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1.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 194599821994744, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes of early and late tracheostomy change in neonatal patients. Early tracheostomy change (ETC) occurred 3 to 4 days after surgery, and late tracheostomy change (LTC) occurred 5 to 7 days after surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Tertiary neonatal/pediatric intensive care unit. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients who underwent tracheostomy from 2015 to 2019 was performed for infants <1 year old. Data were recorded regarding age at tracheostomy, days until tracheostomy tube change, postoperative complications, and total number of days on sedative or paralytic drugs. RESULTS: Forty-six patients were included: 18 (39%) were male, with a mean age of 140 days (SD, 78). Of these, 28 (61%) received ETC. There were no accidental decannulation events in either group. Wound breakdown developed in 4 (14%) patients with ETC versus 5 (28%) with LTC (P = .3). Use of FlexTend tracheostomy tubes was associated with decreased odds of breakdown (odds ratio, 0.03; P = .01). Postoperatively, 46 (100%) patients received sedation, and 12 (26%) received paralysis. Mean duration of paralysis was 0.5 days in ETC as opposed to 2.2 days in LTC (P = .02) on univariate analysis, but the significance was not maintained on multivariate regression (P = .07). CONCLUSIONS: ETC appears to be feasible in children less than a year of age. There does not appear to be an increased risk of accidental decannulation events or false passage tracts. Further investigations are warranted to investigate safety and possible impact on wound breakdown.

2.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612545

RESUMO

Amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides and hyperphosphorylated tau protein are the most important pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are also involved in the development and pathological mechanism of AD. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcriptional factor responsible for cellular and tissue adaption to low oxygen tension. Emerging evidence has revealed HIF-1α as a potential medicinal target for neurodegenerative diseases. On the one hand, HIF-1α increases AßPP processing and Aß generation by promoting ß/γ-secretases and suppressing α-secretases, inactivates microglia and reduces their activity, contributes to microglia death and neuroinflammation, which promotes AD pathogenesis. On the other hand, HIF-1α could resist the toxic effect of Aß, inhibits tau hyperphosphorylation and promotes microglial activation. In summary, this review focuses on the potential complex roles and the future perspectives of HIF-1α in AD, in order to provide references for seeking new drug targets and treatment methods for AD.

3.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544956

RESUMO

The development of embryo sacs is crucial for seed production in plants, but the genetic basis regulating the meiotic crossover formation in the macrospore and microspore mother cells remains largely unclear. Here, we report the characterization of a spontaneous rice female sterile variation 1 mutant (fsv1) that showed severe embryo sacs abortion with low seed-setting rate. Through map-based cloning and functional analyses, we isolated the causal gene of fsv1, OsMLH3 encoding a MutL-homolog 3 protein, an ortholog of HvMLH3 in barley and AtMLH3 in Arabidopsis. OsMLH3 and OsMLH1 (MutL-homolog 1) interact to form a heterodimer (MutLγ) to promote crossover formation in the macrospore and microspore mother cells and development of functional megaspore during meiosis, defective OsMLH3 or OsMLH1 in fsv1 and CRISPR/Cas9-based knockout lines results in reduced type I crossover and bivalent frequency. The fsv1 and OsMLH3-knockout lines are valuable germplasms for development of female sterile restorer lines for mechanized seed production of hybrid rice.

4.
Plant Genome ; : e20084, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605090

RESUMO

Room-temperature shelf life is a key factor in fresh market apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) quality and commercial value. To investigate the genetic and molecular mechanism underlying apple shelf life, quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified using bulked segregant analysis via sequencing (BSA-seq). Ethylene emission, flesh firmness, or crispness of apple fruit from 1,273 F1 plants of M. asiatica Nakai 'Zisai Pearl' × M. domestica 'Golden Delicious' were phenotyped prior to and during 6 wk of room-temperature storage. Segregation of ethylene emission and the flesh firmness or crispness traits was detected in the population. Thirteen QTL, including three major ones, were identified on chromosome 03, 08, and 16. A candidate gene encoding pectin acetylesterase, MdPAE10, from the QTL Z16.1 negatively affected fruit shelf life. A 379-bp deletion in the coding sequence of MdPAE10 disrupted its function. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MdPAE10 promoter region reduced its transcription activity. These findings provided insight into the genetic control of fruit shelf life and can be potentially used in apple marker-assisted selection.

5.
J Periodontol ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the regenerative effect of adjunctive use of guided tissue regeneration (GTR), bovine porous bone mineral (BPBM) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in intrabony defects. METHODS: Fourteen participants were enrolled, and for each patient their left and right 2 sides were randomized to the test group or control group. Only the worst intrabony defect on each side was analyzed. The test group received GTR, BPBM and PRF, while the control group received only GTR and BPBM. The PRF used in the trial was fluid PRF, which combined with the BPBM to form a BPBM-PRF complex. The patients were followed up by clinical and radiographic evaluation for 24 months after surgery. RESULTS: Probing depth (PD) in the test group was significantly less than that in the control group at 12 and 24 months after surgery, and the mean difference was approximately 0.5-0.7 mm. Clinical attachment level (CAL) gain in the test group was approximately 0.9 mm higher than that in the control group at 6 months after surgery, and the difference reached 1.0-1.1 mm 12 and 24 months after surgery. None of the other clinical or radiographic parameters differed significantly between the two groups at any time-point after the surgery. CONCLUSION: Compared with GTR and BPBM, the combination of GTR and BPBM-PRF complex is more effective clinically, and results in better clinical outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3255, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547368

RESUMO

Rituximab combined with chemotherapy is the first-line induction therapy of CD20 positive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (CD20+ B-NHL). Recently new anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been developed, but their efficacy and safety compared with rituximab are still controversial. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared new anti-CD20 mAbs with rituximab in induction therapy of B-NHL. The primary outcomes are progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), additional outcomes include event-free survival (EFS), disease-free survival (DFS), overall response rate (ORR), complete response rate (CRR) and incidences of adverse events (AEs). Time-to-event data were pooled as hazard ratios (HRs) using the generic inverse-variance method and dichotomous outcomes were pooled as odds ratios (ORs) using the Mantel-Haenszel method with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Eleven RCTs comprising 5261 patients with CD20+ B-NHL were included. Compared with rituximab, obinutuzumab significantly prolonged PFS (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96, P = 0.01), had no improvement on OS, ORR, and CRR, but increased the incidences of serious AEs (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.13-1.48, P < 0.001). Ofatumumab was inferior to rituximab in consideration of ORR (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.96, P = 0.02), and had no significant differences with rituximab in regard to PFS, OS and CRR. 131I-tositumomab yielded similar PFS, OS, ORR and CRR with rituximab. 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan increased ORR (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.47-6.43, P = 0.003), but did not improve PFS, DFS, OS and CRR compared with rituximab. In conclusion, compared with rituximab in induction therapy of CD20+ B-NHL, obinutuzumab significantly improves PFS but with higher incidence of AEs, ofatumumab decreases ORR, 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan increases ORR.

7.
J Clin Invest ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating SARS-CoV-2 RNA may represent a more reliable indicator of infection than nasal RNA, but RT-qPCR lacks diagnostic sensitivity for blood samples. METHODS: A CRISPR-augmented RT-PCR assay that sensitively detects SARS-CoV-2 RNA was employed to analyze viral RNA kinetics in longitudinal plasma samples from nonhuman primates (NHP) after virus exposure; to evaluate the utility of blood SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection for COVID-19 diagnosis in adults cases confirmed by nasal/nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR results; and to identify suspected COVID-19 cases in pediatric and at-risk adult populations with negative nasal swab RT-qPCR results. All blood samples were analyzed by RT-qPCR to allow direct comparisons. RESULTS: CRISPR-augmented RT-PCR consistently detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the plasma of experimentally infected NHPs from 1 to 28 days post-infection, and these increases preceded and correlated with rectal swab viral RNA increases. In a patient cohort (n=159), this blood-based assay demonstrated 91.2% diagnostic sensitivity and 99.2% diagnostic specificity versus a comparator RT-qPCR nasal/nasopharyngeal test, while RT-qPCR exhibited 44.1% diagnostic sensitivity and 100% specificity for the same blood samples. This CRISPR-augmented RT-PCR assay also accurately identified COVID-19 patients with one or more negative nasal swab RT-qPCR result. CONCLUSION: Results of this study indicate that sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in blood by CRISPR-augmented RT-PCR permits accurate COVID-19 diagnosis, and can detect COVID-19 cases with transient or negative nasal swab RT-qPCR results, suggesting that this approach could improve COVID-19 diagnosis and the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 infection clearance, and predict the severity of infection.

8.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576756

RESUMO

The advent of nanotechnology has hurtled the discovery and development of nanostructured materials with stellar chemical and physical functionalities in a bid to address issues in energy, environment, telecommunications and healthcare. In this quest, a class of two-dimensional layered materials consisting of alkali or coinage metal atoms sandwiched between slabs exclusively made of transition metal and chalcogen (or pnictogen) atoms arranged in a honeycomb fashion have emerged as materials exhibiting fascinatingly rich crystal chemistry, high-voltage electrochemistry, fast cation diffusion besides playing host to varied exotic electromagnetic and topological phenomena. Currently, with a niche application in energy storage as high-voltage materials, this class of honeycomb layered oxides serves as ideal pedagogical exemplars of the innumerable capabilities of nanomaterials drawing immense interest in multiple fields ranging from materials science, solid-state chemistry, electrochemistry and condensed matter physics. In this review, we delineate the relevant chemistry and physics of honeycomb layered oxides, and discuss their functionalities for tunable electrochemistry, superfast ionic conduction, electromagnetism and topology. Moreover, we elucidate the unexplored albeit vastly promising crystal chemistry space whilst outlining effective ways to identify regions within this compositional space, particularly where interesting electromagnetic and topological properties could be lurking within the aforementioned alkali and coinage-metal honeycomb layered oxide structures. We conclude by pointing towards possible future research directions, particularly the prospective realisation of Kitaev-Heisenberg-Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions with single crystals and Floquet theory in closely-related honeycomb layered oxide materials.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576885

RESUMO

Monascus pigments (MPs) are widely used natural colorants in Asian countries. The problems of low extracellular red pigment (ERP) and high citrinin remain to be solved in Monascus pigment production. The effect of lanthanum(III) ion (LaCl3) on Monascus purpureus fermentation was investigated in this study. The yields of ERP and biomass respectively reached maxima of 124.10 U/mL and 33.10 g/L by adding 0.4 g/L La3+ on the second day in the total 8-day fermentation; simultaneously, citrinin was decreased by 59.93% and 38.14% in the extracellular and intracellular fractions, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were obviously improved by La3+ treatment, while the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were increased compared with the control. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids in mycelia was increased from 2.94 to 3.49, indicating that the permeability and fluidity of the cell membrane were enhanced under La3+ treatment. Gene expression analysis showed that the relative expression levels of Monascus pigment synthesis genes (pksPT, mppB, mppD, MpFasB2, and MpPKS5) were significantly upregulated by La3+ treatment, and in contrast, the relative expression levels of citrinin synthesis genes (ctnA, pksCT and mppC) were markedly downregulated. This work confirmed that LaCl3 possesses the potential to induce red pigment biosynthesis and inhibit citrinin production in M. purpureus fermentation. KEY POINTS: • La3+ induced red pigment and inhibited citrinin production in Monascus fermentation. • La3+ regulated genes expression up for Monascus pigment and down for citrinin. • La3+ increased the UFAs in cell membrane to enhance the permeability and fluidity.

10.
Chembiochem ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594780

RESUMO

Selenium-modified nucleosides are powerful tools to study the structure and function of nucleic acids and their protein interactions. The wide-spread application of 2-seleno pyrimidine nucleosides is currently limited by low yields in established synthetic routes. Here, we describe the optimization of the synthesis of 2-Se-uridine and 2-Se-thymidine derivatives by thermostable nucleoside phosphorylases in transglycosylation reactions using natural uridine or thymidine as sugar donors. Reactions were performed at 60 or 80 °C and at pH 9 under hypoxic conditions to improve the solubility and stability of the 2-Se-nucleobases in aqueous media. To optimize the conversion, the reaction equilibria in analytical transglycosylation reactions were studied. The equilibrium constants of phosphorolysis of the 2-Se-pyrimidines were between 5 and 10 and therefore differ by an order of magnitude compared to equilibrium constants of any other known case. Hence, the thermodynamic properties of the target nucleosides are inherently unfavorable, which complicates their synthesis significantly. A ten-fold excess of sugar donor was needed to achieve 40-48% conversion to the target nucleoside. Scale-up of the optimized conditions provided four Se-containing nucleosides in 6-40% isolated yield which compares favorably to established chemical routes.

11.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512158

RESUMO

Infrared (IR) solar cells are promising devices for significantly improving the power conversion efficiency of common solar cells by harvesting the low-energy IR photons. PbSe quantum dots (QDs) are superior IR photon absorbing materials due to their strong quantum confinement and thus strong interdot electronic coupling. However, the high chemical activity of PbSe QDs leads to etching and poor passivation in ligand exchange, resulting in a high trap-state density and a high open circuit voltage (VOC) deficit. Here we develop a hybrid ligand co-passivation strategy to simultaneously passivate the Pb and Se sites; that is, halide anions passivate the Pb sites and Cd cations passivate the Se sites. The cation and anion hybrid passivation substantially improves the quality of PbSe QD solids, giving rise to an excellent trap-state control and prolonged carrier lifetime. A high VOC and a high short circuit current density (JSC) are achieved simultaneously in the IR QD solar cells based on this hybrid ligand treatment. Finally, a IR-PCE of 1.31% under the 1100-nm-filtered solar illumination is achieved in the PbSe QD solar cells, which is the highest IR-PCE for PbSe QD IR solar cells at present. Additionally, the PbSe QD devices show a high external quantum efficiency of 80% at ∼1295 nm.

12.
J Virol ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504601

RESUMO

We previously reported that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) utilizes the cellular protein WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5) to facilitate capsid nuclear egress. Here, we further show that HCMV infection results in WDR5 localization in a juxtanuclear region, and that its localization to this cellular site is associated with viral replication and late viral gene expression. Furthermore, WDR5 accumulated in the virion assembly compartment (vAC) and co-localized with vAC markers of gamma-tubulin (γ-tubulin), early endosomes, and viral vAC marker proteins pp65, pp28, and glycoprotein B (gB). WDR5 co-immunoprecipitated with multiple virion proteins, including MCP, pp150, pp65, pIRS1, and pTRS1, which may explain WDR5 accumulation in the vAC during infection. WDR5 fractionated with virions either in the presence or absence of Triton X-100 and was present in purified viral particles, suggesting that WDR5 was incorporated into HCMV virions. Thus, WDR5 localized to the vAC and was incorporated into virions, raising the possibility that in addition to capsid nuclear egress, WDR5 could also participate in cytoplasmic HCMV virion morphogenesis.Importance Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has a large (∼235-kb) genome that contains over 170 ORFs and exploits numerous cellular factors to facilitate its replication. In the late phase of HCMV infection cytoplasmic membranes are reorganized to establish the virion assembly compartment (vAC), which has been shown to necessary for efficient assembly of progeny virions. We previously reported that WDR5 facilitates HCMV nuclear egress. Here, we show that WDR5 is localized to the vAC and incorporated into virions, perhaps contributing to efficient virion maturation. Thus, findings in this study identified a potential role for WDR5 in HCMV assembly in the cytoplasmic phase of virion morphogenesis.

13.
J Immunol ; 206(5): 1088-1101, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495235

RESUMO

The skin of vertebrates is the outermost organ of the body and serves as the first line of defense against external aggressions. In contrast to mammalian skin, that of teleost fish lacks keratinization and has evolved to operate as a mucosal surface containing a skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT). Thus far, IgT representing the prevalent Ig in SALT have only been reported upon infection with a parasite. However, very little is known about the types of B cells and Igs responding to bacterial infection in the teleost skin mucosa, as well as the inductive or effector role of the SALT in such responses. To address these questions, in this study, we analyzed the immune response of trout skin upon infection with one of the most widespread fish skin bacterial pathogens, Flavobacterium columnare This pathogen induced strong skin innate immune and inflammatory responses at the initial phases of infection. More critically, we found that the skin mucus of fish having survived the infection contained significant IgT- but not IgM- or IgD-specific titers against the bacteria. Moreover, we demonstrate the local proliferation and production of IgT+ B cells and specific IgT titers, respectively, within the SALT upon bacterial infection. Thus, our findings represent the first demonstration that IgT is the main Ig isotype induced by the skin mucosa upon bacterial infection and that, because of the large surface of the skin, its SALT probably represents a prominent IgT-inductive site in fish.

14.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(3): e10426, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470392

RESUMO

The prognosis of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is usually poor when it occurs in aged adults or in patients with chronic diseases, which brought a great challenge to clinical practice. Furthermore, widespread depression, anxiety, and panic related to SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2) infection affected treatment compliance and recovery. Here we report the successful treatment of a 57-year-old male with severe COVID-19, schizophrenia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. The patient's negative emotions (such as tension, panic, and anxiety), particularly his aggression and paranoia, seriously hindered treatment, leading to a deteriorating condition. Psychological counseling and supportive psychotherapy were given but the effect was weak. To improve adherence, risperidone and quetiapine fumarate were replaced by olanzapine for anti-schizophrenic treatment to reduce insomnia and anxiety side effects, associated with sedative-hypnotic drugs as well as psychological counseling. The treatment compliance of the patient improved significantly. The patient's serum alanine aminotransferase increased abnormally in the late stage of hospitalization, suggesting potential liver damage after complex medication strategies. We also monitored the changes of lymphocyte subsets and retrospectively analyzed the virus-specific antibody response. The results suggested that dynamic monitoring of lymphocyte subsets and virus-specific antibody response could facilitate disease progression evaluation and timely treatment plan adjustments. An effective psychotropic drug intervention associated with psychological counselling and psychotherapy are essential for the successful adherence, treatment, and rehabilitation of psychiatric disorders in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Doença Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 172: 210-222, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453251

RESUMO

The recovery of gold from wastewater has received significant attention in the last years due to its high economic value and low availability. A novel chitosan-based adsorbent (CS-GTU) was successfully synthesized by using formaldehyde as a crosslinker between chitosan and guanylthiourea, and applied for selective adsorption of AuIII from an aqueous medium. Through batch experiments, the maximum adsorption capacity of CS-GTU for AuIII could reach up to 695.63 mg/g at pH 5.0, and the adsorption process followed the Pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models, indicating that the monolayer chemisorption possibly occurred on the adsorbent surfaces. The adsorption was an enthalpy driven and spontaneous chemical process based on thermodynamic analysis. Furthermore, the adsorbent has demonstrated outstanding selectivity toward AuIII from multi-metallic solutions, and five cycled experiments of adsorption-desorption showed that CS-GTU could be efficiently regenerated. Experimental breakthrough curves were successfully simulated by using the Thomas model, which can fit the experimental data with the correlated curve (R2 > 0.9) well. This improvement in adsorption was a consequence of the complexation and electrostatic attraction of gold ions with the abundant sulfur/nitrogen-containing groups. The CS-GTU beads can be considered as a suitable and efficient adsorbent for gold ions in aqueous solutions.

16.
Chembiochem ; 2021 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491295

RESUMO

Herein we report a general and simplified synthesis of fluorophosphonates directly from p-nitrophenylphosphonates. This FP on-Demand reaction is mediated by a commercially available polymer-supported fluoride reagent, which produces a variety (25 examples) of fluorophosphonates in high yields while only requiring reagent filtration for pure fluorophosphonate isolation. This reaction protocol facilitates rapid profiling of serine hydrolases with diverse and novel sets of activated phosphonates with differential proteome reactivity. Moreover, slight modification of the procedure into a reaction-to-assay format has enabled additional screening efficiency.

17.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1148: 238193, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516375

RESUMO

Stimuli-responsive hydrogel has been emerged as a popular tool for chemical sensing due to its unique mechanical properties. In this work, we fabricated an ascorbic acid (AA)-responsive alginate hydrogel for the visual detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). This alginate hydrogel (RhB@Alg/Fe3+) was crosslinked with Fe3+, and rhodamine B (RhB) was encapsulated into the hydrogel as an indicating reagent to assistant visual detection. Because of the weak affinity of Fe2+ to alginate, the presence of reductive AA can trigger the dissolution of RhB@Alg/Fe3+ to give an observable red color in the sol solution. On this basis, by using ascorbic acid 2-phosphate as a substrate of ALP, which can be hydrolyzed by ALP to produce AA, the gel-sol transition process of RhB@Alg/Fe3+ was further modulated by ALP. This finding leads to a simple visual method for ALP detection with a low detection limit of 0.37 mU/mL and an excellent selectivity over other proteins. Compared with conventional colorimetric assays, this visual sensor shows the distinct advantages of simple fabrication, cost-effectiveness and easy to implement. We believe that this study can provide a new insight into the fabrication of responsive alginate hydrogel for promising applications in chemical sensing and biomedical fields.

18.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415582

RESUMO

This study aimed to observe the influence of selenium (Se) deficiency on sperm quality and selenoprotein expression in rats. Four-week male Wista rats were randomly divided into three groups: Se-A, Se-L, and Se-D (respectively for Se- adequate, low, and deficient group). After 9 weeks, the rats were sacrificed by anesthesia, with the cauda epididymidis quickly fetched for sperm count, motility, and deformity. Meanwhile the blood, liver, brain, heart, and testis were collected for Se and biochemical analysis. It was found that the rats in Se-D had poor growth, while the Se concentrations in blood, liver, and heart for Se-D decreased significantly, compared with Se-A and Se-L (p < 0.01). But no significant difference was observed in testis and brain and also no statistical significance for sperm count. The sperm motility for Se-A (63.07%) was significantly higher than Se-L (53.91%) and Se-D (54.15%). Deformities were observed in both Se-L and Se-D. Both glutathione peroxidases (GPxs) and selenoprotein-P (SEPP1) levels in plasma and tissues of Se-D were significantly lower than those of Se-A and Se-L (p < 0.01). The SEPP1 levels in heart and brain of Se-L were lower than Se-A (p < 0.01). There was no statistical difference for GPx1 between Se-A and Se-L. The GPx4 level in testis of Se-L was lower than Se-A (p < 0.05). However, the SEPP1 in plasma, liver, testis, and the GPx3 level in plasma of Se-L were higher than those of Se-A (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Our results show that dietary Se deficiency could reduce GPx4 and SEPP1 expression in testis, which further influence sperm motility and may cause sperm deformity. Selenoprotein expression in some tissues of Se-L was higher than that of Se-A, but sperm quality and GPx4 expression in testis were not improved for Se-L. Low active pseudoselenoproteins might be synthesized in low-Se condition. The underlying mechanism needs to be further investigated.

19.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(2): 719-731, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416142

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the development of vascular remodeling in essential hypertension (EH) by mediating the effects of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) on the vascular system. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection on blood pressure and vascular function in mice, in order to elucidate the role of miR­1929­3p in this process. For model development, 7­month­old C57BL/6J mice were infected with the Smith strain of MCMV, and MCMV DNA, IgG and IgM were detected. Subsequently, blood pressure was measured via the carotid artery, and the morphological changes of the aorta were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. miR­1929­3p transfection was performed using an adeno­associated virus packaged vector and the changes in vascular structure were then observed. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial NO synthase were also assessed with colorimetry. Vascular remodeling and expression of NLRP3 inflammasome pathway­related proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Endothelin­1 (ET­1), interleukin (IL)­1ß and IL­18 were assayed by ELISA. The results revealed that MCMV infection increased the blood pressure, promoted vascular remodeling, caused endothelial cell injury, and downregulated miR­1929­3p. However, these effects were alleviated by miR­1929­3p overexpression, which downregulated endothelin A receptor (Ednra) and NLRP3 inflammasome, as well as endothelial injury­ and vascular remodeling­related genes. Taken together, the findings of the present study indicated that overexpression of miR­1929­3p may improve MCMV­induced vascular remodeling, possibly via the deactivation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by ET­1/Ednra.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(2): e23834, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polymorphism in miR-27a rs895819 has been associated with breast cancer (BC) risk, but studies have reported inconsistent results. This meta-analysis investigated the possible association between miR-27a rs895819 polymorphism and BC risk. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies in English and Chinese. Meta-analyses were performed to examine the association between miR-27a rs895819 and BC susceptibility. RESULTS: A total of 16 case-control studies involving 6118 cases and 7042 controls were included. Analysis using five genetic models suggested no significant association between miR-27a rs895819 polymorphism and BC risk in the total population, or specifically in Asian or Chinese subpopulations. In the Caucasian subpopulation, however, the G-allele and AG genotype at rs895819 were significantly associated with decreased BC risk according to the allelic model (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97, P = .004) and heterozygous model (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-089, P = .02), while the wild-type AA genotype was significantly associated with increased BC risk according to the dominant model (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03-1.24, P = .007). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that among Caucasians, the wild-type AA genotype at rs895819 may confer increased susceptibility to BC, while the G-allele and AG genotype may be protective factors. These conclusions should be verified in large, well-designed studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
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