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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563292

RESUMO

During the sustained COVID-19 pandemic, global mass vaccination to achieve herd immunity can prevent further viral spread and mutation. A protein subunit vaccine that is safe, effective, stable, has few storage restrictions, and involves a liable manufacturing process would be advantageous to distribute around the world. Here, we designed and produced a recombinant spike (S)-Trimer that is maintained in a prefusion state and exhibits a high ACE2 binding affinity. Rodents received different doses of S-Trimer (0.5, 5, or 20 µg) antigen formulated with aluminum hydroxide (Alum) or an emulsion-type adjuvant (SWE), or no adjuvant. After two vaccinations, the antibody response, T-cell responses, and number of follicular helper T-cells (Tfh) or germinal center (GC) B cells were assessed in mice; the protective efficacy was evaluated on a Syrian hamster infection model. The mouse studies demonstrated that adjuvating the S-Trimer with SWE induced a potent humoral immune response and Th1-biased cellular immune responses (in low dose) that were superior to those induced by Alum. In the Syrian hamster studies, when S-Trimer was adjuvanted with SWE, higher levels of neutralizing antibodies were induced against live SARS-CoV-2 from the original lineage and against the emergence of variants (Beta or Delta) with a slightly decreased potency. In addition, the SWE adjuvant demonstrated a dose-sparing effect; thus, a lower dose of S-Trimer as an antigen (0.5 µg) can induce comparable antisera and provide complete protection from viral infection. These data support the utility of SWE as an adjuvant to enhance the immunogenicity of the S-Trimer vaccine, which is feasible for further clinical testing.

2.
Sex Health ; 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impulsive personality traits (IPTs) are key predictors of individuals' engagement in sexual risk behaviours. This study investigated the associations between IPTs and HIV-related knowledge, beliefs and behaviours among Chinese college students. METHODS: A sample of 1062 freshmen (first year) and sophomore (second year) students was obtained through stratified random sampling from 11 universities and colleges in Chengdu, China. The sociodemographic information, and HIV-related knowledge, beliefs and behaviours were investigated. A 20-item Short UPPS-P Impulsive Behaviour Scale (S-UPPS-P) was employed to estimate IPTs. Contingency table analyses (χ2) and adjusted logistic regression were used to analyse the association between IPTs and HIV-related knowledge, beliefs and behaviours. RESULTS: The S-UPPS-P scale measure of IPTs yielded scores among college students ranging from 26 to 70. Students with a greater level of IPTs were more likely to have a high level of HIV stigma (aOR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.13-1.89), and a low level of HIV knowledge (aOR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.11-1.80) and HIV prevention beliefs (aOR=1.40, 95% CI: 1.09-1.80). All variables of HIV-related behaviours were not significantly associated with IPTs (all P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Future campus health education should provide HIV education without neglect of early identification of students' IPTs.

3.
JMIR Serious Games ; 10(2): e34756, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visual-perceptual defects in children can negatively affect their ability to perform activities of daily living. Conventional rehabilitation training for correcting visual-perceptual defects has limited training patterns and limited interactivity, which makes motivation difficult to sustain. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop and evaluate an interactive digital game system for correcting visual-perceptual defects and evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: Participants were children aged 5 to 10 years with a diagnosis of visual-perceptual defect associated with a developmental disability. The children were randomized into a digital game group who received the traditional course of rehabilitation combined with an interactive digital game intervention (n=12) and a standard rehabilitation group (n=11) who only received the traditional course of rehabilitation. Each group underwent rehabilitation once a week for 4 weeks. Overall improvement in Test of Visual Perceptual Skills 3rd edition (TVPS-3) score and overall improvement in performance in the interactive digital game were evaluated. Parents and therapists were asked to complete a satisfaction questionnaire. RESULTS: After 4 weeks, the TVPS-3 score had significantly increased (P=.002) in the digital game group (pre: mean 41.67, SD 13.88; post: 61.50, SD 21.64). In the standard rehabilitation group, the TVPS-3 score also increased, but the increase was not statistically significant (P=.58). Additionally, TVPS-3 score increases were significantly larger for the digital game group compared with those for the standard rehabilitation group (P=.005). Moreover, both parents and therapists were highly satisfied with the system. All 5 themes of satisfaction had mean scores higher than 4 in a 5-point scale questionnaire (mean 4.30, SD 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: The system has potential applications for improving visual-perceptual function in children undergoing medical rehabilitation for developmental disability. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05016492; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05016492.

4.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 859927, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433656

RESUMO

Biomaterials have long been the focus of research and hydrogels are representatives thereof. Hydrogels have attracted much attention in the medical sciences, especially as a candidate drug-carrier. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and MSC-derived secretome are a promising therapeutic method, owing to the intrinsic therapeutic properties thereof. The low cell retention and poor survival rate of MSCs make further research difficult, which is a problem that hydrogel encapsulation largely solved. In this review, safety and feasibility of hydrogel-encapsulated MSCs, the improvement of the survival, retention, and targeting, and the enhancement of their therapeutic effect by hydrogels were studied. The status of the hydrogel-encapsulated MSC secretome was also discussed.

5.
Phytomedicine ; 101: 154092, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis (FUIIM) is a common gastrointestinal side effect of chemotherapy, leading to gastric pain in clinical cancer patients. In a previous study, we demonstrated that neutrophil elastase (NE) inhibitors could alleviate FUIIM and manipulate the homeostasis of the gut microbiota. The root of Melastoma malabathricum, also called Ye-Mu-Dan, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for gastrointestinal disease. Water extract of the roots of M. malabathricum exhibits an inhibitory effect on NE, with an IC50 value of 9.13 µg/ml. PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to isolate an anti-NE compound from the root of M. malabathricum and to determine the protective effect of the bioactive component on a mouse model of FUIIM with respect to tissue damage, inflammation, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and gut microbiota dysbiosis. METHODS: A water extract of the roots of M. malabathricum was prepared and its major bioactive compound, was identified using bioactivity-guided fractionation. The effects of samples on the inhibition of NE activity were evaluated using enzymatic assays. To evaluate the effects of the bioactive compound in an FUIIM animal model, male C57BL/6 mice treated with or without casuarinin (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and then received of 5-fluorouracil (50 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 5 days to induce FUIIM. Histopathological staining was used to monitor the tissue damage, proliferation of intestinal crypts, and expression of tight junction proteins. The inflammation score was estimated by determining the levels of oxidative stress, neutrophil-related proteases, and proinflammatory cytokines in tissue and serum. The ecology of the gut microbiota was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: Casuarinin had the most potent and selective effect against NE, with an IC50 value of 2.79 ± 0.07 µM. Casuarinin (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) significantly improved 5-FU-induced body weight loss together with food intake reduction, and it also significantly reversed villus atrophy, restored the proliferative activity of the intestinal crypts, and suppressed inflammation and intestinal barrier dysfunction in the mouse model of FUIIM. Casuarinin also reversed 5-FU-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis, particularly the abundance of Actinobacteria, Candidatus Arthromitus, and Lactobacillus murinus, and the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio. CONCLUSION: This study firstly showed that casuarinin isolated from the root part of M. malabathricum could be used as a NE inhibitor, whereas it could improve FUIIM by modulating inflammation, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and gut microbiota dysbiosis. In summary, exploring anti-NE natural product may provide a way to find candidate for improvement of FUIIM.

6.
JCI Insight ; 7(8)2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290246

RESUMO

Most therapeutic mAbs target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Unfortunately, the RBD is a hot spot for mutations in SARS-CoV-2 variants, which will lead to loss of the neutralizing function of current therapeutic mAbs. Universal mAbs for different variants are necessary. We identified mAbs that recognized the S2 region of the spike protein, which is identical in different variants. The mAbs could neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection and protect animals from SARS-CoV-2 challenge. After cloning the variable region of the light chain and heavy chain, the variable region sequences were humanized to select a high-affinity humanized mAb, hMab5.17. hMab5.17 protected animals from SARS-CoV-2 challenge and neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variant infection. We further identified the linear epitope of the mAb, which is not mutated in any variant of concern. These data suggest that a mAb recognizing the S2 region of the spike protein will be a potential universal therapeutic mAb for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
7.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 38(5): 486-493, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35199937

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe our experience and discuss the results, controversies, and the use of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in patients with biliary complications after liver transplantation (LT). Between November 2009 and August 2020, 76 consecutive patients who underwent 77 LTs (44 deceased donor LTs and 33 living donor LTs [LDLT]) were enrolled retrospectively. Endoscopic therapy as initial approach and PTBD as rescue therapy were used for patients with biliary complications. There were 31 patients (31/76, 40.8%) with biliary complications, and two of them died (2/31, 6.5%). Clinical success rate of endoscopic therapy alone was 71.0% (22/31). The remaining nine patients received salvage PTBD and their clinical results were observed according to whether their intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDs) was dilated (group A, n = 5) or not (group B, n = 4). In group A, the technical and long-term clinical success rates of PTBD were 100% and 20%, respectively. These five patients received PTBD ranging from 75 to 732 days after their LTs, and no procedure-related complications were encountered. In group B, the technical and long-term clinical success rates of PTBD were 50% and 25%, respectively. Three group B patients (75%) underwent PTBD within 30 days after LDLT and had lethal complications. One patient had graft laceration and survived after receiving timely re-transplantation. The other two patients died of sepsis due to PTBD-related bilioportal fistula or multiple liver abscesses. Our experience showed salvage PTBD played a limited role in biliary complications without dilated IHBDs within 1 month after LT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Abscesso , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Drenagem/efeitos adversos , Drenagem/métodos , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Doadores Vivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Adv Mater ; 34(14): e2109952, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35106834

RESUMO

Thermoelectric materials are typically highly degenerate semiconductors, which require high carrier concentration. However, the efficiency of conventional doping by replacing host atoms with alien ones is restricted by solubility limit, and, more unfavorably, such a doping method is likely to cause strong charge-carrier scattering at ambient temperature, leading to deteriorated electrical performance. Here, an unconventional doping strategy is proposed, where a small trace of alien atoms is used to stabilize cation vacancies in Cu3 SbSe4  by compositing with CuAlSe2 , in which the cation vacancies rather than the alien atoms provide a high density of holes. Consequently, the hole concentration enlarges by six times but the carrier mobility is well maintained. As a result, a record-high average power factor of 19 µW cm-1  K-2  in the temperature range of 300-723 K is attained. Finally, with further reduced lattice thermal conductivity, a peak zT value of 1.4 and a record-high average zT value of 0.72 are achieved within the diamond-like compounds. This new doping strategy not only can be applied for boosting the average power factor for thermoelectrics, but more generally can be used to maintain carrier mobility for a variety of semiconductors that need high carrier concentration.

9.
Geospat Health ; 17(s1)2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147015

RESUMO

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains rampant in many countries, it has recently waned in Sichuan, China. This study examined spatiotemporal variations of the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 across its course. Three approaches, i.e. calendar-based, measure-driven and data-driven ones, were applied to all individual cases reported as of 30th November 2020, dividing the COVID-19 pandemic into five periods. A total of 808 people with confirmed diagnosis and 279 asymptomatic cases were reported, the majority of whom were aged 30-49 and <30 years, respectively. The highest risk was seen in Chengdu (capital city), with 411 confirmed and 195 asymptomatic cases. The main sources of infection changed from importation from Hubei Province to importation from other provinces, then local transmission and ultimately importation from foreign countries. The periods highlighted by the three methods presented different epidemic patterns and trends. The calendar-based periods were even with most cases aggregated in the first period, which did not reflect various transmission patterns of COVID-19 due to various sources of infection; the measure-driven and data-driven periods were not consistent with each other, revealing that the effects of implementing prevention measures were reflected on the epidemic trend with a time lag. For example, the decreasing trends of new cases occurred 7, 3 and 4 days later than the firstlevel emergency response, the district-level prevention measures and the second-level emergency response, respectively. This study has advanced our understanding of epidemic course and foreshown all stages of COVID-19 epidemic. Many countries can learn from our findings about what will occur next in their timelines and how to be better prepared.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Water Res ; 211: 118030, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065341

RESUMO

It is essential to understand the mechanism of algal bloom and develop effect measures to control the hazard in aquatic environment, such as large reservoirs. In this study, a series of experiments, along with field observation from 2007 to 2016, were carried out to identify the hydrodynamic parameters that drive the algal bloom in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China, and their threshold values were determined. The results show that algae concentration was markedly diluted with a short retention time, and the threshold value of the retention time to avoid algal bloom was approximately less than 3 days. With strong stratification, the algae concentration was able to approach to the level of algal bloom in 10 days, even when the water temperature is lower than 12 °C. The ratio of mixing depth to euphotic depth (Zm/Ze) had significant negative correlations with both algae concentration and algae specific growth rate (SGR). The field monitoring data indicated that Zm/Ze is an important hydrodynamic parameter which sensitively affects algae growth and concentration. This study made the first attempt to determine Zm/Ze >2.8 to restrain algal bloom in the TGR. Our findings shed light on the influence of critical depth on the algal bloom in the TGR, and the results can serve to control algal bloom in reservoirs through discharge operation.


Assuntos
Eutrofização , Rios , China , Monitoramento Ambiental
11.
EMBO Mol Med ; 14(3): e15227, 2022 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994081

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2) variant is capable of infecting vaccinated persons. An open question remains as to whether deficiencies in specific vaccine-elicited immune responses result in susceptibility to vaccine breakthrough infection. We investigated 55 vaccine breakthrough infection cases (mostly Delta) in Singapore, comparing them against 86 vaccinated close contacts who did not contract infection. Vaccine breakthrough cases showed lower memory B cell frequencies against SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD). Compared to plasma antibodies, antibodies secreted by memory B cells retained a higher fraction of neutralizing properties against the Delta variant. Inflammatory cytokines including IL-1ß and TNF were lower in vaccine breakthrough infections than primary infection of similar disease severity, underscoring the usefulness of vaccination in preventing inflammation. This report highlights the importance of memory B cells against vaccine breakthrough and suggests that lower memory B cell levels may be a correlate of risk for Delta vaccine breakthrough infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 23(3): e13540, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084081

RESUMO

An in-house hybrid deformable image registration (DIR) method, which combines free-form deformation (FFD) and the viscous fluid registration method, is proposed. Its results on the planning computed tomography (CT) and the day 1 treatment cone-beam CT (CBCT) image from 68 head and neck cancer patients are compared with the results of NiftyReg, which uses B-spline FFD alone. Several similarity metrics, the target registration error (TRE) of annotated points, as well as the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Hausdorff distance (HD) of the propagated organs at risk are employed to analyze their registration accuracy. According to quantitative analysis on mutual information, normalized cross-correlation, and the absolute pixel value differences, the results of the proposed DIR are more similar to the CBCT images than the NiftyReg results. Smaller TRE of the annotated points is observed in the proposed method, and the overall mean TRE for the proposed method and NiftyReg was 2.34 and 2.98 mm, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean DSC in the larynx, spinal cord, oral cavity, mandible, and parotid given by the proposed method ranged from 0.78 to 0.91, significantly higher than the NiftyReg results (ranging from 0.77 to 0.90), and the HD was significantly lower compared to NiftyReg. Furthermore, the proposed method did not suffer from unrealistic deformations as the NiftyReg did in the visual evaluation. Meanwhile, the execution time of the proposed method was much higher than NiftyReg (96.98 ± 11.88 s vs. 4.60 ± 0.49 s). In conclusion, the in-house hybrid method gave better accuracy and more stable performance than NiftyReg.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico Espiral , Algoritmos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
13.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 247(5): 426-432, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787019

RESUMO

Mut L homolog-1 (MLH1) is a key DNA mismatch repair protein which participates in the sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. However, its role in the radiosensitivity of tumor cells is less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of MLH1 in cellular responses to ionizing radiation (IR) and explored the signaling molecules involved. The isogenic pair of MLH1 proficient (MLH1+) and deficient (MLH1-) human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells was exposed to IR for 24 h at the dose of 3 cGy. The clonogenic survival was examined by the colony formation assay. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed with flow cytometry. Changes in the protein level of MLH1, DNA damage marker γH2AX, and protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PRKAC), a common target for anti-tumor drugs, were examined with Western blotting. The results showed that the HCT116 (MLH1+) cells demonstrated increased radio-resistance with increased S population, decreased G2 population, a low level of γH2AX, a reduced ratio of phosphorylated PRKACαß to total PRKAC, and an elevated level of total PRKAC and phosphorylated PRKACßII following IR compared with the HCT116 (MLH1-) cells. Importantly, silencing PRKAC in HCT116 (MLH1+) cells increased the cellular radiosensitivity. In conclusion, MLH1 may increase cellular resistance to IR by activating PRKAC. Our finding is the first to demonstrate the important role of PRKAC in MLH1-mediated radiosensitivity, suggesting that PRKAC has potential as a biomarker and a therapeutic target for increasing radio-sensitization.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Antineoplásicos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Tolerância a Radiação
15.
Cancer Med ; 11(4): 1037-1047, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared the dosimetry, application, and acute toxicity of a 3D-printed and a conventional bolus for postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Materials and Methods Eligible patients (n = 75) with PMRT breast cancer were randomly selected to receive VMAT with a conventional bolus or a 3D-printed bolus. The primary endpoint was a 10% decrease in the mean heart dose to left-sided breast cancer patients. The secondary endpoint was a 5% decrease in the mean ipsilateral lung dose to all patients. A comparative analysis was carried out of the dosimetry, normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), acute skin toxicity, and radiation pneumonitis. RESULTS: Compared to a conventional bolus, the mean heart dose in left-sided breast cancer was reduced by an average of 0.8 Gy (5.5 ± 1.3 Gy vs. 4.7 ± 0.8 Gy, p = 0.035) and the mean dose to the ipsilateral lung was also reduced by an average of 0.8 Gy (12.4 ± 1.0 Gy vs. 11.6 ± 0.8 Gy, p < 0.001). The values for V50Gy of the PTV of the chest wall for the 3D-printed and conventional boluses were 95.4 ± 0.6% and 94.8 ± 0.8% (p = 0.026) and the values for the CI of the entire PTV were 0.83 ± 0.02 and 0.80 ± 0.03 (p < 0.001), respectively. The NTCP for the 3D-printed bolus was also reduced to an average of 0.14% (0.32 ± 0.19% vs. 0.18 ± 0.11%, p = 0.017) for the heart and 0.45% (3.70 ± 0.67% vs. 3.25 ± 0.18%, p < 0.001) for the ipsilateral lung. Grade 2 and Grade 1 radiation pneumonitis were 0.0% versus 7.5% and 14.3% versus 20.0%, respectively (p = 0.184). CONCLUSIONS: The 3D-printed bolus may reduce cardiopulmonary exposure in postmastectomy patients with volumetric modulated arc therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Órgãos em Risco , Impressão Tridimensional , Pneumonite por Radiação/etiologia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/cirurgia
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2252, 2021 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of older people living with HIV (PLWH) is increasing. Although there are many studies affecting medication adherence, research on the impact of social capital and mental health on medication adherence in this particular population is limited. METHOD: Data were collected from an ongoing observational prospective cohort study, starting from November 2018, among older PLWH in Sichuan province, China. Five hundred twenty-one participants were interviewed. Social capital consists of the individual and family (IF) scale, and the community and society (CS) scale. The presence of probable depression and probable anxiety were assessed using the CES-D-10 and GAD-7 scales. Adherence was defined as taking ≥80% of prescribed HIV medication in 4 days prior to the interview. Two sets of Firth' penalized regression analyses were used to estimate the association between social capital, mental health, and medication adherence. RESULTS: The prevalence of non-adherence was 18.2% (95/521) among older PLWH in this study. After adjusting for significant factors, the CS social capital (OR: 0.92, 95%CI:0.85-0.99, p < 0.05) and probable anxiety (OR:1.73, 95%CI:1.07-2.80, p < 0.05) were associated with non-adherence. CONCLUSION: This study highlighted that the effects of social capital and mental health on older PLWH's adherence, which implied that the need to develop interventions to concern for mental health and enhance CS social capital to help the older PLWH better manage HIV medication adherence.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Capital Social , Idoso , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(11)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731078

RESUMO

A growing interest in fungi that occur within symptom-less plants and lichens (endophytes) has uncovered previously uncharacterized species in diverse biomes worldwide. In many temperate and boreal forests, endophytic Coniochaeta (Sacc.) Cooke (Coniochaetaceae, Coniochaetales, Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) are commonly isolated on standard media, but rarely are characterized. We examined 26 isolates of Coniochaeta housed at the Gilbertson Mycological Herbarium. The isolates were collected from healthy photosynthetic tissues of conifers, angiosperms, mosses and lichens in Canada, Sweden and the United States. Their barcode sequences (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and 5.8S; ITS rDNA) were ≤97% similar to any documented species available through GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses based on two loci (ITS rDNA and translation elongation factor 1-alpha) indicated that two isolates represented Coniochaeta cymbiformispora, broadening the ecological niche and geographic range of a species known previously from burned soil in Japan. The remaining 24 endophytes represented three previously undescribed species that we characterize here: Coniochaeta elegans sp. nov., Coniochaeta montana sp. nov. and Coniochaeta nivea sp. nov. Each has a wide host range, including lichens, bryophytes and vascular plants. C. elegans sp. nov. and C. nivea sp. nov. have wide geographic ranges. C. montana sp. nov. occurs in the Madrean biome of Arizona (USA), where it is sympatric with the other species described here. All three species display protease, chitinase and cellulase activity in vitro. Overall, this study provides insight into the ecological and evolutionary diversity of Coniochaeta and suggests that these strains may be amenable for studies of traits relevant to a horizontally transmitted, symbiotic lifestyle.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Filogenia , Animais , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Canadá , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suécia , Estados Unidos
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 731280, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708015

RESUMO

Introduction: Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) can compromise antiretroviral therapy (ART) efficacy. We aimed to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and its genetic transmission networks among newly diagnosed people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). Methods: A total of 1,318 newly diagnosed PLWH, identified in all population-based HIV screening in an HIV-affected county of a minority area of China (i.e., Butuo county), were enrolled between January 1, 2018, and November 31, 2018. HIV-1 pol gene sequences were used for phylogenetic and genotypic drug resistance analyses. The genetic transmission networks were identified. Results: The prevalence of TDR among newly diagnosed PLWH was 8.12% (107/1,318). Patients in the stage of AIDS (adjusted odds ratio, OR: 2.32) and who had a history of sharing a needle ≥5 times (adjusted OR: 3.89) were more likely to have an increased risk of TDR. The prevalence of TDR for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) is higher than that of other inhibitors, with a relatively high prevalence of three mutations [V179D/E/DE (4.93%), K103N/KN (3.11%), and E138A/G (1.52%)]. A total of 577 (43.78%) pol sequences were involved in the genetic transmission network, with 171 clusters ranging in size from 2 to 91 pol sequences; 37.38% (40/107) of individuals carrying TDR were involved in the network, and individuals with the same TDR-associated mutations were usually cross-linked. Conclusions: Our data suggest a relatively high level of TDR and many transmission clusters among the newly diagnosed PLWH. Targeted intervention, early identification, and monitoring of resistance are warranted to reduce the TDR and prevent HIV-1 transmission in areas with a high rate of HIV-1.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Prevalência
19.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682217

RESUMO

Fusarium wilt of banana (FWB) is the main threatening factor for banana production worldwide. To explore bacterial biocontrol resources for FWB, the antagonistic effective strains were isolated from banana-producing areas in Yunnan Province, China. Two isolates (YN0904 and YN1419) displaying strong antagonism against Tropical Race 4 (TR4) were identified from a total of 813 strains of endophytic bacteria. TR4 inhibition rates of YN0904 and YN1419 were 79.6% and 81.3%, respectively. By looking at morphological, molecular, physiological and biochemical characteristics, YN0904 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, while YN1419 was identified as B. subtillis. The control effects of YN0904 and YN1419 on TR4 in greenhouse experiments were 82.6% and 85.6%, respectively. Furthermore, YN0904 obviously promoted the growth of banana plantlets. In addition, biocontrol marker genes related to the biosynthesis of antibiotics synthesized and auxin key synthetase genes could be detected in YN0904. Surprisingly, the marker gene sboA could be exclusively detected in YN1419, while other marker genes were all absent. Molecular characterization results could provide a theoretical basis for expounding the biocontrol mechanisms of these two strains. We concluded that natively antagonistic strains derived from local banana plantations could provide new biological control resources for FWB.

20.
Radiat Oncol ; 16(1): 171, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the dosimetric, normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), secondary cancer complication probabilities (SCCP), and excess absolute risk (EAR) differences of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for left-sided breast cancer after mastectomy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty patients with left-sided breast cancer treated with post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) were randomly enrolled in this study. Both IMRT and VMAT treatment plans were created for each patient. Planning target volume (PTV) doses for the chest wall and internal mammary nodes, PTV1, and PTV of the supraclavicular nodes, PTV2, of 50 Gy were prescribed in 25 fractions. The plans were evaluated based on PTV1 and PTV2 coverage, homogeneity index (HI), conformity index, conformity number (CN), dose to organs at risk, NTCP, SCCP, EAR, number of monitors units, and beam delivery time. RESULTS: VMAT resulted in more homogeneous chest wall coverage than did IMRT. The percent volume of PTV1 that received the prescribed dose of VMRT and IMRT was 95.9 ± 1.2% and 94.5 ± 1.6%, respectively (p < 0.001). The HI was 0.11 ± 0.01 for VMAT and 0.12 ± 0.02 for IMRT, respectively (p = 0.001). The VMAT plan had better conformity (CN: 0.84 ± 0.02 vs. 0.78 ± 0.04, p < 0.001) in PTV compared with IMRT. As opposed to IMRT plans, VMAT delivered a lower mean dose to the ipsilateral lung (11.5 Gy vs 12.6 Gy) and heart (5.2 Gy vs 6.0 Gy) and significantly reduced the V5, V10, V20, V30, and V40 of the ipsilateral lung and heart; only the differences in V5 of the ipsilateral lung did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.409). Although the volume of the ipsilateral lung and heart encompassed by the 2.5 Gy isodose line (V2.5) was increased by 6.7% and 7.7% (p < 0.001, p = 0.002), the NTCP was decreased by 0.8% and 0.6%, and SCCP and EAR were decreased by 1.9% and 0.1% for the ipsilateral lung. No significant differences were observed in the contralateral lung/breast V2.5, V5, V10, V20, mean dose, SCCP, and EAR. Finally, VMAT reduced the number of monitor units by 31.5% and the treatment time by 71.4%, as compared with IMRT. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with IMRT, VMAT is the optimal technique for PMRT patients with left-sided breast cancer due to better target coverage, a lower dose delivered, NTCP, SCCP, and EAR to the ipsilateral lung and heart, similar doses delivered to the contralateral lung and breast, fewer monitor units and a shorter delivery time.


Assuntos
Mastectomia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órgãos em Risco , Radiobiologia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/cirurgia
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