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1.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608672

RESUMO

RAS-driven colorectal cancer relies on glucose metabolism to support uncontrolled growth. However, monotherapy with glycolysis inhibitors like 2-deoxy-D-glucose causes limited effectiveness. Recent studies suggest that anti-tumor effects of glycolysis inhibition could be improved by combination treatment with inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. In this study we investigated the effect of a combination of 2-deoxy-D-glucose with lovastatin (a known inhibitor of mevalonate pathway and oxidative phosphorylation) on growth of KRAS-mutant human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and LoVo. A combination of lovastatin (>3.75 µM) and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (>1.25 mM) synergistically reduced cell viability, arrested cells in the G2/M phase, and induced apoptosis. The combined treatment also reduced cellular oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rate, resulting in decreased production of ATP and lower steady-state ATP levels. Energy depletion markedly activated AMPK, inhibited mTOR and RAS signaling pathways, eventually inducing autophagy, the cellular pro-survival process under metabolic stress, whereas inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (6.25 µM) enhanced the cytotoxic effect of the combination of lovastatin and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. These in vitro experiment results were reproduced in a nude mouse xenograft model of HCT116 cells. Our findings suggest that concurrently targeting glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and autophagy may be a promising regimen for the management of RAS-driven colorectal cancers.

2.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610338

RESUMO

Distinguishing between other hepatic malignancies (OMs) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is vital to allow clinicians to determine optimal treatment and assess prognosis in patients at high risk for HCC. This study evaluated the performance of the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) versus contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) for differentiating HCC from OMs in patients at high risk for HCC. This retrospective study consecutively enrolled 106 high-risk patients with HCC and 52 high-risk patients with OMs. Patients underwent both MRI and CEUS, with histologic diagnosis as a reference standard. The diagnostic performance of MR versus CEUS LI-RADS was calculated and compared. The performance of the modified CEUS LI-RADS criteria was also evaluated and compared. Our research found that MRI features significantly differed between patients with OMs and those with HCC (p < 0.05), with sensitivities of 34.6%-69.2% and specificities of 83.0%-95.3% for diagnosing OMs and an LI-RADS M (LR-M): definite or probable malignancy, not specific for hepatocellular carcinoma sensitivity of 90.4% and specificity of 83.0% for diagnosing OM. CEUS features also significantly differed between patients with OM and HCC (p < 0.05), with sensitivities of 11.5%-96.2% and specificities of 23.6%-100% for diagnosing OMs, and an LR-M sensitivity of 98.1% and specificity of 84.0% for diagnosing OMs. Accuracies of category LR-M did not significantly differ between MR and CEUS LI-RADS (85.4% vs. 88.6%, p = 0.724). After reclassification of category LR-M nodules to category LR-5 if they exhibited clear intratumoral non-enhanced area boundaries and no punched-out appearance before 5 min, accuracy increased from 88.6% to 96.8% for CEUS LR-M and from 84.8% to 91.1% for CEUS LR-5. LR-M accuracies were significantly higher for the modified version of the CEUS LI-RADS than for MR LI-RADS (96.8% vs. 85.4%, respectively, p = 0.04). CEUS LI-RADS and MR LI-RADS can effectively be used to distinguish HCC from OMs. In patients at high risk of HCC, performance may be further improved by using a modified CEUS LI-RADS classification system in which category LR-M lesions are considered LR-5 if they have clear intratumoral non-enhanced area boundaries and do not have a punched-out appearance.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586834

RESUMO

In many critical biological processes, the host-guest chemistry of protein receptors is regulated by effector molecules to realize cascaded delivery of messenger molecules between different targets. Mimicking these natural processes with artificial receptors remains a challenge. Herein, we report a success of cascaded guest delivery between two anionocages (anion-coordination-driven cages), in a reversible manner, wherein binding of K + ions by a crown ether functionalized, heteroleptic A 2 L 3 (A = anion, L = ligand) anionocage triggers the release and delivery of a TEA + (tetraethylammonium) guest to another A 2 L 3 anionocage that is a weaker and less K + -sensitive receptor. Elimination of the K + with [2,2,2]-cryptand enables recapture of the TEA + by the crown ether functionalized anionocage and thus realizes a reversed guest delivery. Moreover, integrative self-sorting of anionocages is firstly reported, leading to heteroleptic cages with enhanced guest binding affinities, which plays a critical role in driving the process of cascaded guest delivery.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 412: 125107, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516107

RESUMO

In this study, a large-scale in-cabin benzene series hazard detection is firstly performed on 20 electric buses by a full-scale climate chamber. The sources of BTEX are analyzed deeply by parts detection, and a series of effective measures are performed to reduce BTEX. Firstly, the in-cabin BTEX pollution with considerations of a series of parameters, such as interior configuration, environment temperature, vehicle age, and ventilation mode, is analyzed. The result shows that: 1) The VOCs concentrations decrease with vehicle age, higher configuration level and better ventilation system (particularly, fresh wind mode reduce VOCs fastly), while increases with environment temperature; 2) BTEX in bus cabins occupy approximatively 70.1% of TVOC, thus the BTEX overproof is the main culprit which causes VOCs to exceed standard. Then, measurements on components/materials VOCs releases were performed in a small climate chamber to discriminate key species and their sources. Xylene released from glues materials is found as a key species that causes BTEX/VOC to exceed limitation. Lastly, some measures, such as optimizations of materials selection and manufacturing crafts, are adopted to improve in-cabin pollution, and positive effects are obtained. For example, ethylbenzene and xylene released from HL 125 (a polyurethane adhesive) decrease by 2456% and 1930% respectively after improvement. And in-cabin xylene and TVOC decrease by 2274% and 222%, respectively, and all of them are lower than limitation value.

5.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Using the brachial--ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) as a biomarker for arteriosclerosis, we studied the effect of blood pressure (BP) and BP control on arteriosclerosis progression. METHODS AND RESULTS: The community-based longitudinal Kailuan study included 6552 participants [4938 (75.37%) men] with a mean follow-up of 4.62 ±â€Š2.21 years. Hypertension was defined based on the Joint National Committee (JNC7) criteria and the 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines. All study participants had hypertension and were stratified as follows according to BP at baseline and follow-up: the normal--normal [normal BP (under therapy) at baseline and final follow-up], normal--hypertensive, hypertensive--normal, and hypertensive--hypertensive groups. Using the JNC7-based hypertension definition, the annual baPWV increase was the highest (P < 0.001) in the hypertensive--hypertensive group [17.32 cm/s; 95% confidence interval [CI]:9.7--24.9], followed by the normal--hypertensive group (14.44 cm/s; 95% CI:5.5--23.4), and the hypertensive--normal group (0.88 cm/s; 95% CI: -7.84 to 9.60), with the normal--normal group as the reference group in a multivariable model. The model additionally included parameters, such as age, baseline baPWV, heart rate, BMI, serum glucose concentration, prevalence of antihypertensive treatment and alcohol consumption, heart rate, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Applying the ACC/AHA guidelines and the same multivariable model, the annual baPWV increase was the highest (P < 0.001) in the hypertensive--hypertensive group (43.54 cm/s; 95% CI: 22.54--64.55), followed by the normal--hypertensive group (34.01 cm/s; 95% CI: 10.39--57.62) and the hypertensive--normal group (24.12 cm/s; 95% CI: 1.24--47.00). CONCLUSION: Lower BP and medical reduction in increased BP were associated with a reduction in the baPWV increase and may delay the progression of arteriosclerosis in hypertensive patients.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0008993, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465094

RESUMO

Geographic pattern of dengue fever is changing due to the global environmental and climate changes in the 21st century. Evidence of community's knowledge, mosquito bite patterns and protective behavior practices in non-endemic regions is limited. This study examined the knowledge of dengue, mosquito bite patterns, protective behavior practices and their associated factors in Hong Kong, a non-endemic subtropical city. A population-based random telephone survey (n = 590) was conducted three weeks after the government announcement of a local dengue outbreak in August 2018. Sociodemographic status, awareness, knowledge, protective measures, bite patterns of mosquito were collected. Results indicated high level of community awareness of the local outbreak (95.2%), symptom identification (84.0%) and adoption of at least one mosquito protective measures (nearly 80%). About 40% of respondents reported that they were bitten by mosquitoes during the study period, a high mosquito season in Hong Kong. Mosquito bites were prevalent near grassy area (63.4%), at home (42.6%) and at public transportation waiting spots (39.6%). Younger people (< 25 years old), female, those who lived on lower floors (≤the 6th) and near grassy area were at higher risk of mosquito bites at home. Respondents perceived higher threat of dengue to society were more likely to practice mosquito prevention. While residential factors affected their indoor prevention, other socio-demographic factors affected the outdoor prevention. Practicing prevention behaviors were associated with self-reported mosquito bite at home. Furthermore, the general prevention uptake rate unchanged after the announcement of local dengue outbreak. Although the uptake rate of protective measures during August was high, 40% participants reported they were bitten. Also public locations are more common area for bites, which suggested stronger mosquito prevention and control on public environments and more personal protective behaviors should be advocated.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(2): 338-347, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single measurements of waist circumference (WC) predict the incident cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, long-term patterns of WC and their association with the incidence of CVD are poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify WC trajectories and determine their association with incident CVD (stroke and myocardial infarction) and examine whether the association persisted among individuals without obesity. METHODS: We included 75,535 participants from a community-based cohort in China who were aged >18 y and free of stroke, coronary artery disease, and cancer in 2010 (the baseline). WC and other covariates were repeatedly measured in 2006, 2008, and 2010. WC trajectories were identified by latent mixture modeling. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the association between WC trajectories and incident CVD, after adjustment for age, sex, income, education, systolic blood pressure, lipid profiles, plasma concentrations of glucose, C-reactive protein, smoking, and alcohol drinking. RESULTS: We identified 4 WC trajectories based on 2006 WC measurement and change patterns during 2006-2010: low stable (n = 12,072; mean WC 74.1-75.1 cm), moderate stable (n = 41,750; mean WC 85.1-86.6 cm), moderate-high stable (n = 19,914; mean WC 95.6-97.2 cm), and high stable (n = 1,799; mean WC 106.3-110.9 cm). During 2010-2016, we documented 2819 incident CVD events. Compared with the low-stable group, groups with elevated WC trajectories had a higher risk of CVD events during 6 y of follow-up (2010-2016). Adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 1.49 (1.21, 1.83) for the moderate stable group, 1.71(1.38, 2.12) for the moderate-high stable group, and 1.45 (1.06, 2.00) for the high stable group. After further adjusting for BMI or excluding obese participants, we observed similar results. The positive association between WC and incident CVD was higher in individuals who were aged <60 y (P-interaction < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: WC trajectory patterns were associated with altered risk of CVD among Chinese adults, even among people without BMI-defined obesity. When stratifying by age, the association was observed to be higher in younger adults.

8.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between neck-to-height ratio (NHR) and arterial stiffness in adults from a community-based Chinese cohort in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional analysis using data from the Kailuan study, a population-based cohort research. Altogether, 18 972 individuals were included in the analysis. Brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Data were analyzed by multiple lineal regression model. RESULTS: NHR was positively associated with baPWV after adjusted for age, sex, blood pressure, heart rate, BMI, waist-hip ratio, current smoking, fasting blood glucose, serum cholesterol, uric acid, high-sensitivity C reactive protein and creatinine clearance (ß = 5.76, P < 0.001), while the association of neck circumference and baPWV was NS after adjusting the variables mentioned above. In subgroups analysis, the association between NHR and baPWV did not reach statistical significance in female, while in males, the association was significant. Interaction effects were observed among BMI stratifications and the individuals with metabolic syndrome and history of cardiovascular events (P for intereaction = 0.002, 0.038 and 0.003, respectively). CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated for the first time that NHR was positively associated with baPWV in community-based population, NHR might be a promising independent predictor for cardiovascular disease.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Efficient analysis strategies for complex network with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification remain lacking. We sought to identify an optimized model to study CVD prognosis using survival conditional inference tree (SCTREE), a machine-learning method. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 5379 new onset CVD from 2006 (baseline) to May, 2017 in the Kailuan I study including 101,510 participants (the training dataset). The second cohort composing 1,287 CVD survivors was used to validate the algorithm (the Kailuan II study, n = 57,511). All variables (e.g., age, sex, family history of CVD, metabolic risk factors, renal function indexes, heart rate, atrial fibrillation, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein) were measured at baseline and biennially during the follow-up period. Up to December 2017, we documented 1,104 deaths after CVD in the Kailuan I study and 170 deaths in the Kailuan II study. Older age, hyperglycemia and proteinuria were identified by the SCTREE as main predictors of post-CVD mortality. CVD survivors in the high risk group (presence of 2-3 of these top risk factors), had higher mortality risk in the training dataset (hazard ratio (HR): 5.41; 95% confidence Interval (CI): 4.49-6.52) and in the validation dataset (HR: 6.04; 95%CI: 3.59-10.2), than those in the lowest risk group (presence of 0-1 of these factors). CONCLUSION: Older age, hyperglycemia and proteinuria were the main predictors of post-CVD mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR-TNRC-11001489.

10.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e041191, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed many healthcare systems, which has hampered access to routine clinical care during lockdowns. Informal home care, care provided by non-healthcare professionals, increases the community's healthcare capacity during pandemics. There is, however, limited research about the characteristics of informal home care providers and the challenges they face during such public health emergencies. DESIGN: A random, cross-sectional, population-based, RDD, telephone survey study was conducted to examine patterns of home care, characteristics of informal home care providers and the challenges experienced by these care providers during this pandemic. SETTING: Data were collected from 22 March to 1 April 2020 in Hong Kong, China. PARTICIPANTS: A population representative study sample of Chinese-speaking adults (n=765) was interviewed. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The study examined the characteristics of informal home care providers and self-reported health requirements of those who needed care. The study also examined providers' self-perceived knowledge to provide routine home care as well as COVID-19 risk reduction care. Respondents were asked of their mental health status related to COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the respondents, 25.1% of 765 provided informal home care during the studied COVID-19 pandemic period. Among the informal home care providers, 18.4% of respondents took leave from school/work during the epidemic to provide care for the sick, fragile elderly and small children. Care providers tended to be younger aged, female and housewives. Approximately half of care providers reported additional mental strain and 37.2% reported of challenges in daily living during epidemic. Although most informal home care providers felt competent to provide routine care, 49.5% felt inadequately prepared to cope with the additional health risks of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: During public health emergencies, heavy reliance on informal home healthcare providers necessitates better understanding of their specific needs and increased government services to support informal home care.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As health systems across the world respond to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is rising concern that patients without COVID-19 are not receiving timely emergency care, resulting in avoidable deaths. This study examined patterns of self-reported health service utilization, their socio-demographic determinants and association with avoidable deaths during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted between March 22 and April 1, 2020, during the peak rise in confirmed COVID-19 cases in Hong Kong. Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong residents over 18-years-old were recruited using a computerised random digital dialling (RDD) system. The RDD method used stratified random sampling to ensure a representative sample of the target population by age, gender, and residential district. A structured self-reported questionnaire was used. RESULTS: Out of 1738 placed calls, 765 subjects responded to the questionnaire (44.0% response rate). The factors associated with avoiding medical consultation included being female (37.2% vs. 22.5%, P<.001), married (32.8% vs. 27%, P=.044), completing tertiary education (35.3% vs. 27.7% (secondary) vs. 14.8% (primary), P=.005), and those who reported a "large/very large" impact of COVID-19 on their mental health (36.1% vs 30.5% (neutral) vs. 19.7% (very small/small), P=.047) using logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Married females with both higher educational attainment and concern about COVID-19 were associated with avoiding healthcare services. Timely public communication to encourage and promote early health seeking treatment even during extreme events such as pandemics are needed.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241400, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125413

RESUMO

In view of the difficulty, high cost and complex technology of pharmaceutical logistics green transformation, based on the idea of green supply chain, three different government subsidy strategies for green logistics were proposed. Firstly, by constructing a Stackelberg game model with pharmaceutical logistics provider as the leader and manufacturer as the followers, the behavior selection and optimal decisions of the participants under the anarchic subsidy strategy, the single subsidy strategy of the pharmaceutical logistics provider, the single subsidy strategy of the pharmaceutical manufacturer and the coordinated subsidy strategy are analyzed respectively. Furthermore, the effects of different subsidy strategies on the green investment and strategy selection of logistics provider and manufacturer are compared. Finally, according to the research results, the paper provides reference and suggestions for the formulation of government subsidy strategy. The results show that the three subsidy strategies have different degrees of incentive effect on the green transformation of pharmaceutical logistics, and the single logistics provider subsidy strategy is the best.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036459

RESUMO

(1) Background: The adverse health effect associated with extreme temperature has been extensively reported in the current literature. Some also found that temperature effect may vary among the population with different socioeconomic status (SES), but found inconsistent results. Previous studies on the socioeconomic vulnerability of temperature effect were mainly achieved by multi-city or country analysis, but the large heterogeneity between cities may introduce additional bias to the estimation. The linkage between death registry and census in Hong Kong allows us to perform a city-wide analysis in which the study population shares virtually the same cultural, lifestyle and policy environment. This study aims to examine and compare the high and low temperature on morality in Hong Kong, a city with a subtropical climate and address a key research question of whether the extreme high and low temperature disproportionally affects population with lower SES. (2) Methods: Poisson-generalized additive models and distributed-lagged nonlinear models were used to examine the association between daily mortality and daily mean temperature between 2007-2015 with other meteorological and confounding factors controlled. Death registry was linked with small area census and area-level median household income was used as the proxy for socioeconomic status. (3) Results: 362,957 deaths during the study period were included in the analysis. The minimum mortality temperature was found to be 28.9 °C (82nd percentile). With a subtropical climate, the low temperature has a stronger effect than the high temperature on non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory and cancer deaths in Hong Kong. The hot effect was more pronounced in the first few days, while cold effect tended to last up to three weeks. Significant heat effect was only observed in the lower SES groups, whilst the extreme low temperature was associated with significantly higher mortality risk across all SES groups. The older population were susceptible to extreme temperature, especially for cold. (4) Conclusions: This study raised the concern of cold-related health impact in the subtropical region. Compared with high temperature, low temperature may be considered a universal hazard to the entire population in Hong Kong rather than only disproportionally affecting people with lower SES. Future public health policy should reconsider the strategy at both individual and community levels to reduce temperature-related mortality.

14.
Br Med Bull ; 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030513

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-pharmaceutical measures to facilitate a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a disease caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, are urgently needed. Using the World Health Organization (WHO) health emergency and disaster risk management (health-EDRM) framework, behavioural measures for droplet-borne communicable diseases and their enabling and limiting factors at various implementation levels were evaluated. SOURCES OF DATA: Keyword search was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, Medline, Science Direct, WHO and CDC online publication databases. Using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine review criteria, 10 bottom-up, non-pharmaceutical prevention measures from 104 English-language articles, which published between January 2000 and May 2020, were identified and examined. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Evidence-guided behavioural measures against transmission of COVID-19 in global at-risk communities were identified, including regular handwashing, wearing face masks and avoiding crowds and gatherings. AREAS OF CONCERN: Strong evidence-based systematic behavioural studies for COVID-19 prevention are lacking. GROWING POINTS: Very limited research publications are available for non-pharmaceutical measures to facilitate pandemic response. AREAS TIMELY FOR RESEARCH: Research with strong implementation feasibility that targets resource-poor settings with low baseline health-EDRM capacity is urgently needed.

15.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The new arterial hypertension guidelines by the 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) changed the definition of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH). We assessed and compared in a Chinese population the IDH prevalence, newly defined by the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines versus the former definition by the Joint National Committee 7 (JNC7) criteria, and examined longitudinal associations of IDH with cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. METHODS: The prospective community-based Kailuan Study included participants aged 18-98 years who underwent a detailed medical examination at baseline in 2006/2007 and who were biennially re-examined till 2017. History of antihypertensive medication at baseline was an exclusion criterion. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 87 346 individuals (mean age: 50.9 years; range: 18-98 years). Prevalence of IDH was 7.79% [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.62, 7.97] by JNC7 guidelines and 24.72% (95% CI: 24.43, 25.01) by 2017 ACC/AHA criteria [difference: 19.93% (95% CI: 16.81, 17.04)]. Applying the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines, the prevalence of IDH-recommended antihypertensive therapy was 7.73% (95% CI: 7.55, 7.90). In multivariable analysis, IDH by JNC7 criteria was significantly associated with incident myocardial infarction [n = 93 events; hazard ratio: 1.30 (95 CI: 1.02, 1.66)], cerebral hemorrhage [n = 73 events; hazard ratio: 1.79 (95% CI: 1.35, 2.38)], and total CVD [n = 373 events; hazard ratio: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.30)], when compared with normotension. IDH based on 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines was associated with incident cerebral hemorrhage [n = 129 events; hazard ratio: 1.47 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.94)] and total CVD [n = 828 events; hazard ratio: 1.13 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.26)]. CONCLUSION: In this adult Chinese community, 2017 ACC/AHA-defined IDH was associated with the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage and total CVD, and as compared with JNC7-defined IDH, it was more prevalent.

16.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 41(22): e2000402, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058422

RESUMO

As a subseries of the covalent organic framework (COF) material family, polyimide-based covalent organic framework (PI-COF) material, which has the advantages of high stability of polyimide, high specific surface area, and controllable pores of COF material, is expected to be a new type of porous material with potential applications. Although the development of PI-COF is in the early stages during the past decade, it has attracted extensive attention and is widely used in heterogeneous catalysis, gas separation, and storage fields. Therefore, this review is aiming to give a comprehensive understanding of the recent progress of PI-COFs. This article summarizes the progress of PI-COF from three aspects: controllable structure design, synthesis method, and application. First of all, under the guidance of network chemical design principles, the topology type of PI-COF and the size and shape of the formed pores are summarized in terms of different organic monomers. Then the five synthetic strategies for the synthesis of PI-COF are analyzed. Finally, the applications of PI-COF in adsorption and separation, drug delivery, solar-to-electrochemical energy storage, photocatalysis, and electrocatalyst are introduced.

17.
Biologicals ; 68: 79-91, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888776

RESUMO

ABP 798 is a biosimilar candidate to rituximab reference product (RP). This comprehensive analytical similarity assessment was designed to assess the structural and functional similarity of ABP 798, rituximab (US), and rituximab (EU) using sensitive state-of-the-art analytical techniques capable of detecting small differences in product attributes. The similarity assessment was performed to evaluate product quality attributes associated with Fab, Fab/Fc, and Fc domains, including those known to affect the mechanisms of action. ABP 798 has the same amino acid sequence and exhibits similar secondary and tertiary structures, similar glycan and post-translational modification profiles, and biological activities as rituximab RP. There are minor differences in biochemical attributes, which are not considered clinically meaningful. The results of the analytical and functional similarity assessment demonstrate that ABP 798 is highly analytically similar to rituximab RP. These results support the totality of evidence and the scientific justification for extrapolation of ABP 798 to all therapeutic indications approved for rituximab.

18.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; : 1-8, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most significant challenges of the twenty-first century, and the illegal sale of antimicrobial drugs at community pharmacies is a driver of antimicrobial resistance. This study explores the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of pharmacy staff toward antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study among community pharmacy staff in Northeastern China, from April 1 to 31 May 2019, using a self-administered KAP questionnaire comprising 20 items. The data analysis was carried out by employing Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: A response rate of 98.5% (394/400) was obtained. The majority of participants (94.9%) demonstrated a good understanding of antimicrobial use, but they lacked an adequate understanding of ASPs. Nearly half of the participants (40.6%) reported that they sold antimicrobials to patients without a prescription. Education level, age, occupation, and experience were all significantly associated (P < 0.05) with participants' median ASPs scores. Besides, the presence of a licensed pharmacist (OR 46.327, 95% CI 2.443-878.451, P = 0.011) was the main factor associated with the pharmacy staff's understanding of antimicrobial use policies. CONCLUSIONS: The participants' knowledge of antimicrobials was good, and their attitudes regarding ASPs were positive, but their practices regarding ASPs were poor.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756382

RESUMO

People with existing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are particularly vulnerable to health risks brought upon by emergencies and disasters, yet limited research has been conducted on disease management and the implications of Health-EDRM policies that address health vulnerabilities of people with NCDs during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper reports the baseline findings of an anonymous, random, population-based, 6-month cohort study that aimed to examine the experiences of people with NCDs and their relevant self-care patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 765 telephone interviews were completed from 22nd March to 1st April 2020 in Hong Kong, China. The dataset was representative of the population, with 18.4% of subjects reporting at least one NCD. Results showed that low household income and residence in government-subsidized housing were significant predictors for the subjects who experienced difficulty in managing during first 2 months of the pandemic (11% of the NCD patients). Of those on long-term NCD medication, 10% reported having less than one week's supply of medication. Targeted services for vulnerable groups during a pandemic should be explored to support NCD self-care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824754

RESUMO

Climate change is expanding the global at-risk population for vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The World Health Organization (WHO) health emergency and disaster risk management (health-EDRM) framework emphasises the importance of primary prevention of biological hazards and its value in protecting against VBDs. The framework encourages stakeholder coordination and information sharing, though there is still a need to reinforce prevention and recovery within disaster management. This keyword-search based narrative literature review searched databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase and Medline between January 2000 and May 2020, and identified 134 publications. In total, 10 health-EDRM primary prevention measures are summarised at three levels (personal, environmental and household). Enabling factor, limiting factors, co-benefits and strength of evidence were identified. Current studies on primary prevention measures for VBDs focus on health risk-reduction, with minimal evaluation of actual disease reduction. Although prevention against mosquito-borne diseases, notably malaria, has been well-studied, research on other vectors and VBDs remains limited. Other gaps included the limited evidence pertaining to prevention in resource-poor settings and the efficacy of alternatives, discrepancies amongst agencies' recommendations, and limited studies on the impact of technological advancements and habitat change on VBD prevalence. Health-EDRM primary prevention measures for VBDs require high-priority research to facilitate multifaceted, multi-sectoral, coordinated responses that will enable effective risk mitigation.


Assuntos
Malária , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores , Animais , Mudança Climática , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores , Prevenção Primária
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