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Harmful Algae ; 110: 102133, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887011


As an environmental nuisance, Ulva prolifera green tides have occurred annually in the southern Yellow Sea since 2007. While it is expected that high levels of biological activity during these blooms can alter seawater carbonate chemistry, there has been little research on the responses of marine carbonate system to green tides. Here, the effects of the bloom on the carbonate system were examined on three cruises in June, July, and September, corresponding to the early-, late-, and after-bloom periods of the U. prolifera bloom in Qingdao coastal waters in 2018. Among these three stages, the pH (National Bureau of Standards scale), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were all affected by bloom, with the highest pH and lowest DIC and TA concentrations of the surface seawater occurring at the late-bloom stage. While pCO2 continuously increased from the beginning to the end of the bloom. TA increased by ∼40 µmol kg-1 between the early- and after-bloom periods likely due to the shifts in the carbonate system equilibrium caused by increased CO32- concentrations and the organic matter released by U. prolifera during decomposition. Compared to nearby areas with no U. prolifera bloom, the green tide, along with increasing temperature, reduced the pH and DIC but increased the TA and pCO2. This large-scale bloom also turned the coastal waters from being an atmospheric CO2 sink to a strong source, with the estimation of air-sea CO2 fluxes about 1.69 ± 1.70, 2.28 ± 1.16, and 7.44 ± 5.84 mmol m-2 d-1 during the early-, late-, and after-bloom periods, respectively. This bloom event also promoted the formation of CaCO3 and was an important source of low molecular weight organic acids. These new findings provide nuances for the current conversations on the role of biological processes in modulating marine carbonate system and the contribution of organic matter to alkalinity.

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(10): 1044-1049, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719421


OBJECTIVES: To study the expression levels of microRNA-138 (miR-138) and Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) in peripheral blood of children with cough variant asthma (CVA) and their regulatory effects on Th1/Th2 balance. METHODS: Sixty-five children with CVA (CVA group) and 30 healthy children (control group) were enrolled. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected for both groups, and CD4+ T cells were isolated and cultured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 that were secreted by CD4+ T cells. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentages of Th1 and Th2 cells. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the level of RUNX3 mRNA in CD4+ T cells and the level of miR-138 in peripheral blood. Western blot was used to determine the protein expression of RUNX3 in CD4+ T cells. The dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the targeting effects of miR-138 and RUNX3. The RUNX3-mimic plasmid was transfected into CD4+ T cells, and the effects on the levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and the percentages of Th1 and Th2 cells were measured. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the CVA group showed significantly decreased levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 from CD4+ T cells, significantly increased levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 from CD4+ T cells, significantly decreased Th1 cell percentage and Th1/Th2 ratio, and a significantly increased Th2 cell percentage (P<0.05). The CVA group showed significantly lower relative expression levels of RUNX3 mRNA and protein in CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood than the control group (P<0.001). The relative expression level of miR-138 was significantly higher in the CVA group than in the control group (P<0.001). MiR-138 could target the expression of RUNX3. Upregulating the expression of RUNX3 in CD4+ T cells induced significantly increased levels of IFN-γ and IL-2, significantly decreased levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, significantly increased Th1 cell percentage and Th1/Th2 ratio, and a significantly decreased Th2 cell percentage (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MiR-138 regulates Th1/Th2 balance by targeting RUNX3 in children with CVA, providing a new direction for the treatment of CVA.

Asma , MicroRNAs , Criança , Subunidade alfa 3 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Tosse , Humanos , Interleucina-13 , MicroRNAs/genética , Células Th1 , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2 , Células Th2
Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 15(3): 170-3, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12831624


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of oxygen free radical (OFR) with per-oxidative injury of erythrocyte induced by intravenous procaine in vivo and the effect of methylene blue (MB) in removal of nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). METHODS: Forty patients undergoing elective surgery were divided randomly into intravenous procaine anesthesia (IPA) group and fentanyl group. Blood sample was taken before anesthesia (T0), 120 minutes (T1) and 180 minutes (T2) after IPA and 30 minutes after treatment with MB (1-2 mg/kg, T3) to determine the changes in the levels of NO, OFR, lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), NADH-Cyt b5-reductase (Cyt b5-R) and methemoglobin (MHb). RESULTS: Compared with T0, the levels of NO, OFR, LPO, MHb in IPA group were significantly increased at T1,T2. At same time SOD, CAT and Cyt b5-R were significantly decreased. NO, OFR, MHb, SOD, CAT and Cyt b5-R were all reduced to the normal levels at T3. No changes in any determined parameters in fentanyl group during anesthesia. CONCLUSION: It is indicated that the metabolites of procaine consist of a large quantity of NO:ONOO(-), producing per-oxidative injury to erythrocyte. MB is effective in eliminating OFR in vivo, protecting tissue cells. It may act as an antioxidant drug in the treatment of critical illness.

Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Catalase/sangue , Catalase/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Peróxidos Lipídicos/sangue , Masculino , Metemoglobina/efeitos dos fármacos , Metemoglobina/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NADPH-Ferri-Hemoproteína Redutase/sangue , NADPH-Ferri-Hemoproteína Redutase/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Ácido Peroxinitroso/sangue , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/efeitos dos fármacos