification (A/A/O-N) mode for the next following 80 days (phase II). Noteworthy, oxygen and nitrate acted as electronic acceptors for phosphorus removal in chronological order. Results indicated that deep phosphorus removal and complete nitrification were achieved at both phase I and phase II, and the system exhibited a higher microbial diversity. Microbial community abundance on genus level analysis indicated that Dechloromonas and Accumulibacter were respectively accumulated with 11.6 and 2.42% abundance (A/A/O sludge); and 9.31 and 1.29% Nitrospira and Nitrosomonas occupied the biofilm, and they performed denitrifying phosphorus removal (DNPR) and nitrification, respectively.

7.
Sleep ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581285

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Early in life impairment of orofacial growth leads to sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Normal lingual gnosis and praxis are part of this early development related to the normal sensorimotor development of the tongue and surrounding oral musculature. The aim of this retrospective study was to explore if lingual praxia is impaired in both SDB children and adults and if there is an association to craniofacial morphology. METHODS: The ability to perform simple tongue maneuvers was investigated in 100 prepubertal SDB children and 150 SDB adults (shown with polysomnography). All individuals had a clinical investigation by specialists to assess any orofacial growth impairment and the elements potentially behind this impairment. In a subgroup of individuals both able and unable to perform the maneuvers, we also performed a blind recognition of forms placed in the mouth. RESULTS: A subgroup of pediatric and adult SDB patients presented evidence not only of orofacial growth impairment, but also apraxia independent of age and severity of OSA. CONCLUSIONS: By 3 years of age, children should be able to perform requested tongue maneuvers and have oral form recognition. Abnormal gnosis-praxis was noted, independent of age in SDB children and adults, demonstrating that an abnormal functioning of the tongue in the oral cavity during early development can be detected. Both children and adults with SDB may present similar absences of normal oral development very early in life and a similar presentation of apraxia, suggesting that the distinction of SDB in children versus adults may not be relevant.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e033246, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) engenders faster viral suppression but with suboptimal rates of durable viral suppression and engagement in care, as reported by clinical trials in resource-limited settings. Real-world experience with rapid ART initiation remains limited in resource-rich settings. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A tertiary hospital in metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: We included 631 patients newly diagnosed as having HIV infection between March 2014 and July 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rapid ART initiation was defined as starting ART within 7 days after HIV diagnosis confirmation. HIV diagnosis, ART initiation and viral suppression dates and clinical outcome data were collected by reviewing medical records. The rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU), engagement in care and virological rebound at 12 months were compared between patients with rapid ART initiation and those with standard initiation. RESULTS: Rapid ART initiation increased from 33.8% in 2014 to 68.3% in 2017, and the median interval between HIV diagnosis and viral suppression (HIV RNA load <200 copies/mL) decreased from 138 to 47 days. Patients with rapid ART initiation had a significantly higher rate of engagement in care at 12 months than did those with standard initiation (88.3% vs 79.0%; p=0.002). Patients aged <30 years had a higher risk of LTFU (HR: 2.19; 95% CI 1.20 to 3.98); and rapid ART initiation was associated with a lower risk of LTFU (HR: 0.41; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.83). Patients aged <30 years were more likely to acquire incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs) before achieving viral suppression. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid ART initiation was associated with a higher rate of engagement in care at 12 months and shortened interval from diagnosis to HIV suppression. Delayed ART initiation may increase onwards HIV transmission considering the high rates of STIs. ETHICS APPROVAL: The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of National Taiwan University Hospital (Registration No. 201003112R).

11.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(9): e1007342, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518349

RESUMO

Stochastic mechanistic epidemiological models largely contribute to better understand pathogen emergence and spread, and assess control strategies at various scales (from within-host to transnational scale). However, developing realistic models which involve multi-disciplinary knowledge integration faces three major challenges in predictive epidemiology: lack of readability once translated into simulation code, low reproducibility and reusability, and long development time compared to outbreak time scale. We introduce here EMULSION, an artificial intelligence-based software intended to address those issues and help modellers focus on model design rather than programming. EMULSION defines a domain-specific language to make all components of an epidemiological model (structure, processes, parameters…) explicit as a structured text file. This file is readable by scientists from other fields (epidemiologists, biologists, economists), who can contribute to validate or revise assumptions at any stage of model development. It is then automatically processed by EMULSION generic simulation engine, preventing any discrepancy between model description and implementation. The modelling language and simulation architecture both rely on the combination of advanced artificial intelligence methods (knowledge representation and multi-level agent-based simulation), allowing several modelling paradigms (from compartment- to individual-based models) at several scales (up to metapopulation). The flexibility of EMULSION and its capability to support iterative modelling are illustrated here through examples of progressive complexity, including late revisions of core model assumptions. EMULSION is also currently used to model the spread of several diseases in real pathosystems. EMULSION provides a command-line tool for checking models, producing model diagrams, running simulations, and plotting outputs. Written in Python 3, EMULSION runs on Linux, MacOS, and Windows. It is released under Apache-2.0 license. A comprehensive documentation with installation instructions, a tutorial and many examples are available from: https://sourcesup.renater.fr/www/emulsion-public.

12.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 31(8): 1045-1047, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury seriously endangers human health and is a potential hidden danger in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, among which myocardial necrosis is one of the mechanisms of myocardial I/R injury. Numerous studies have shown that necrosis factor is widely involved in the regulation of myocardial cell necrosis, but its specific mechanism is not fully understood. Receptor interacting protein 3/receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3/RIPK3) is an essential protein in necroptosis pathways, and activated RIP3 can cause irreversible necrosis of myocardial cells. On the basis of introducing RIP3 molecule, this paper focused on the role and mechanism of RIP3 mediated necroptosis pathway in myocardial cell necroptosis, with a view to providenew ideas and insights for the treatment of myocardial I/R injury.

13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2426958, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534955

RESUMO

Computational drug repositioning, designed to identify new indications for existing drugs, significantly reduced the cost and time involved in drug development. Prediction of drug-disease associations is promising for drug repositioning. Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of machine learning-based methods for calculating drug repositioning. In this paper, a novel feature learning method based on Gaussian interaction profile kernel and autoencoder (GIPAE) is proposed for drug-disease association. In order to further reduce the computation cost, both batch normalization layer and the full-connected layer are introduced to reduce training complexity. The experimental results of 10-fold cross validation indicate that the proposed method achieves superior performance on Fdataset and Cdataset with the AUCs of 93.30% and 96.03%, respectively, which were higher than many previous computational models. To further assess the accuracy of GIPAE, we conducted case studies on two complex human diseases. The top 20 drugs predicted, 14 obesity-related drugs, and 11 drugs related to Alzheimer's disease were validated in the CTD database. The results of cross validation and case studies indicated that GIPAE is a reliable model for predicting drug-disease associations.

14.
Cancer Lett ; 465: 36-44, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479691

RESUMO

Irinotecan (CPT-11) is an anti-tumor drug and formulated as nanomedicines to reduce side effects and improve efficacy. In vivo, CPT-11 must be hydrolyzed by carboxylesterase to its active form 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) to exert anti-tumor activity, but the lack of this enzyme in humans causes inefficient generation of SN-38. Thus, direct delivery of SN-38, not relying on carboxylesterase, will potentially achieve higher efficacy. However, it is difficult to effectively formulate SN-38 using current excipients due to its hydrophobicity and tendency to crystallize. Herein, we report the nanodispersion of SN-38 with its amphiphilic prodrug, CPT-11, as an effective treatment for pancreatic cancer (PC). SN-38 and CPT-11 formed stable nanoparticles without any other excipients, and showed potent cytotoxicity against PC cells in vitro, slowed tumor growth in vivo, namely subcutaneously and orthotopically xenografted mice, with minimal adverse effects, and prolonged their overall survival. Even in clinically-relevant patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, the nanodispersion showed greater anti-tumor efficacy than CPT-11. Importantly, the nanodispersion directly released SN-38, resulting in carboxylesterase-independent anti-tumor activity, in contrast to carboxylesterase-dependent CPT-11. These characteristics may enable the excipient-free nanodispersion to exert potent therapeutic effects in patients.

15.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 204: 107502, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been found to be associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. The autonomic nervous system is considered to play a role in this association. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been employed to measure parasympathetic activity in AUDs patients in some studies; however, the results are not consistent, and the adopted HRV indices vary across studies. A meta-analysis should be helpful for clarifying this topic. METHODS: We gathered studies about measuring HRV in AUDs patients and healthy participants from databases. HRV was analyzed in several ways: parasympathetic function in hierarchical order (main analysis), total variability, and specific parasympathetic indices. Specific parasympathetic indices were further separated into high-frequency power (HF) and root mean square of the successive differences (RMSSD). For comparing the above values in patients with AUDs and in healthy individuals, we adopted the random effects model to calculate the standardized mean difference. RESULTS: Of the 144 screened studies, 15 were included in the quantitative analysis. In the comparison of parasympathetic function in hierarchical order, HRV in AUDs patients was significantly lower than in healthy individuals (Hedges'g = -0.4301, 95% CI [-0.7601 to -0.1000], p=0.0106, I2 = 83.8%). Regarding total variability and RMSSD, AUDs patients also had significantly lower values than healthy controls. However, the differences of specific parasympathetic indices and HF were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: Our results support the view that AUDs patients have reduced parasympathetic activity. Total variability and RMSSD are suitable indices for presenting reduced HRV in patients with AUDs.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3928, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477692

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), one of the most abundant immune components in gastric cancer (GC), are difficult to characterize due to their heterogeneity. Multiple approaches have been used to elucidate the issue, however, due to the tissue-destructive nature of most of these methods, the spatial distribution of TAMs in situ remains unclear. Here we probe the relationship between tumor context and TAM heterogeneity by multiplex immunohistochemistry of 56 human GC cases. Using distinct expression marker profiles on TAMs, we report seven predominant populations distributed between tumor and non-tumor tissue. TAM population-associated gene signatures reflect their heterogeneity and polarization in situ. Increased density of CD163+ (CD206-) TAMs with concurrent high CD68 expression is associated with upregulated immune-signaling and improved patient survival by univariate, but not multivariate analysis. CD68-only and CD206+ TAMs are correlated with high PDL1 expression.

17.
J Vet Med Sci ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527352

RESUMO

In Taiwan, Corchoruscapsularis L. has long been cultivated and the leaves are consumed as edible vegetable. This study is to investigate the protection effect of extract of C. capsularis leaves (ECC) on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal lesion (AGML) in rats. The results of phytochemical determination in ECC for total polyphenol, flavonoid and polysaccharide were 59.88 ± 0.61 mg/g, 86.39 ± 18.0 mg/g and 320.89 ± 6.99 mg/g, respectively. ECC showed significant activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging with IC50 of 0.25 mg/ml. In vivo studies, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham, vehicle (control) and low-, medium-, and high-dose ECC (LECC, MECC, HECC; 200, 400, and 1,000 mg/kg/day, respectively). ECC was able to decrease significantly the ulcer index (UI) caused by 80% ethanol in a dose dependent manner. There was no significant effect on growth trend and food intake rate after the administration of ECC in the experimental period. The serum lipid parameters in ECC groups revealed significant increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dilmutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA). Significant amelioration on pathological lesion score was found in ECC groups compared with the control group (P<0.05). The overall results indicate that ECC has protective effects on ethanol-induced AGML in rats, which could be associated with its antioxidant activity.

18.
J Sep Sci ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529668

RESUMO

A simple and efficient method based on ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the rapid screening and identification of ligands in the extracts of Stellera chamaejasme. The bound ligands, i.e., daphnoretin, isopimpinellin, chamaechromone, neochamaejasmin A, and chamaejasmine (purity of 96.8, 90.75, 91.41, 93.98, and 98.91%, respectively), were separated by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the detection of potent lipoxidase and lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors in Stellera chamaejasme extracts. The results demonstrate that our method of ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with mixed chromatography can screen and confirm the bioactivity of all isolated compounds. This method also eliminates the need for separation of inactive compounds, thereby improving efficiency when studying bioactive substances. For some complex mixtures, neither semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography nor high-speed counter-current chromatography can purify all the target active compounds with high purity in a one-step separation. The combination of the two methods allow for efficient purification of target bioactive compounds with different polarities and physicochemical properties based on their complementary properties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 41(4): 541-547, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484619

RESUMO

Perioperative restrictive red blood cell(RBC)transfusion strategy,in which a trigger of hemoglobin(Hb)<7 g/dl is used,is of great benefits to save blood storage and reduce transfusion-related adverse events including infections,immunologic risks,and circulatory overload.Human body can display a series of compensatory mechanisms to acute anemia,including increased cardiac output,favored oxyhemoglobin dissociation,and lung vascular dilation.Therefore,moderate Hb decrease does not necessarily lead to hypoxemia.Patients undergoing hip surgery or suffering from septic shock and/or upper gastrointestinal bleeding can benefit from restrictive RBC transfusion;however,restrictive transfusion may be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease or undergoing cardiac surgery.Restrictive RBC transfusion strategies have been included in described in many different guidelines.Most of them recommended Hb<7 g/dl to be a trigger for allogeneic RBC transfusion.For patients with an Hb of 7-10 g/dl,the application of restrictive RBC transfusion should be based on the expected blood loss,compensatory ability,and metabolic rate.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Assistência Perioperatória
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533353

RESUMO

: Taiwan held voter-initiated referendums to determine same-sex marriage legalization on 24 November 2018. This study aims to compare suicidal ideation rates in heterosexual and nonheterosexual participants of a first-wave survey (Wave 1, 23 months before the same-sex marriage referendums) and a second-wave survey (Wave 2, one week after the same-sex marriage referendums) in Taiwan and to examine the influence of gender, age, and sexual orientation on the change in suicidal ideation rates in nonheterosexual participants. In total, 3286 participants in Wave 1 and 1370 participants in Wave 2 were recruited through a Facebook advertisement. Each participant completed an online questionnaire assessing suicidal ideation. The proportions of heterosexual and nonheterosexual participants with suicidal ideation were compared between the Wave 1 and Wave 2 surveys. Suicidal ideation rates between participants in the Wave 1 and Wave 2 surveys were further compared by stratifying nonheterosexual participants according to gender, age, and sexual orientation. Nonheterosexual participants in the Wave 2 survey had a higher suicidal ideation rate than those in the Wave 1 survey, whereas no difference was observed in suicidal ideation rates between heterosexual participants in Wave 2 and Wave 1. Nonheterosexual participants who were female, younger, gay, lesbian, and bisexual in Wave 2 had a higher suicidal ideation rate than those in Wave 1. The suicidal ideation rate significantly increased in nonheterosexual participants experiencing the same-sex marriage referendums in Taiwan. Whether civil rights of sexual minority individuals can be determined through referendums should be evaluated.

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