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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361085

RESUMO

A novel aptamer-based competitive drug screening platform for osteoporosis was devised in which fluorescence-labeled, sclerostin-specific aptamers compete with compounds from selected chemical libraries for the binding of immobilized recombinant human sclerostin to achieve high-throughput screening for potential small-molecule sclerostin inhibitors and to facilitate drug repurposing and drug discovery. Of the 96 selected inhibitors and FDA-approved drugs, six were shown to result in a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of the aptamer, suggesting a higher affinity toward sclerostin compared with that of the aptamer. The targets of these potential sclerostin inhibitors were correlated to lipid or bone metabolism, and several of the compounds have already been shown to be potential osteogenic activators, indicating that the aptamer-based competitive drug screening assay offered a potentially reliable strategy for the discovery of target-specific new drugs. The six potential sclerostin inhibitors suppressed the level of both intracellular and/or extracellular sclerostin in mouse osteocyte IDG-SW3 and increased alkaline phosphatase activity in IDG-SW3 cells, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human fetal osteoblasts hFOB1.19. Potential small-molecule drug candidates obtained in this study are expected to provide new therapeutics for osteoporosis as well as insights into the structure-activity relationship of sclerostin inhibitors for rational drug design.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/antagonistas & inibidores , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/isolamento & purificação , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteócitos/citologia , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Osteoporose/patologia
3.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 50(4): 411-417, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26458357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: As an immunofluorescence assay for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is not available in the enteroviruses surveillance network in Taiwan, EV-D68 may be the actual pathogen of untypeable enterovirus-suspected isolates. METHODS: The untypeable isolates collected from 2007 through 2014 were identified by nucleic acid amplification-based methods and sequencing of the VP1 region to analyze the phylogeny and epidemiology of EV-D68 in Taiwan. RESULTS: Twenty-nine EV-D68 isolates were sequenced, including 15 Cluster 3 and 14 Cluster 1 viruses. Approximately 41% of the patients were children under 5 years of age and their infections peaked in August. The ratio of male to female patients was 1.5 and 3.67 for Cluster 3 and Cluster 1, respectively. Fever and respiratory symptoms were commonly reported in EV-D68-infected patients. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that EV-D68 isolates between 2007 and 2014 belonged to different clusters and existed for years, indicating that endemic circulation of EV-D68 existed in Taiwan. CONCLUSION: This study showed that EV-D68 has been endemic in Taiwan for some years despite a small number of positive cases. The continuous monitoring and efforts towards the improvement of diagnostic techniques are required to complete the surveillance system. This study provided the genetic and epidemiological information which could contribute to understanding the etiology and epidemiology of EV-D68.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus/genética , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 11(1): 247, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27173676

RESUMO

The carbon-based nanomaterial graphene can be chemically modified to associate with various molecules such as chemicals and biomolecules and developed as novel carriers for drug and gene delivery. In this study, a nonviral gene transfection reagent was produced by functionalizing graphene oxide (GO) with a polycationic polymer, polyethylenimine (PEI), to increase the biocompatibility of GO and to transfect small interfering RNA (siRNA) against C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), a biomarker associated with cancer metastasis, into invasive breast cancer cells. PEI-functionalized GO (PEI-GO) was a homogeneous aqueous solution that remained in suspension during storage at 4 °C for at least 6 months. The particle size of PEI-GO was 172 ± 4.58 and 188 ± 5.00 nm at 4 and 25 °C, respectively, and increased slightly to 262 ± 17.6 nm at 37 °C, but remained unaltered with time. Binding affinity of PEI-GO toward siRNA was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), in which PEI-GO and siRNA were completely associated at a PEI-GO:siRNA weight ratio of 2:1 and above. The invasive breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, was transfected with PEI-GO in complex with siRNAs against CXCR4 (siCXCR4). Suppression of the mRNA and protein expression of CXCR4 by the PEI-GO/siCXCR4 complex was confirmed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. In addition, the metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated by the PEI-GO/siCXCR4 complex as demonstrated in wound healing assay. Our results suggest that PEI-GO is effective in the delivery of siRNA and may contribute to targeted gene therapy to suppress cancer metastasis.

5.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 49(3): 321-8, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25174670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: As routine diagnostic assays for human parechoviruses (HPeVs) have not been included in the enteroviruses surveillance network in Taiwan, HPeVs may be the actual pathogens of hundreds of untypeable enteroviruses-suspected isolates. METHODS: In this study, these untypeable isolates collected from 2007 through 2012 were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based methods to survey the epidemiology of HPeVs in Taiwan. RESULTS: Thirty-eight HPeV isolates were identified from 575 untypeable isolates, including 23 HPeV type1 (HPeV1), 13 HPeV3, and two HPeV6. Most of the patients were Taiwanese children under 5 years of age and their infections were generally prevalent in summer and autumn, with the highest peak occurring in September. The ratio of male to female patients was 1.56 and 2.25 for HPeV1 and HPeV3, respectively. Fever and respiratory symptoms were reported in significantly more patients infected with HPeV1. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that HPeV isolates between 2007 and 2012 belonged to different lineages, indicating that endemic circulation of HPeV existed in Taiwan. CONCLUSION: This study showed that HPeVs have been endemic in Taiwan for some years despite a low positive rate. The detection tests of HPeVs are needed to correct a diagnostic deficit in the surveillance system. The epidemiological and genetic information obtained from the present study would contribute to the understanding of the etiology and epidemiology of HPeVs.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Parechovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parechovirus/classificação , Parechovirus/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Estações do Ano , Taiwan/epidemiologia
6.
J Clin Virol ; 70: 7-13, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26305811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) belongs to the Cardiovirus genus of Picornaviridae family, and may be a relevant new human pathogen; Thus far, eleven genotypes have been identified. The SAFV type 3 (SAFV-3) is thought to be the major genotype and is detected relatively frequently in children with acute gastroenteritis and respiratory illness. The epidemiology and pathogenicity of SAFV-3 remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the genomic and epidemiologic profiles of SAFV-3 infection in Taiwan. STUDY DESIGN: Virus was detected in respiratory samples from children suffering for URI. SAFV-3 isolates were detected by isolation on cell culture and IF assay. The molecular typing was performed by RT-PCR and was sequenced to compare with reference strains available in the NCBI GeneBank. Serum samples were collected from 2005 to 2013 in Taiwan for seroprevalence investigation. RESULTS: A total of 226 specimens collected from children with URIs, 22 (9.73%) were positive for SAFV-3. The majority of SAFV-3 infections were found in children less than 6 years of age (14 of 22, 63.6%). Genetic analysis of VP1 coding region of Taiwanese isolates shown an 83.2-97.7% difference from other available SAFV-3 sequences in NCBI GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed there is three genetic groups of SAFV-3 co-circulated in Taiwan during the study period. In addition, seroprevalence investigation results indicated that SAFV-3 infection occurs early in life and 43.7-77.8% of children aged between 6 months to 9 years old, had neutralizing antibodies against SAFV-3. CONCLUSION: SAFV-3 may have circulated in Taiwan for some time and it appears to be one of the etiological agents responsible for URIs in children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cardiovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cardiovirus/virologia , Cardiovirus/genética , Genótipo , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adolescente , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Cardiovirus/classificação , Cardiovirus/imunologia , Cardiovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cardiovirus/diagnóstico , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
7.
FEBS Lett ; 589(16): 2058-65, 2015 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26140984

RESUMO

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine biosynthesis. Suppression of ODC by its irreversible inhibitor, α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), or by RNA interference through siRNA, enhanced osteogenic gene expression and alkaline phosphatase activity, and accelerated matrix mineralization of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Besides, adipogenic gene expression and lipid accumulation was attenuated, indicating that the enhanced osteogenesis was accompanied by down-regulation of adipogenesis when ODC was suppressed. A decrease in the intracellular polyamine content of hBMSCs during osteogenic induction was observed, suggesting that the level of endogenous polyamines is regulated during differentiation of hBMSCs. This study elucidates the role of polyamine metabolism in the lineage commitment of stem cells and provides a potential new indication for DFMO as bone-stimulating drug.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Ornitina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Matriz Óssea/química , Matriz Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Óssea/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Eflornitina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Cinética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Ornitina Descarboxilase/química , Inibidores da Ornitina Descarboxilase/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Putrescina/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Espermidina/metabolismo , Espermina/metabolismo
8.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 47(6): 447-54, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23993765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: In recent years, coxsackievirus B3 (CV-B3) has been determined as a dominant enterovirus serotype that may cause severe complications in patients. Since 2008 in Taiwan, some enterovirus isolates have been regarded as untypeable [by employing commercial immunofluorescence assay (IFA) kits]. In 2012, the number of isolates increased. Genetic sequence analysis further confirmed that CV-B3 was present in most of the untypeable viruses. METHODS: Isolates of CV-B3 were collected for basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis and for phylogenetic analyses, based on VP1 gene sequences. In addition, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) developed an in-house indirect IFA using polyclonal antibodies (e.g., rabbit antisera) for diagnosis. The sensitivity and specificity were both evaluated by testing 61 reference enteroviruses and 307 local enteroviruses that were isolated between 1998 and 2010. RESULTS: Based on the results of the BLAST and phylogenetic analyses, five main genogroups (i.e., GI-GV) were classified and the reference strains in Taiwan in previous years were primarily clustered in the GV-A subgenogroup. However, the 15 CV-B3 isolates recently analyzed in this study were classified in four different groups: GIII, GIV, GV-A, and GV-B. Among these 15 isolates, all 10 isolates in the GV-B group were initially reported as untypeable nonpolio enteroviruses when using commercial kits. The conditions of the in-house indirect IFA were optimized by checkerboard titration, thereby resulting in a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.5%. CONCLUSION: This is the first report describing the phylogenetic relatedness of recent CV-B3 strains in Taiwan. An indirect IFA kit was developed by the Taiwan CDC for detecting CV-B3 viruses that are untypeable by commercial IFA kits.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coxsackievirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/virologia , Enterovirus Humano B/classificação , Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/métodos , Enterovirus Humano B/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taiwan , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética
9.
PLoS One ; 8(11): e80942, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24348916

RESUMO

Different subgenogroups of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) have caused numerous outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease worldwide, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. During the development of a vaccine against EV-71, the genetic and antigenic diversities of EV-71 isolates from Taiwan were analyzed by phylogenetic analyses and neutralization tests. The results showed that the dominant genogroups had changed twice, from B to C and from C to B, between 2009 and 2012. The subgenogroup B5 (B5b cluster) was dominant in 2008-2009 but was replaced by subgenogroup C4 in 2010-2011. From the end of 2011 to 2012, the re-emerging subgenogroup B5 (B5c cluster) was identified as the dominant subgenogroup of EV-71 outbreaks, and subgenogroups C2 and C4 were detected in sporadic cases. Interestingly, the amino acid substitution at position 145 in the VP1 gene was observed in some strains isolated from patients with acute flaccid paralysis. Furthermore, thirty-five strains and their corresponding serum samples were used to analyze the cross-protections and antigenic diversities among different subgenogroups (C4a, C5, B4, B5b, B5c, and C2-like) of EV-71. Evident antigenic diversity existed only for the C2-like subgenogroup, which was not effectively neutralized by other serum samples. In contrast, the anti-C2-like serum sample showed broad cross-reactivity against all other subgenogroups. Therefore, these results may provide valuable information for the selection of EV-71 vaccine candidates and the evolution of EV-71 subgenogroups in Taiwan from 2009 to 2012.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Enterovirus Humano A/classificação , Variação Genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Taiwan
10.
J Cell Biochem ; 114(12): 2718-28, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23794266

RESUMO

Polyamines are naturally occurring organic polycations that are ubiquitous in all organisms, and are essential for cell proliferation and differentiation. Although polyamines are involved in various cellular processes, their roles in stem cell differentiation are relatively unexplored. In this study, we found that exogenous polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, promoted osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) without inducing cell death or apoptosis. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the mRNA level of osteogenic genes, including Runx2, ALP, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, were up-regulated by exogenous polyamines. When hBMSCs were cultured at high cell density favoring adipocyte formation, exogenous polyamines resulted in down-regulation of adipogenic genes such as PPARγ, aP2, and adipsin. Extracellular matrix mineralization, a marker for osteoblast maturation, was enhanced in the presence of exogenous polyamines, while lipid accumulation, an indication of adipogenic differentiation, was attenuated. Exogenous polyamines increased the mRNA expression of polyamine-modulated factor 1 (PMF-1) and its downstream effector, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT), while that of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, was suppressed. These results lead to possible connections between polyamine metabolism and osteogenic differentiation pathways. To summarize, this study provides evidence for the involvement of polyamines in osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs, and is the first to demonstrate that osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation are reciprocally regulated by exogenous polyamines.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Osteogênese/genética , Putrescina/metabolismo , Espermidina/metabolismo , Espermina/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/biossíntese , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia
11.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 8(1): 267, 2013 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23742156

RESUMO

Carbon nanotubes are capable of penetrating the cell membrane and are widely considered as potential carriers for gene or drug delivery. Because the C-C and C=C bonds in carbon nanotubes are nonpolar, functionalization is required for carbon nanotubes to interact with genes or drugs as well as to improve their biocompatibility. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI)-functionalized single-wall (PEI-NH-SWNTs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (PEI-NH-MWNTs) were produced by direct amination method. PEI functionalization increased the positive charge on the surface of SWNTs and MWNTs, allowing carbon nanotubes to interact electrostatically with the negatively charged small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and to serve as nonviral gene delivery reagents. PEI-NH-MWNTs and PEI-NH-SWNTs had a better solubility in water than pristine carbon nanotubes, and further removal of large aggregates by centrifugation produced a stable suspension of reduced particle size and improved homogeneity and dispersity. The amount of grafted PEI estimated by thermogravimetric analysis was 5.08% (w/w) and 5.28% (w/w) for PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs, respectively. For the assessment of cytotoxicity, various concentrations of PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs were incubated with human cervical cancer cells, HeLa-S3, for 48 h. PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs induced cell deaths in a dose-dependent manner but were less cytotoxic compared to pure PEI. As determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, siRNAs directed against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (siGAPDH) were completely associated with PEI-NH-SWNTs or PEI-NH-MWNTs at a PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH or PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratio of 80:1 or 160:1, respectively. Furthermore, PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs successfully delivered siGAPDH into HeLa-S3 cells at PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH and PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratios of 1:1 to 20:1, resulting in suppression of the mRNA level of GAPDH to an extent similar to that of DharmaFECT, a common transfection reagent for siRNAs. Our results indicate that the PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs produced in this study are capable of delivering siRNAs into HeLa-S3 cells to suppress gene expression and may therefore be considered as novel nonviral gene delivery reagents.

12.
J Med Virol ; 85(3): 379-87, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23280715

RESUMO

The early isolated swine-origin influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were susceptible to oseltamivir; however, there is a concern about whether oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses will spread worldwide as did the oseltamivir-resistant seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses in 2007-2008. In this study, the frequency of oseltamivir resistance in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses was determined in Taiwan. From May 2009 to April 2011, 1,335 A(H1N1)pdm09-positive cases in Taiwan were tested for the H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase (NA) gene that confers resistance to oseltamivir. Among these, 15 patients (1.1%) were found to be infected with H275Y virus. All the resistant viruses were detected after the patients have received the oseltamivir. The overall monthly ratio of H275Y-harboring viruses ranged between 0% and 2.88%, and the peak was correlated with influenza epidemics. The genetic analysis revealed that the oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses can emerged from different variants with a great diversity under drug pressure. The ratio of NA/HA activities in different clades of oseltamivir-resistant viruses was reduced compared to those in the wild-type viruses, indicating that the balance of NA/HA in the current oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses was interfered. It is possible that H275Y-bearing A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has not yet spread globally because it lacks the essential permissive mutations that can compensate for the negative impact on fitness by the H275Y amino acid substitution in NA. Continuous monitoring the evolution patterns of sensitive and resistant viruses is required to respond to possible emergence of resistant viruses with permissive genetic background which enable the wide spread of resistance.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neuraminidase/genética , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , RNA Viral/genética , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taiwan , Proteínas Virais/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 7(10): e47179, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23071751

RESUMO

The annual recurrence of the influenza epidemic is considered to be primarily associated with immune escape due to changes to the virus. In 2011-2012, the influenza B epidemic in Taiwan was unusually large, and influenza B was predominant for a long time. To investigate the genetic dynamics of influenza B viruses during the 2011-2012 epidemic, we analyzed the sequences of 4,386 influenza B viruses collected in Taiwan from 2004 to 2012. The data provided detailed insight into the flux patterns of multiple genotypes. We found that a re-emergent TW08-I virus, which was the major genotype and had co-circulated with the two others, TW08-II and TW08-III, from 2007 to 2009 in Taiwan, successively overtook TW08-II in March and then underwent a lineage switch in July 2011. This lineage switch was followed by the large epidemic in Taiwan. The whole-genome compositions and phylogenetic relationships of the representative viruses of various genotypes were compared to determine the viral evolutionary histories. We demonstrated that the large influenza B epidemic of 2011-2012 was caused by Yamagata lineage TW08-I viruses that were derived from TW04-II viruses in 2004-2005 through genetic drifts without detectable reassortments. The TW08-I viruses isolated in both 2011-2012 and 2007-2009 were antigenically similar, indicating that an influenza B virus have persisted for 5 years in antigenic stasis before causing a large epidemic. The results suggest that in addition to the emergence of new variants with mutations or reassortments, other factors, including the interference of multi-types or lineages of influenza viruses and the accumulation of susceptible hosts, can also affect the scale and time of an influenza B epidemic.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Sequência de Bases , Epidemias , Genótipo , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Prevalência , RNA Viral/química , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Taiwan/epidemiologia
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 18(11): 1825-32, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23092602

RESUMO

In 2011, a large community outbreak of human adenovirus (HAdV) in Taiwan was detected by a nationwide surveillance system. The epidemic lasted from week 11 through week 41 of 2011 (March 14-October 16, 2011). Although HAdV-3 was the predominant strain detected (74%), an abrupt increase in the percentage of infections caused by HAdV-7 occurred, from 0.3% in 2008-2010 to 10% in 2011. Clinical information was collected for 202 inpatients infected with HAdV; 31 (15.2%) had severe infection that required intensive care, and 7 of those patients died. HAdV-7 accounted for 10%, 12%, and 41% of infections among outpatients, inpatients with nonsevere infection, and inpatients with severe infection, respectively (p<0.01). The HAdV-7 strain detected in this outbreak is identical to a strain recently reported in the People's Republic of China (HAdV7-HZ/SHX/CHN/2009). Absence of circulating HAdV-7 in previous years and introduction of an emerging strain are 2 factors that caused this outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/terapia , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/classificação , Adolescente , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pacientes Internados , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Filogenia , Vigilância da População , Prognóstico , Taiwan/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 11: 346, 2011 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22168544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2010, an outbreak of coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Taiwan and some patients presented with onychomadesis and desquamation following HFMD. Therefore, we performed an epidemiological and molecular investigation to elucidate the characteristics of this outbreak. METHODS: Patients who had HFMD with positive enterovirus isolation results were enrolled. We performed a telephone interview with enrolled patients or their caregivers to collect information concerning symptoms, treatments, the presence of desquamation, and the presence of nail abnormalities. The serotypes of the enterovirus isolates were determined using indirect immunofluorescence assays. The VP1 gene was sequenced and the phylogenetic tree for the current CA6 strains in 2010, 52 previous CA6 strains isolated in Taiwan from 1998 through 2009, along with 8 reference sequences from other countries was constructed using the neighbor-joining command in MEGA software. RESULTS: Of the 130 patients with laboratory-confirmed CA6 infection, some patients with CA6 infection also had eruptions around the perioral area (28, 22%), the trunk and/or the neck (39, 30%) and generalized skin eruptions (6, 5%) in addition to the typical presentation of skin eruptions on the hands, feet, and mouths. Sixty-six (51%) CA6 patients experienced desquamation of palms and soles after the infection episode and 48 (37%) CA6 patients developed onychomadesis, which only occurred in 7 (5%) of 145 cases with non-CA6 enterovirus infection (p < 0.001). The sequences of viral protein 1 of CA6 in 2010 differ from those found in Taiwan before 2010, but are similar to those found in patients in Finland in 2008. CONCLUSIONS: HFMD patients with CA6 infection experienced symptoms targeting a broader spectrum of skin sites and more profound tissue destruction, i.e., desquamation and nail abnormalities.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Doenças da Unha/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/genética , Feminino , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Doenças da Unha/epidemiologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Dermatopatias Virais/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Virais/virologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 6(11): e28288, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22140569

RESUMO

Past influenza pandemics have been characterized by the signature feature of multiple waves. However, the reasons for multiple waves in a pandemic are not understood. Successive waves in the 2009 influenza pandemic, with a sharp increase in hospitalized and fatal cases, occurred in Taiwan during the winter of 2010. In this study, we sought to discover possible contributors to the multiple waves in this influenza pandemic. We conducted a large-scale analysis of 4703 isolates in an unbiased manner to monitor the emergence, dominance and replacement of various variants. Based on the data from influenza surveillance and epidemic curves of each variant clade, we defined virologically and temporally distinct waves of the 2009 pandemic in Taiwan from May 2009 to April 2011 as waves 1 and 2, an interwave period and wave 3. Except for wave 3, each wave was dominated by one distinct variant. In wave 3, three variants emerged and co-circulated, and formed distinct phylogenetic clades, based on the hemagglutinin (HA) genes and other segments. The severity of influenza was represented as the case fatality ratio (CFR) in the hospitalized cases. The CFRs in waves 1 and 2, the interwave period and wave 3 were 6.4%, 5.1%, 15.2% and 9.8%, respectively. The results highlight the association of virus evolution and variable influenza severity. Further analysis revealed that the major affected groups were shifted in the waves to older individuals, who had higher age-specific CFRs. The successive pandemic waves create challenges for the strategic preparedness of health authorities and make the pandemic uncertain and variable. Our findings indicate that the emergence of new variants and age shift to high fatality groups might contribute potentially to the occurrence of successive severe pandemic waves and offer insights into the adjustment of national responses to mitigate influenza pandemics.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Influenza Humana/virologia , Mutação/genética , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Estações do Ano , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 6(3): e18177, 2011 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21483816

RESUMO

A dramatic increase in the frequency of the H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase (NA), conferring resistance to oseltamivir, has been detected in human seasonal influenza A/H1N1 viruses since the influenza season of 2007-2008. The resistant viruses emerged in the ratio of 14.3% and quickly reached 100% in Taiwan from September to December 2008. To explore the mechanisms responsible for emergence and spread of the resistant viruses, we analyzed the complete genome sequences of 25 viruses collected during 2005-2009 in Taiwan, which were chosen from various clade viruses, 1, 2A, 2B-1, 2B-2, 2C-1 and 2C-2 by the classification of hemagglutinin (HA) sequences. Our data revealed that the dominant variant, clade 2B-1, in the 2007-2008 influenza emerged through an intra-subtype 4+4 reassortment between clade 1 and 2 viruses. The dominant variant acquired additional substitutions, including A206T in HA, H275Y and D354G in NA, L30R and H41P in PB1-F2, and V411I and P453S in basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins and subsequently caused the 2008-2009 influenza epidemic in Taiwan, accompanying the widespread oseltamivir-resistant viruses. We also characterized another 3+5 reassortant virus which became double resistant to oseltamivir and amantadine. Comparison of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A/H1N1 viruses belonging to various clades in our study highlighted that both reassortment and mutations were associated with emergence and spread of these viruses and the specific mutation, H275Y, conferring to antiviral resistance, was acquired in a hitch-hiking mechanism during the viral evolutionary processes.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cães , Farmacorresistência Viral , Epidemias , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Neuraminidase/metabolismo , Taiwan
18.
Virol J ; 7: 277, 2010 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20959020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is known of having caused numerous outbreaks of hand-foot-mouth disease, and other clinical manifestations globally. In 2008, 989 EV-71 strains were isolated in Taiwan. RESULTS: In this study, the genetic and antigenic properties of these strains were analyzed and the genetic diversity of EV-71 subgenogroups surfacing in Taiwan was depicted, which includes 3 previously reported subgenogroups of C5, B5, and C4, and one C2-like subgenogroup. Based on the phylogenetic analyses using their complete genome nucleotide sequences and neutralization tests, the C2-like subgenogroup forms a genetically distinct cluster from other subgenogroups, and the antisera show a maximum of 128-fold decrease of neutralization titer against this subgenogroup. In addition, the subgenogroup C4 isolates of 2008 were found quite similar genetically to the Chinese strains that caused outbreaks in recent years and thus they should be carefully watched. CONCLUSIONS: Other than to be the first report describing the existence of C2-like subgenogroup of EV-71 in Taiwan, this article also foresees a potential of subgenogroup C4 outbreaks in Taiwan in the near future.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A/classificação , Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Variação Genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Enterovirus Humano A/imunologia , Enterovirus Humano A/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Testes de Neutralização , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
19.
Antiviral Res ; 88(3): 256-62, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20869989

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the frequency of oseltamivir resistance in pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A viruses in Taiwan and characterized the resistant viruses. From May 2009 to January 2010, 1187 pandemic H1N1 virus-positive cases in Taiwan were tested for the H275Y substitution in the neuraminidase (NA) gene that confers resistance to oseltamivir. Among them, eight hospitalized cases were found to be infected with virus encoding the H275Y substitution in their original specimens collected after oseltamivir treatment. The epidemiologic investigation indicated that each of the cases occurred sporadically and there was no evidence of further transmission. We monitored the variation of amino acid residues at position 275 of the NA gene in a series of specimens taken at various time-points and observed that viruses encoding the H275Y substitution differ in their fitness in vivo and in MDCK cells. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the hemagglutinin (HA) sequences of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic H1N1 viruses exhibited greater diversity than the NA sequences and progressive changes of the HA genes from clade A1 into A2 and from there into clade A3 were observed. The resistant viruses seemed to occur in combination with diverse HA genes and a dominant NA gene. Enzymatic analysis of the viruses revealed that the ratio of NA/HA activities in oseltamivir-resistant viruses was reduced considerably compared to those in wild-type ones.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Hemaglutininas/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Neuraminidase/genética , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cães , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Feminino , Genes Virais , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/química , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Filogenia , Taiwan , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 144(3-4): 293-302, 2010 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20299165

RESUMO

Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belongs to the Coronaviridae family and causes significant economic loss in Taiwan (TW), even in flocks that have been extensively immunised with Massachusetts (Mass)-serotype vaccines. Phylogenetic analysis of all non-structural and most structural genes shows that TW IBV is genetically distinct from the US strain and more similar to Chinese (CH) IBV. In contrast, the nucleocapsid (N) gene of TW IBV presents phylogenetic incongruence. RNA recombination at the 5' end of the N gene between TW and US IBV is shown to be responsible for this discordance. Surprisingly, the recombinant N gene is found in all of tested TW IBV isolates, suggesting that a recombination event gave origin to a founder lineage. Our data indicate that RNA recombination in the recombinant 5' end of the N gene may have caused the emergence of the current IBV population in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Recombinação Genética/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Biológica , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
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