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1.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-27, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) attrition in major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unclear. METHODS: We recruited 70 MDD patients (mean age: 44.6 years, 60.0% female) and 51 age- and sex-matched controls (mean age: 41.2 years, 68.6% female) to examine the associations of MetS components and LTL. Five MetS components-waist circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides-were assessed. LTL was measured through quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: MDD had higher prevalence of MetS (34.3% vs. 17.6%, p = .042), low HDL-C (25.7% vs. 7.8%, p = .009) and shorter LTL (-.038 ± .169 vs. .033 ± .213, p = .042). Regression analysis revealed that MDD (p =.046) and age (p =.003) associated with LTL, while a significant interaction effect of group (MDD vs. controls) x HDL-C (p = .037) was observed. Post-hoc analysis showed MDD with low HDL-C had greater LTL attrition than controls without low HDL-C (p = .020). In MDD, HDL-C dysregulation negatively correlated with LTL (p =.010); but no significance after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: HDL-C may be involved in accelerated aging process regarding metabolic disturbance in MDD only. The relationship merits prospective investigations with larger sample size for clarification.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e022870, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845916

RESUMO

Background Sepsis is known to increase morbidity and duration of hospital stay and is a common cause of mortality worldwide. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASis) are commonly used to treat hypertension but are usually discontinued during hospitalization for sepsis because of concerns about renal hypoperfusion. The aim of our study was to investigate whether RAASis should be continued after discharge in sepsis survivors and to identify the effects on the clinical outcomes. Methods and Results A total of 9188 sepsis survivors aged 20 years and older who were discharged from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2019 were included in our analyses. We further divided sepsis survivors into RAASi users and nonusers. These groups were matched by propensity scores before the outcomes of interest, including all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE), were examined. After propensity score matching, 3106 RAASi users and 3106 RAASi nonusers were included in our analyses. Compared with RAASi nonusers, RAASi users had lower risks of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.62-0.75), MACEs (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.81-0.94), ischemic stroke (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96), myocardial infarction (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.90), and hospitalization for heart failure (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.92). Subgroup analyses stratified by admission to the ICU and the use of inotropes showed similar results. Conclusions In our study, we found that RAASi users had reduced risks of all-cause mortality and MACEs. These findings suggested a beneficial effect of RAASi use by sepsis survivors after discharge.

4.
Ultrasonography ; 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551499

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the ability of B-mode ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict the repairability of large-to-massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included participants with large-to-massive RCTs who underwent arthroscopic repair. B-mode ultrasonography and MRI were conducted prior to arthroscopic repair. B-mode ultrasonography was used to evaluate the echogenicity of the rotator cuff muscle using the Heckmatt scale. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities were examined for two independent physicians. MRI was used to evaluate the degrees of tendon retraction, fatty infiltration of rotator cuff muscles, and muscle atrophy. Finally, two experienced orthopedic surgeons performed surgery and decided whether the torn stump could be completely repaired intraoperatively. RESULTS: Fifty participants were included, and 32 complete repairs and 18 partial repairs were performed. B-mode ultrasonography showed good intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability for assessment of the muscle echogenicity of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. The correlation coefficients between B-mode ultrasound findings and MRI findings showed medium to large effect sizes (r=0.4-0.8). The Goutallier classification of the infraspinatus muscles was the MRI predictor with the best discriminative power for surgical reparability (area under the curve [AUC], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 0.98), while the Heckmatt scale for infraspinatus muscles was the most accurate ultrasound predictor (AUC, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.96). No significant differences in AUCs among the MRI and ultrasound predictors were found. CONCLUSION: B-mode ultrasonography was a reliable examination tool and had a similar ability to predict surgical reparability to that of MRI among patients with large-to-massive RCTs.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070130

RESUMO

The relationship between preexisting major psychiatric disorders and outcomes of spine surgery for degenerative thoracic/lumbar disease remains unclear. A 5% subset of inpatients was randomly selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 10,109 inpatients aged 18 years or over with degenerative thoracic/lumbar disease and underwent spine surgery met inclusion criteria. Major psychiatric disorders diagnosed by psychiatrists preceding index surgery, including anxiety disorder, depression disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and dementia, were identified. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders, and their differential risks on in-hospital and post-discharge outcomes were examined. 10.4% had major psychiatric disorders, of which depression (6.6%) and anxiety (4.9%) were most common. Logistic regression revealed increased risks of ventilator use in depression (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.04-2.54, p < 0.05), extended hospitalization length in bipolar (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.08-2.89, p < 0.05), and higher rehabilitation utilization in depression (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.06-1.47, p < 0.01) and bipolar (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.04-2.76, p < 0.05). Those patients with anxiety had a decreased risk of longer hospitalization duration (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.60-0.98, p < 0.05), while those with dementia and schizophrenia had no change in risks. Preoperative recognition of major psychiatric disorders for risk and treatment assessment is suggested as people with preexisting depression or bipolar disorder have worse outcomes after spine surgery.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Prevalência , Taiwan/epidemiologia
6.
Oncogene ; 40(30): 4847-4858, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155349

RESUMO

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) continues to cause poor clinical outcomes due to limited advances in sustained treatments for rapid cancer cell proliferation and progression. The transcriptional factor Forkhead Box M1 (FOXM1) regulates cell proliferation, tumor initiation, and progression in multiple cancer types. However, its biological function and clinical significance in SCLC remain unestablished. Analysis of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and SCLC datasets in the present study disclosed significant upregulation of FOXM1 mRNA in SCLC cell lines and tissues. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that FOXM1 is positively correlated with pathways regulating cell proliferation and DNA damage repair, as evident from sensitization of FOXM1-depleted SCLC cells to chemotherapy. Furthermore, Foxm1 knockout inhibited SCLC formation in the Rb1fl/flTrp53fl/flMycLSL/LSL (RPM) mouse model associated with increased levels of neuroendocrine markers, Ascl1 and Cgrp, and decrease in Yap1. Consistently, FOXM1 depletion in NCI-H1688 SCLC cells reduced migration and enhanced apoptosis and sensitivity to cisplatin and etoposide. SCLC with high FOXM1 expression (N = 30, 57.7%) was significantly correlated with advanced clinical stage, extrathoracic metastases, and decrease in overall survival (OS), compared with the low-FOXM1 group (7.90 vs. 12.46 months). Moreover, the high-FOXM1 group showed shorter progression-free survival after standard chemotherapy, compared with the low-FOXM1 group (3.90 vs. 8.69 months). Our collective findings support the utility of FOXM1 as a prognostic biomarker and potential molecular target for SCLC.

7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6698521, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575341

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association between poststroke depression (PSD) and psychological crisis in patients who have experienced a stroke within 6 months. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study that enrolled patients within 6 months after stroke onset. The investigators reviewed medical charts to obtain patients' baseline characteristics, and a psychologist evaluated each patient for depression using the Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire (TDQ) and for psychological crisis using the Triage Assessment System (TAS). A generalized linear model (GLM) was used to analyze the association between the results of the TDQ and TAS. Results: Ninety-seven patients with stroke were included. Age (p = 0.003), time since onset of stroke (p = 0.041), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.004), hypertension (p = 0.016), heart disease (p = 0.005), and TDQ score were significantly different between the hemorrhagic stroke group and the ischemic stroke group. The TDQ score was significantly lower in the hemorrhagic stroke group (p = 0.012). The TDQ score was associated with the TAS total score and each domain score, and the presence of heart disease was associated with poorer TAS score in the behavioral domain (p = 0.016). Conclusion: PSD is likely an important component of psychological crisis in stroke patients. For clinicians, a comprehensive psychologic evaluation is necessary to optimize treatment.


Assuntos
Depressão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(8): 1620-1626, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: In 2017, Long-Fa Temple, an illegal religious asylum in Taiwan, was forced to shut down. Hundreds of chronic mentally ill patients were incarcerated there but provided with no modern psychiatric treatment. This study investigated the effectiveness of providing psychiatric intervention for patients subsequently transferred from Long-Fa Temple to a medical center. METHODS: In total, 88 patients (mean age: 57.2 years, 52.3% male) who had been incarcerated at Long-Fa Temple were transferred to a southern medical center. The patients underwent comprehensive biological, psychological, and social treatment for 18 months. The patients were evaluated once a month in terms of their psychotic symptoms, self-care, nutrition status, cognitive function, occupational function, and family function. RESULTS: Regarding the patients' length of stay, 18.2% were incarcerated in Long-Fa Temple for less than 10 years, 21.6% for 10-20 years, and 60.2% for more than 20 years. In terms of psychiatric diagnosis, 98.9% of the patients had been diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. During the 18-month treatment period, negative symptoms decreased significantly, while the patients' self-care ability, nutrition status, cognition, occupational function, and family function all significantly improved over time. Patients who had been incarcerated for less than 10 years demonstrated better improvements in psychotic symptoms, self-care, nutrition status, and cognitive function. CONCLUSION: Contemporary psychiatric intervention is beneficial for chronically untreated mentally ill patients, and the patients who had a shorter duration of illness had a better reserve of recovery. These findings can serve as an important reference for psychiatric intervention in developing countries.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Taiwan
9.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 16, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD), frequently accompanied by cognitive impairments, is associated with systemic oxidative stress and abnormal structural changes on brain images. We aimed to identify the correlation between systemic oxidative stress and cognitive function in PD patients with different periventricular white matter hyperintensities (PWMH) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH). METHODS: A total of 146 participants with idiopathic PD underwent brain MRI, which revealed PWMH and DWMH. The number of lesions were evaluated using the Fazekas criteria. Systemic oxidative stress was determined as early or late phase changes in leukocyte apoptosis and its subsets by flow cytometry. Cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, memory, language, and visual space, were assessed. RESULTS: For different DWMH, the leukocyte apoptosis and its subsets were significantly different.. However, there were no significant differences in oxidative stress biomarkers in PD patients with different PWMH. Attention and memory were significantly decreased in patients with more advanced DWMH injuries. Attention, memory, and language were significantly impaired in patients with worse PWMH lesions. CONCLUSION: Significant oxidative stress biomarker alternations in PD patients with DWMH, but not PWMH, might be associated with white matter injury. Systemic inflammatory responses may contribute to deep white matter damage in PD. Further, more cognitive deficits were seen in PD patients with worse deep white matter lesions, especially in moderate to severe periventricular white matter injury. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospective study.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoaraiose/etiologia , Leucoaraiose/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Substância Branca/patologia
10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 134: 173-180, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388700

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits, which are core manifestations in schizophrenia and exhibit a limited response to antipsychotic treatment, contribute to poor treatment outcomes and functional disability. Evidence on the effect of aerobic walking (AW) and exercise intensity on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia is lacking. In total, 79 patients with schizophrenia were recruited for a 12-week randomized control trial and allocated to the treatment-as-usual (TAU, n = 38) and treatment-as-usual plus AW (TAW, n = 39) groups. The TAW participants joined a supervised 12-week AW program consisting of 30-min sessions five times per week while wearing a Fitbit Charge 2 device. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. After randomization, 67 (34 TAU and 33 TAW) participants joined the 12-week trial and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Multivariate general linear model repeated measures analysis revealed no significant time × group interaction effect on cognitive function changes between the TAU and TAW groups and a marginally significant group effect on verbal fluency (p = 0.09). The interaction effect of time and treatment group on verbal fluency (p = 0.05) was marginally significant between the high and low AW intensity groups, whereas a significant group effect on attention and processing speed (p = 0.04) was observed. Supervised 12-week AW of moderate intensity may have potential cognitive benefits for patients with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Esquizofrenia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Caminhada
11.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 57(4): 511-519, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spasticity and impaired hand function are common complication in patients with stroke, and it pose negative impact on quality of life. AIM: We aimed to assess the effect of the combined administration of kinesio taping (KT) and modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) on upper extremity function and spasticity in hemiplegic patients with stroke. DESIGN: A randomized controlled pilot study. SETTING: A hospital center. POPULATION: Patient of stroke with hemiplegia for 3-12 months. METHODS: Thirty-five patients were enrolled and allocated into three groups, including the sham KT and mCIMT group, KT group, or KT and mCIMT group. The KT, sham KT, and mCIMT serve as additional therapies (5 days/week for 3 weeks) besides regular rehabilitation (5 days/week for 6 weeks). KT was applied over the dorsal side of the affected hand, while mCIMT was applied to restrain the unaffected upper extremity. The outcomes included the modified Tardieu scale (mTS), Brunnstrom stage, Box and Block Test (BBT), Fugl-Meyer assessment for the upper extremity (FMA-UE), and Stroke Impact Scale version 3.0. Measurements were taken at baseline, immediately after intervention (third week), and 3 weeks later (sixth week). RESULTS: Between baseline and the third week, within-group comparisons yielded significant improvement in the wrist and hand parts of the FMA and BBT of the Sham KT and mCIMT group (P=0.007-0.035); in the hand part of the FMA, BBT, and mTS degree (P=0.005-0.024) of the KT group; and in the Brunnstrom stage of the wrist, FMA-UE, BBT, and mTS degrees (P=0.005-0.032) of the KT and mCIMT group. Between baseline and the sixth week, there was significant difference in the proximal part of the FMA and mTS degree in groups with KT, but an additional improvement on the Brunnstrom stage of the wrist was noted in the KT and mCIMT group. CONCLUSIONS: KT benefits patients with stroke in spasticity reduction and upper extremity function. The combination of KT and mCIMT provides extra benefit in motor performance with a more long-lasting effect. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Kinesio taping could act as potential adjuvant therapy in patient of stroke with hemiplegia.


Assuntos
Fita Atlética , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Espasticidade Muscular/terapia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Mycoses ; 63(10): 1083-1093, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnostic cut-off value for chronic pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) by Aspergillus fumigatus-specific IgG has never been evaluated In Taiwan. The cut-off value for Aspergillus flavus-specific IgG has not been evaluated worldwide. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate diagnostic cut-off value of Aspergillus IgG and its application characteristics. PATIENTS/METHODS: Blood from control groups and treatment-naïve patients with CPA infections was collected for Aspergillus-specific IgG measurements. Controls were patients who had chest radiographic abnormalities and signs of respiratory tract infection, but were negative for Aspergillus and resolved without anti-mould therapy. Confirmation and probability of CPA were defined according to radiological features and positivity for an Aspergillus or galactomannan index. Chest computer tomography patterns were recorded for the presence of aspergilloma or nodules, subacute invasive aspergillosis, chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis and chronic fibrotic pulmonary aspergillosis. RESULTS: A total of 35 cases and 50 disease controls were included. The levels of A. fumigatus- and A. flavus-specific IgG correlated with CPA progression (P < .05) but not with the presence of Aspergillus species from clinical specimens (P > .05). The best cut-off value for A. fumigatus IgG was 21.7 mg/L with area under curve (AUC) for receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) 0.934 and had 85.7% sensitivity and 92.0% specificity. For A. flavus IgG, the best cut-off value was 22.1 mgA/L and the AUC was 0.928 with 88.2% sensitivity and 94.1% specificity. CONCLUSION: The level of Aspergillus-specific IgG correlated with radiographic characteristics in patients with CPA and the best cut-off values compared to controls were 21.7 mgA/L for A. fumigatus-specific IgG and 22.1 mgA/L for A. flavus-specific IgG.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/imunologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/sangue , Aspergillus fumigatus/imunologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Pulmonar/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Taiwan
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21139, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629749

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Most symptomatic large-to-massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs) should be operated, but the surgical reparability depended on the degree of rotator cuff muscle atrophy or fatty infiltration. The orthopedic surgeons will decide whether the teared stump is reparable during the surgery, but preoperative evaluation can be done by some assessment tools. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used in recent studies to predict the reparability of large-to-massive RCTs, but the clinical availability was not as good as ultrasound. We hypothesize that the ultrasound elastography can predict the reparability of large-to-massive RCTs. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study and participants with large-to-massive RCTs who are going to have surgeries will be included. Out investigators will evaluate the shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and strength of all participants. Participants' degree of shoulder pain and activities of daily living (ADLs) will be assessed by American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. The ultrasound elastography will be used to evaluate the tissue quality of supraspinatus muscle and infraspinatus muscle. To test the reliability of the ultrasound elastography, two physicians will perform the ultrasound elastography independently and twenty participants will be selected for the reliability test. Besides, MRI will be used to evaluate the size of tear, the degree of tendon retraction, fatty infiltration of rotator cuff muscles, and muscle atrophy. Finally, the orthopedic surgeons will perform surgeries and decide whether the teared stump can be completely repaired intraoperatively. The primary analysis is the predictive validity of ultrasound elastography for the reparability of large-to-massive RCTs. Before the predictive validity of ultrasound elastography is measured, our investigators will assess the reliability of ultrasound elastography when administered to cases with large-to-massive RCTs, and we will check the correlations between the findings of ultrasound elastography and MRI. DISCUSSION: The outcome will provide the evidence of ultrasound elastography for preoperative evaluation of large-to-massive RCTs. The relationships between the findings of ultrasound elastography and MRI will also be examined for further analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03682679. Date of Registration: 25 September 2018, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03682679?cond=rotator+cuff&cntry=TW&draw=2&rank=1.


Assuntos
Lesões do Manguito Rotador/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruptura/cirurgia , Ombro/fisiopatologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Manguito Rotador/patologia , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/patologia
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 39, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive dysfunction is a common symptom of various major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), and bipolar I disorder (BD). In this study, we investigated whether cognitive profiles and daily skill functioning could effectively differentiate between patients with schizophrenia, MDD, and BD. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited a total of 63 patients with schizophrenia, 55 patients with MDD, 43 patients with BD, and 92 healthy control subjects. We evaluated participants' cognitive functions and functional capacity using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment, Brief Version (UPSA-B), respectively. Multivariate analysis of covariance was then adopted to determine inter-group differences in BACS and UPSA-B performance. RESULTS: The BACS was capable of differentiating patients with a major psychiatric disorder (schizophrenia, MDD, and BD) from healthy subjects. Furthermore, schizophrenia patients had poorer motor speed performance than patients with affective disorders. The UPSA-B, particularly the financial portion, was able to distinguish schizophrenia patients from other groups. However, we did not observe any differences in UPSA-B performance between patients with mood disorders and the healthy controls. No significant difference between patients with BD and those with MDD were observed in either cognitive function or in functional capacity. The performances of the BACS and the UPSA-B were positively correlated, particularly in the MDD group. CONCLUSION: Considering overall performance, the BACS and the UPSA-B characterize different endophenotyping profiles in the aforementioned four participant groups. Therefore, the results support the need for comprehensive assessments that target both cognitive function and functional capacity for patients with major psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Cognição , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817127

RESUMO

Background: Sarcopenia is critically associated with morbidity and mortality in the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, analyses of clinical severity and brain changes, such as white matter (WM) alterations in PD patients with sarcopenia are limited. Further understanding of the factors associated with sarcopenia may provide a focused screen and potential for early intervention in PD patients. Methods: 52 PD patients and 19 healthy participants accepted dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the body composition. Using diffusion tensor imaging, the difference of WM integrity was measured between PD patients with sarcopenia (PDSa) and without sarcopenia (PDNSa). Multivariate analysis was performed to explore the relationships between clinical factors, WM integrity, and sarcopenia in PD patients. Results: 21 PD patients (40.4%) had sarcopenia. PDSa had a higher Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III) score, lower body mass index (BMI) and lower fat weight compared with the PDNSa. Additionally, PDSa patients exhibited lower fractional anisotropy accompanied by higher radial diffusivity and/or higher mean diffusivity in the fronto-striato-thalamic circuits, including bilateral cingulum, left superior longitudinal fasciculus, left genu of corpus callosum, and right anterior thalamic radiation, which participate in the executive function. In addition, decreased muscle mass was associated with worse WM integrity in these regions. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that WM integrity in the left cingulum, right anterior thalamic radiation, together with gender (male) significantly predicted muscle mass in PD patients. Conclusions: WM alterations in the executive network, such as the fronto-striato-thalamic circuits, may indicate a risk factor for ongoing sarcopenia in PD patients. The effectiveness of using executive function to serve as a prodromal marker of sarcopenia in PD patients should be evaluated in future studies.


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Substância Branca/patologia
16.
Arthroscopy ; 35(11): 3117-3131.e2, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699265

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the functional improvement and pain reduction of different nonsurgical treatments for patellar tendinopathy (PT), a systematic review with network meta-analysis was performed. METHODS: Studies were comprehensively searched for without language restrictions in the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and SPORTDiscus databases from inception to May 2018. Randomized controlled trials about nonsurgical treatments for PT were included. The outcome measurements were the Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment (VISA) scale and pain scores (such as the visual analog scale or Numerical Rating Scale). Study quality was evaluated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database score. Direct comparisons were performed using pairwise meta-analysis, whereas network meta-analysis was performed using a frequentist method in a multivariate random-effects model. RESULTS: Eleven studies with 430 affected patellar tendons were included in the systematic review. The summary mean difference of improvement in the VISA scale versus the control group for corticosteroid injection was -23.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] -36.73 to -9.27), for leukocyte-rich platelet-rich plasma (LR-PRP) was 13.22 (95% CI 2.37-24.07), for focused extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) was -1.28 (95% CI -6.25 to 3.68), for radial ESWT was -6.68 (95% CI -20.20 to 6.84), for ultrasound was -0.70 (95% CI -11.23 to 9.83), for autologous blood injection was -0.60 (95% CI -9.30 to 8.10), for dry needling was 17.51 (95% CI -2.57 to 37.60), for topical glyceryl trinitrate was -0.90 (95% CI -13.07 to 11.27), and for skin-derived tendon-like cells was 10.40 (95% CI -1.59 to 22.39). LR-PRP (Surface Under the Cumulative Ranking curve [SUCRA] = 87.5%) or dry needling (SUCRA = 90.5%) was most likely to be ranked the best in terms of improvement on the VISA scale. Compared with the control group, the summary mean difference of the change in pain score for corticosteroid injection was 0.80 (95% CI -3.48 to 5.08), for LR-PRP was -1.87 (95% CI -3.28 to -0.46), for focused ESWT was 0.13 (95% CI -0.68 to 0.93), for radial ESWT was 0.03 (95% CI -1.92 to 1.98), for ultrasound was -0.20 (95% CI -1.49 to 1.09), for autologous blood injection was 0.60 (95% CI -0.73 to 1.93), for dry needling was -0.37 (95% CI -2.71 to 1.97), and for topical glyceryl trinitrate was -0.50 (95% CI -2.55 to 1.55). The treatment most likely to be ranked the best in terms of change in pain score was LR-PRP (SUCRA = 94.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The network meta-analysis demonstrated that LR-PRP has the greatest functional improvement and pain reduction for PT compared with other treatment options. However, the treatment effect estimates can be biased by the possible intransitivity and should not be overestimated. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I, meta-analysis of Level I studies.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue Autóloga/métodos , Tratamento por Ondas de Choque Extracorpóreas/métodos , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Metanálise em Rede , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Tendinopatia/terapia , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais , Ligamento Patelar , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 11: 283, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736737

RESUMO

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease manifested by both motor and non-motor dysfunctions and co-existence of cognitive impairment and physical frailty is common. Given that research in this area is limited, a better understanding of associated factors with physical frailty could provide a focused screening method and facilitate early intervention in PD. Methods: Seventy-six patients with idiopathic PD were recruited and Fried's criteria of physical frailty were used to group all participants. Comprehensive cognitive tests and clinical characteristics were measured, and univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to explore the relationship between clinical factors or neuropsychological functions. Results: Twenty-nine patients with PD (38%) exhibited physical frailty. Compared to PD patients without frailty, PD patients with frailty were older in age and demonstrated worse disease severity and poorer cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, memory, speech and language, and visuospatial function (p < 0.05). Further, stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that disease severity by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total score (OR: 1.065; 95% CI: 1.033-1.099) and executive function (OR: 0.724; 95% CI: 0.581-0.877) were independent risk factors for predicting physical frailty (p = 0.003 and 0.002). The best cut-off points are 46 in UPDRS (sensitivity: 62.1%; specificity: 91.5%). Conclusions: Executive function impairment is an independent risk factor for the development of physical frailty with disease progression. Awareness of such comorbidity might provide a screening tool to facilitate investigation in their underlying etiology and early intervention for frailty prevention.

18.
PeerJ ; 7: e7432, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396459

RESUMO

Background: Cognitive impairments in patients with depressive disorders have a negative impact on their daily skill functioning and quality of life. In this study, we evaluated the cognitive profiles and associated factors of patients with depressive disorders with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Affective Disorders (BAC-A). Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 75 patients with depressive disorders (56 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 19 patients with depressive disorder NOS or dysthymic disorder (non-MDD)). We evaluated the participants' cognitive functions at euthymic status using the BAC-A. The BAC-A includes six subtests derived from the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BAC-S) and Affective Processing Tests. The current severity of depressive symptoms was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), and we recorded any psychotropic drugs being used by the patients. Results: We observed no differences in cognitive profiles in the MDD group and non-MDD group after adjusting for educational levels, severity of depression, and psychotropic drugs. Instead, the HAMD-17 scores were negatively correlated to cognitive performance in working memory, motor speed, verbal fluency, attention and processing speed, executive function, composite score, and the six indexes of the Affective Processing Test measured by the BAC-A. A longer illness duration was associated with worse performance of four indexes of the Affective Processing Test. Furthermore, benzodiazepine use was associated with a worse performance of verbal memory, and antidepressant use was associated with better motor speed performance. Conclusion: The current severity of depressive symptoms and psychotropic drugs being taken, not the diagnosis category, are associated with cognitive impairments in patients with depressive disorders. Clinicians should pay particular attention to managing residual depressive symptoms and prescribing adequate psychotropic drugs in order to eliminate depressive patients' cognitive deficits.

19.
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract ; 23(4): 286-292, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464550

RESUMO

Objectives: Attachment connects mood expressions and is related to the psychopathology of depression and anxiety. However, whether insecure attachment can predict the risk of an increased number of anxiety comorbidities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unclear.Methods: Sixty-six patients with MDD were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Depression, anxiety and insecure attachment among patients were assessed accordingly. Patients' disease characteristics and psychopathology were evaluated using a structured psychiatric MINI interview, the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the 21-item Beck Anxiety Inventory, while the attachment was assessed with the Chinese self-reporting version of the Attachment Style Questionnaire.Results: We found that 74.2% of MDD patients had at least one anxiety comorbidity, and 24.2% of MDD patients had multiple anxiety comorbidities. Common anxiety comorbidities included generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder. The patients who had multiple anxiety comorbidities exhibited lower secure attachment levels and higher anxious/preoccupied and avoidant attachment levels.Conclusions: Anxious/preoccupied attachment is associated with an increased risk of multiple anxiety comorbidities in MDD patients. A longitudinal study with a larger sample size is needed to identify the causal relationship of anxious/preoccupied attachment and anxiety comorbidities during the course of MDD.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2528492, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428629

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate soft tissue disorders of affected shoulders after nerve-sparing selective neck dissection (SND) in patients with head and neck cancers (HNCs) by sonography. Eighteen HNCs patients with shoulder disability after SND were enrolled. Shoulder motions, pain, and the sonographic findings were measured and analyzed. Significantly decreased flexion, abduction, and increased pain were found on affected shoulders compared with normal shoulders. There were significant decrease in thickness of trapezius muscle (p=0.001), abnormal findings of supraspinatus tendon (p=0.022), and subdeltoid bursa (p=0.018) on surgical side. The ratio of trapezius muscle atrophy was related to shoulder pain (p=0.010). Patients with subdeltoid abnormalities had significant limitation on shoulder flexion and abduction. Abnormalities of supraspinatus tendon and subdeltoid bursa on sonography and trapezius muscle atrophy may play a key role in shoulder pain and shoulder flexion and abduction limitations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Esvaziamento Cervical , Dor de Ombro , Ombro , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Ombro/fisiopatologia , Ombro/cirurgia , Dor de Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor de Ombro/fisiopatologia , Dor de Ombro/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia
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