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2.
Cell Calcium ; 102: 102527, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026540

RESUMO

CACNA1E is a gene encoding the ion-conducting α1 subunit of R-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, whose roles in tumorigenesis remain to be determined. We previously showed that CACNA1E was significantly mutated in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were long-term exposed to household air pollution, with a mutation rate of 19% (15 of 79 cases). Here we showed that CACNA1E was also mutated in 207 (12.8%) of the 1616 patients with NSCLC in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. At mRNA and protein levels, CACNA1E was elevated in tumor tissues compared to counterpart non-tumoral lung tissues in NSCLCs of the public datasets and our settings, and its expression level was inversely associated with clinical outcome of the patients. Overexpression of wild type (WT) or A275S or R249G mutant CACNA1E transcripts promoted NSCLC cell proliferation with activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway, whereas knockdown of this gene exerted inhibitory effects on NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. CACNA1E increased current density and Ca2+ entrance, whereas calcium channel blockers inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation. These data indicate that CACNA1E is required for NSCLC cell proliferation, and blockade of this oncoprotein may have therapeutic potentials for this deadly disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo R , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mutação/genética
4.
Cancer ; 127(11): 1880-1893, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in China, however, publicly available, descriptive information on the clinical epidemiology of CRC is limited. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with primary CRC during 2005 through 2014 were sampled from 13 tertiary hospitals in 9 provinces across China. Data related to sociodemographic characteristics, the use of diagnostic technology, treatment adoption, and expenditure were extracted from individual medical records. RESULTS: In the full cohort of 8465 patients, the mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 59.3 ± 12.8 years, 57.2% were men, and 58.7% had rectal cancer. On average, 14.4% of patients were diagnosed with stage IV disease, and this proportion increased from 13.5% in 2005 to 20.5% in 2014 (P value for trend < .05). For diagnostic techniques, along with less use of x-rays (average, 81.6%; decreased from 90.0% to 65.7%), there were increases in the use of computed tomography (average, 70.4%; increased from 4.5% to 90.5%) and magnetic resonance imaging (average, 8.8%; increased from 0.1% to 20.4%) over the study period from 2005 to 2014. With regard to treatment, surgery alone was the most common (average, 50.1%), but its use decreased from 51.3% to 39.8% during 2005 through 2014; and the use of other treatments increased simultaneously, such as chemotherapy alone (average, 4.1%; increased from 4.1% to 11.9%). The average medical expenditure per patient was 66,291 Chinese Yuan (2014 value) and increased from 47,259 to 86,709 Chinese Yuan. CONCLUSIONS: The increasing proportion of late-stage diagnoses presents a challenge for CRC control in China. Changes in diagnostic and treatment options and increased expenditures are clearly illustrated in this study. Coupled with the recent introduction of screening initiatives, these data provide an understanding of changes over time and may form a benchmark for future related evaluations of CRC interventions in China.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Gastos em Saúde , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/economia , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Genomics ; 113(1 Pt 1): 11-19, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249173

RESUMO

To explore potential critical genes and identify circular RNAs (circRNAs) that act as the competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) in a hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) rat model. Constructed rat model, and a bioinformatics method was used to analyse differentially expressed (DE) genes and construct a circRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA regulatory network. Then, qRT-PCR was used to verify. The significant DEcircRNAs/DEmiRNAs/DEmRNAs was showed, and a ceRNA network with 8 DEcircRNAs, 9 DEmiRNAs and 46 DEmRNAs were constructed. The functional enrichment suggested the inflammatory response, NF-κB signalling, MAPK cascade and Toll-like receptor were associated with HPH. Further assessment confirmed that circ_002723, circ_008021, circ_016925 and circ_020581 could have a potential ceRNA mechanism by sponging miR-23a or miR-21 to control downstream target gene and be involved in the pathophysiology of HPH. The qRT-PCR validation results were consistent with the RNA-Seq results. This study revealed potentially important genes, pathways and ceRNA regulatory networks in HPH.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Hipóxia/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Animais , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA Circular/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(1)2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379194

RESUMO

Connexin-containing gap junctions mediate the direct exchange of small molecules between cells, thus promoting cell-cell communication. Connexins (Cxs) have been widely studied as key tumor-suppressors. However, certain Cx subtypes, such as Cx43 and Cx26, are overexpressed in metastatic tumor lesions. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling regulates Cx expression and function via transcriptional control and phosphorylation. cAMP also passes through gap junction channels between adjacent cells, regulating cell cycle progression, particularly in cancer cell populations. Low levels of cAMP are sufficient to activate key effectors. The present review evaluates the mechanisms underlying Cx regulation by cAMP signaling and the role of gap junctions in cancer progression and metastasis. A deeper understanding of these processes might facilitate the development of novel anticancer drugs.

7.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(17): 1076, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cellular immunity of lung cancer patients is mainly the immune response of T cells, which plays an important role in tumour cell killing and immune surveillance. Transforming growth factor 1 (TGF-ß1) is secreted by tumour cells that can suppress the immune response and is an important group of immune down-regulation factors. Our study aims to investigate the effect of TGF-ß1 on the morphology and cellular immune function of A549 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). METHODS: A549 cell line was cultured, PBMCs were cultured with different concentrations of TGF-ß1, and the morphology of A549 cells and PBMCs were seen. The levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF and the numbers of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8, and CD3 CD25 and CD4 CD25 in PBMCs were detected. RESULTS: During co-culture of A549 with PBMCs, TGF-ß1 can induced A549 showing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhanced its ability of migration and infiltration. Simultaneously, TGF-ß1 can depressing the growth and proliferation of PBMCs, inhibiting T-cell activation, and accelerating the PBMCs apoptosis. TGF-ß1 can inhibits A549 Th1 related-cytokines, enhance Th2 related-cytokines, cause the disorder of Th1/Th2, resulting in the Th1 cellular dominate immunity decline. CONCLUSIONS: TGF-ß1 may affect the secretion of related cytokines, hinder the activation of T lymphocytes, destroy the immune surveillance and killing effect of the body, and thus inhibit the cellular immunity.

8.
Int J Oncol ; 56(5): 1274-1283, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319553

RESUMO

RNA­binding protein Musashi­2 (MSI2) serves as a regulator of numerous pivotal biological processes associated with cancer initiation, development and resistance to treatment, and may represent a promising drug target. However, whether MSI2 inhibition is of value in antitumor treatment remains to be determined. The present study demonstrated that MSI2 was upregulated in non­small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and was inversely associated with the clinical outcome of the patients. Molecular docking analysis demonstrated that the small compound largazole binds to and may be a potential inhibitor of MSI2. Largazole markedly decreased the protein and mRNA levels of MSI2 and suppressed its downstream mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. Largazole also inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis of NSCLC and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells (including bone marrow mononuclear cells harvested from CML patients). These results indicate that MSI2 is an emerging therapeutic target for NSCLC and CML, and the MSI2 inhibitor largazole may hold promise as a treatment for these malignancies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Depsipeptídeos/química , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Tiazóis/química , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
EBioMedicine ; 53: 102689, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: How the oncoprotein epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) evades proteolytic degradation and accumulates in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear, and ubiquitin pathway genes (UPGs) that are critical to NSCLC needs to be systematically identified. METHODS: A total of 696 UPGs (including E1, E2, E3, and deubiquitinases) were silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) library in NSCLC cells, the candidates were verified, and their significance was evaluated in patients with NSCLC. The effects of a candidate gene on EGFR were investigated in vitro and in vivo. FINDINGS: We report 31 candidates that are required for cell proliferation, with the E2 ubiquitin conjugase CDC34 as the most significant one. CDC34 is elevated in tumor tissues in 76 of 114 (66.7%) NSCLCs and inversely associated with prognosis, is higher in smoker patients than nonsmoker patients, and is induced by tobacco carcinogens in normal human lung epithelial cells. Forced expression of CDC34 promotes, whereas knockdown of CDC34 inhibits, NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. CDC34 competes with c-Cbl to bind Y1045 to inhibit polyubiquitination and degradation of EGFR. In EGFR-L858R and EGFR-T790M/Del (exon 19)-driven lung tumor growth in mouse models, knockdown of CDC34 significantly inhibits tumor formation. INTERPRETATION: These results demonstrate that an E2 enzyme is capable of competing with E3 ligase to stabilize substrates, and CDC34 represents an attractive therapeutic target for NSCLCs. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and the CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Transcriptoma , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
10.
Front Oncol ; 10: 599383, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33425756

RESUMO

Connexins (Cxs) are involved in the brain metastasis of lung cancer cells. Thus, it is necessary to determine whether gap junction-forming Cxs are involved in the communication between lung cancer cells and the host cells, such as endothelial cells, forming the brain-blood-barrier, and cells in the central nervous system. Data from multiple studies support that Cxs function as tumor suppressors during lung cancer occurrence. However, recent evidence suggests that during metastasis to the brain, cancer cells establish communication with the host. This review discusses junctional or non-junctional hemichannel studies in lung cancer development and brain metastasis, highlighting important unanswered questions and controversies.

11.
Cancer Med ; 8(18): 7720-7727, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have documented the abnormal concentrations of major/trace elements in serum or malignant tissues of patients, but very few works systematically tested the concentrations of elements in tumor tissues in comparison with paired adjacent normal tissues from the same patients. METHODS: Tumor and adjacent normal lung tissues were obtained from 93 patients with previously untreated NSCLC, and 43 patients whose tumor and paired normal lung tissues reached 200 mg or more were selected for measurement of the elements' concentrations using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. RESULTS: We found that the concentrations of the 52 elements varied from 0.4 ng/g tissue (Lu, Pd, and Tm) to 1 658 000 ng/g (Na), 1 951 000 ng/g (P), and 2 495 000 ng/g (K). Thirty eight of the 52 (73.1%) elements showed approximately equal concentrations in tumor and adjacent normal lung tissues of the patients. The concentrations of nine elements (K, P, Mg, Zn, Rb, Cu, Se, Cs, and Tl) in tumor samples were significantly higher than their paired normal lung tissues, and five elements (Na, Fe, Cr, Cd, and Ge) exhibited decreased concentrations in cancer samples compared to counterpart normal lung tissues. Low Fe in tumor samples was associated with smoking history, whereas low Cr was associated with histology (squamous cell carcinoma) of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that measurement of elements' concentrations in both cancer and paired normal tissues is important to get insights into the roles of these elements in carcinogenesis, and therapeutic approaches to normalize the elements are warranted to treat NSCLCs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Oligoelementos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Análise Serial de Tecidos/métodos
12.
Cancer Med ; 8(8): 4055-4069, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most lung cancer patients are diagnosed after the onset of symptoms. However, whether the symptoms of lung cancer were independently associated with the diagnosis of lung cancer is unknown, especially in the Chinese population. METHODS: We conducted a 10 years (2005-2014) nationwide multicenter retrospective clinical epidemiology study of lung cancer patients diagnosed in China. As such, this study focused on nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) for variables associated with the symptoms and physical signs using multivariate unconditional logistic regressions. RESULTS: A total of 7184 lung cancer patients were surveyed; finally, 6398 NSCLC patients with available information about their symptoms and physical signs were included in this analysis. The most common initial symptom and physical sign was chronic cough (4156, 65.0%), followed by sputum with blood (2110, 33.0%), chest pain (1146, 17.9%), shortness of breath (1090, 17.0%), neck and supraclavicular lymphadenectasis (629, 9.8%), weight loss (529, 8.3%), metastases pain (378, 5.9%), fatigue (307, 4.8%), fever (272, 4.3%), and dyspnea (270, 4.2%). Patients with squamous carcinoma and stage III disease were more likely to present with chronic cough (P < 0.0001) and sputum with blood (P < 0.0001) than patients with other pathological types and clinical stages, respectively. Metastases pain (P < 0.0001) and neck and supraclavicular lymphadenectasis (P = 0.0006) were more likely to occur in patients with nonsquamous carcinoma than in patients with other carcinomas. Additionally, patients with stage IV disease had a higher percentage of chest pain, shortness of breath, dyspnea, weight loss, and fatigue than patients with other stages of disease. In multivariable logistic analyses, compared with patients with adenocarcinoma, patients with squamous carcinoma were more likely to experience symptoms (OR = 2.885, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.477-3.359) but were less likely to present physical signs (OR = 0.844, 95% CI 0.721-0.989). The odds of having both symptoms and physical signs were higher in patients with late-stage disease than in those with early-stage disease (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The symptoms and physical signs of lung cancer were associated with the stage and pathological diagnosis of NSCLC. Patients with squamous carcinoma were more likely to develop symptoms, but not signs, than patients with adenocarcinoma. The more advanced the stage at diagnosis, the more likely that symptoms or physical signs are to develop. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to explore these results.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Vigilância da População , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação de Sintomas
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1125, 2019 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850589

RESUMO

Whether tobacco carcinogens enable exposed cells immune escape resulting in carcinogenesis, and why patients who smoke respond better to immunotherapies than non-smokers, remains poorly understood. Here we report that cigarette smoke and the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induce PD-L1 expression on lung epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo, which is mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Anti-PD-L1 antibody or deficiency in AhR significantly suppresses BaP-induced lung cancer. In 37 patients treated with anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab, 13/16 (81.3%) patients who achieve partial response or stable disease express high levels of AhR, whereas 12/16 (75%) patients with progression disease exhibit low levels of AhR in tumor tissues. AhR inhibitors exert significant antitumor activity and synergize with anti-PD-L1 antibody in lung cancer mouse models. These results demonstrate that tobacco smoke enables lung epithelial cells to escape from adaptive immunity to promote tumorigenesis, and AhR predicts the response to immunotherapy and represents an attractive therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Tabaco/toxicidade , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Benzoflavonas/farmacologia , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/etiologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/terapia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Thorac Cancer ; 10(4): 708-714, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to examine changes in diagnostic and staging imaging methods for lung cancer in China over a 10-year period and to determine the relationships between such changes and socioeconomic development. METHODS: This was a hospital-based, nationwide, multicenter retrospective study of primary lung cancer cases. The data were extracted from the 10-year primary lung cancer databases at eight tertiary hospitals from various geographic areas in China. The chi-squared test was used to assess the differences and the Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to estimate the trends of changes. RESULTS: A total of 7184 lung cancer cases were analyzed. Over the 10-year period, the utilization ratio of diagnostic imaging methods, such as chest computed tomography (CT) and chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), increased from 65.79% to 81.42% and from 0.73% to 1.96%, respectively, while the utilization ratio of chest X-ray declined from 50.15% to 30.93%. Staging imaging methods, such as positron emission tomography-CT, neck ultrasound, brain MRI, bone scintigraphy, and bone MRI increased from 0.73% to 9.29%, 22.95% to 47.92%, 8.77% to 40.71%, 42.40% to 62.22%, and 0.88% to 4.65%, respectively; abdominal ultrasound declined from 83.33% to 59.9%. These trends were more notable in less developed areas than in areas with substantial economic development. CONCLUSION: Overall, chest CT was the most common radiological diagnostic method for lung cancer in China. Imaging methods for lung cancer tend to be used in a diverse, rational, and regionally balanced manner.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico por Imagem/tendências , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , China , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Lung Cancer ; 128: 91-100, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the clinical profile and its trajectory of lung cancer on clinicopathological characteristics and medical service utilization in China. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer in tertiary hospitals during 2005-14 were selected from seven geographic regions of China. Data on clinical characteristics and medical service utilization was extracted from medical record, and the ten-year trends were explored. RESULTS: A total of 7184 patients were included, the mean age was 58.3 years and the male-to-female-ratio was 2.7. From 2005 to 2014, the proportion of ≥60 year-old patients increased from 41.2% to 56.2% (p < 0.001). The smoking rate decreased from 62.9% to 51.1% (p < 0.001) and the proportion of females increased from 23.5% to 31.9% (p < 0.001). The proportion of advanced stage increased from 41.9% to 47.4% (p < 0.001). Adenocarcinoma's proportion increased from 36.4% to 53.5% (p < 0.001) while that of squamous carcinoma decreased from 45.4% to 34.4% (p < 0.001). The application of chest X-ray dropped from 50.2% to 31.0% (p < 0.001) but that of chest CT increased from 65.8% to 81.4% (p < 0.001). As two main treatment options, chemotherapy (p = 0.290) and surgery (p = 0.497) remained stable. The medical expenditure per patient increased from 40,508 to 66,020 Chinese Yuan (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The sustaining high smoking exposure, increasing proportion of female patients, advancing clinical stage, shifting of predominant pathology and increasing medical expenditure demonstrate potential challenges and directions on lung cancer prevention and control in China. Despite substantial changes of clinical characteristics, main treatment options remained unchanged, which needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/história , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Cancer Lett ; 434: 132-143, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031117

RESUMO

To systematically unveil transcription factors (TFs) that are critical to lung carcinogenesis, here we conducted a genome-wide lethality screening in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and reported that among the 1530 TFs tested, 21 genes were required for NSCLC cell proliferation and were negatively or positively associated with overall survival (OS) of patients with NSCLC. These included 11 potential tumor suppressing genes (AFF3, AhR, AR, CBFA2T3, CHD4, KANK2, NR3C2, PTEN, PRDM16, RB1, and STK11) and 10 potential oncogenic TFs (BARX1, DLX6, ELF3, EN1, ETV1, FOXE1, HOXB7, IRX4, IRX5, and SALL1). The expression levels of IRX5 were positively associated with OS of smoker and inversely associated with OS of non-smoker patients with lung adenocarcinoma. We showed that tobacco carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced upregulation of IRX5 in lung epithelial cells, and Cyclin D1 was a downstream target of IRX5. Furthermore, silencing of IRX5 by lentivirus mediated transfection of short hairpin RNA significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice. These results indicate that tobacco smoke can modulate TFs to facilitate lung carcinogenesis, and inhibition of IRX5 may have therapeutic potentials in NSCLCs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Células A549 , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Interferência de RNA , Terapêutica com RNAi/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
17.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(3): 295, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463786

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 80% of all cases, which is the major subgroup of lung cancer. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) has been demonstrated to play pivotal roles in both development and progression of several pathological conditions including cancer. Here, we found that GRK5 expression was significantly increased in 539 NSCLC cancerous tissues than that in 99 normal non-cancerous tissues by immunohistochemistry analysis; we also showed intensive higher positive staining percentage in female and adenocarcinoma (ADC) NSCLC patients than that in male and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients, respectively. In addition, GRK5 high expression NSCLC patients had a worse overall survival rate than the low expression patients. We provided evidence showing that both the mRNA and protein expression levels of GRK5 were increased in NSCLC cancerous cell lines (GLC-82, SPC-A-1, H520, H838, H358, A549, and H1299) comparing with that in normal human bronchial epithelium cell line (BEAS-2B), and identified many GRK5 mutations in NSCLC cancerous tissues. In addition, we found that depletion of GRK5 inhibited NSCLC cancerous cell proliferation, migration in vitro, and xenograft tumor formation in vivo. Furthermore, GRK5 knockdown promoted cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and induced cellular apoptosis. In summary, our data reveal an oncogenic role of GRK5 in NSCLC progression, indicating that GRK5 could be used as a new therapeutic target in future.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Quinase 5 de Receptor Acoplado a Proteína G/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose , Carcinogênese , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/fisiopatologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Quinase 5 de Receptor Acoplado a Proteína G/genética , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oncogenes
18.
Gene ; 641: 94-104, 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29054765

RESUMO

Compared with numerous studies of somatic mutations using sporadic lung cancer, the research into germline mutations using familial lung cancer (FLC) is limited. In the present study, we used FLC samples obtained from the Chinese population in highly air-polluted regions to screen for novel germline mutations in lung cancer. Through a whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of the nine subjects (four lung cancer patients and five normal family members of FLC), we obtained a whole genome dataset of DNA alterations in FLC samples. A total of 1218 genes were identified with mutations of multiple types. Subsequently, the top 12 highly mutated genes were selected for validation by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing in an expanded sample set including FLC, sporadic lung cancer, and healthy population. Mutations of the five genes (ARHGEF5, ANKRD20A2, ZNF595, ZNF812, MYO18B) may be potential germline mutations of lung cancer. We also analyzed specific mutations within the 12 genes and found that some specific mutations within the MUC12, FOXD4L3 and FOXD4L5 genes showed higher frequencies in the samples of FLC and/or lung cancer tissue, compared with the healthy population. Moreover, some genes with copy number variation may be potentially associated with a predisposition to lung cancer. Furthermore, non-coding DNA alterations of the WGS data in FLC were systematically analyzed and arranged. Interestingly, we found that germline mutations also occurred in many genes of non-coding RNA. This study uncovered the mutation spectrum in FLC and provided important clues for the evaluation of the genetic susceptibility to lung cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/induzido quimicamente , Carcinogênese/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Poluição do Ar , China , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(2)2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29087503

RESUMO

Background: Overexpression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been reported in lung cancer, but the somatic mutations and alternative splicing variants of this nonreceptor tyrosine kinase remain to be investigated. Methods: FAK in 91 lung cancer patients was sequenced using genomic DNA and cDNA samples of tumor and paired normal lung tissues as templates, and the RNA-seq data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set were assessed. The biological functions of abnormal FAK transcripts and their response to FAK inhibitors were analyzed in eight cell lines using tyrosine kinase activity assay, trypan blue exclusion assay, MTT (3-(4, 5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3, 5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide) assay, and transwell assay. Results: We identified an internal tandem duplication (ITD), an A1004S point mutation, an exon 5-27 deletion (ΔE5-27) truncation variant, and four FAK6,7 splicing variants (containing exons for Boxes 6 and 7) in seven (7.7%) patients. Smokers had more FAK abnormalities than nonsmokers. In FAK-ITD, the sequence encoding the C-terminal of the FERM domain and kinase domain was duplicated in-frame and produced a protein product with elevated autophosphorylation and sensitivity to FAK inhibitors. FAK6,7 was detected in the tumor but not counterpart normal lung tissues of four (4.4%) patients. In TCGA RNA-seq data, Box 6 and/or Box 7 (Box 6/7)-containing FAK variants were positive in 42 (8.3%) of 508 lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) and 37 (7.4%) of 501 lung squamous cell carcinomas, and smokers had higher expression of Box 6/7 (+) FAK than reformed or nonsmokers with LUAD. FAK6,7 promoted cell proliferation and migration, exhibited increased autophosphorylation, and was more sensitive to FAK inhibitor compared with wild-type FAK. Conclusions: Somatic mutations and splicing variants of FAK may have a role in lung carcinogenesis and represent potential biomarkers for FAK-targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Adenocarcinoma/enzimologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/enzimologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Fosforilação , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
20.
Oncol Rep ; 37(6): 3475-3483, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498474

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the function of miR-1244 in cisplatin-treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results of quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression levels of miR-1244 in cisplatin­treated A549 and NCI-H522 human lung cancer cell lines were lower than those in untreated A549 and NCI-H522 cells. Similarly, the expression level of miR-1244 in NSCLC tissue samples from cisplatin-treated patients was also lower than that in non-cisplatin-treated NSCLC patients. Notably, the overall survival times of cisplatin-treated NSCLC patients with high miR-1244 expression were superior to those patients with low miR-1244 expression. We found that overexpression of miR-1244 suppressed cell viability and increased LDH toxicity in cisplatin-treated A549 and NCI-H522 cells. Additionally, overexpression of miR-1244 induced the apoptosis of cisplatin-treated A549 and NCI-H522 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-1244 promoted caspase-3 activity and p53 and Bax protein expression, and suppressed myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) and cyclin D1 protein expression in cisplatin­treated A549 and NCI-H522 cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting MEF2D suppressed the protein expression of MEF2D, and was able to decrease the proliferation, promote caspase-3 activity, p53 and Bax protein expression and inhibit cyclin D1 protein expression in cisplatin-treated A549 and NCI-H522 cells following the overexpression of miR-1244. In summary, we found that miR-1244 affected cisplatin-treated NSCLC via MEF2D expression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , MicroRNAs/genética , Células A549 , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Caspase 3/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Ciclina D1/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
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