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1.
J Breast Cancer ; 25(2): 117-130, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506580

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Knowing the distinction between benign and borderline/malignant phyllodes tumors (PTs) can help in the surgical treatment course. Herein, we investigated the value of magnetic resonance imaging-based texture analysis (MRI-TA) in differentiating between benign and borderline/malignant PTs. METHODS: Forty-three women with 44 histologically proven PTs underwent breast MRI before surgery and were classified into benign (n = 26) and borderline/malignant groups (n = 18 [15 borderline, 3 malignant]). Clinical and routine MRI parameters (CRMP) and MRI-TA were used to distinguish benign from borderline/malignant PT. In total, 298 texture parameters were extracted from fat-suppression (FS) T2-weighted, FS unenhanced T1-weighted, and FS first-enhanced T1-weighted sequences. To evaluate the diagnostic performance, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed for the K-nearest neighbor classifier trained with significantly different parameters of CRMP, MRI sequence-based TA, and the combination strategy. RESULTS: Compared with benign PTs, borderline/malignant ones presented a higher local recurrence (p = 0.045); larger size (p < 0.001); different time-intensity curve pattern (p = 0.010); and higher frequency of strong lobulation (p = 0.024), septation enhancement (p = 0.048), cystic component (p = 0.023), and irregular cystic wall (p = 0.045). TA of FS T2-weighted images (0.86) showed a significantly higher area under the curve (AUC) than that of FS unenhanced T1-weighted (0.65, p = 0.010) or first-enhanced phase (0.72, p = 0.049) images. The texture parameters of FS T2-weighted sequences tended to have a higher AUC than CRMP (0.79, p = 0.404). Additionally, the combination strategy exhibited a similar AUC (0.89, p = 0.622) in comparison with the texture parameters of FS T2-weighted sequences. CONCLUSION: MRI-TA demonstrated good predictive performance for breast PT pathological grading and could provide surgical planning guidance. Clinical data and routine MRI features were also valuable for grading PTs.

2.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35453270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of ß-glucan (BGL) supplementation on growth performance and intestinal epithelium functions in weaned pigs upon Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) challenge. METHODS: Thirty-two weaned pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were assigned into four groups. Pigs fed with a basal diet or basal diet containing 500 mg/kg BGL were orally infused with ETEC or culture medium. RESULTS: Results showed BGL tended to increase the average daily gain (ADG) in ETEC-challenged pigs (0.05 < p < 0.1). Dietary BGL supplementation had no significant influence on nutrient digestibility (p > 0.05). However, BGL improved the serum concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG, and was beneficial to relieve the increasement of the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines such as the TNF-α and IL-6 upon ETEC-challenge (p < 0.05). Interestingly, BGL significantly increased the duodenal, jejunal and ileal villus height, and increased the jejunal ratio of villus height to crypt depth (V/C) upon ETEC challenge (p < 0.05). BGL also increased the activities of mucosal, sucrase and maltase in the ETEC-challenged pigs (p < 0.05). Moreover, BGL elevated the abundance of Lactobacillus and the concentration of propanoic acid in colon in the ETEC-challenged pigs (p < 0.05). Importantly, BGL elevated the expression levels of zonula occludins-1 (ZO-1) and mucin-2 (MUC-2) in the small intestinal mucosa upon ETEC challenge (p < 0.05). BGL also upregulated the expressions of functional genes such as the claudin-1, cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT-1), LAT-1, L amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1), fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1), FATP4, and sodium/glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT-1) in the duodenum, and the occludin-1 and CAT-1 in the jejunum upon ETEC challenge (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that BGL can attenuate intestinal damage in weaned pigs upon ETEC challenge, which was connected with the suppressed secretion of inflammatory cytokines and enhanced serum immunoglobulins, as well as improved intestinal epithelium functions and microbiota.

3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35453388

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is one of the main factors affecting animal health and reducing performance. The small intestine is the primary site of free-radical attacks. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a flavonoid compound with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other biological activities, which is mainly extracted from Rattan tea. However, the effects of DHM on the intestinal antioxidant function of growing-finishing pigs and related mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary DHM supplementation on the intestinal antioxidant capacity of growing-finishing pigs and its mechanism. Our results show that dietary 0.03% DHM increased the activities of the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and upregulated protein expressions of HO-1, NQO1, nuclear Nrf2, and phospho-ERK (p-ERK) in the jejunum of growing-finishing pigs. Again, we found that 20 µmol/mL and 40 µmol/mL DHM treatment significantly upregulated the protein expression of HO-1 and promoted the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and ERK phosphorylation in IPCE-J2 cells. ERK inhibitor PD98059 eliminated the DHM-induced upregulation of p-ERK, nuclear Nrf2, and HO-1. Our findings provided the first evidence that DHM enhanced the intestinal antioxidant capacity of growing-finishing pigs by activating the ERK/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

4.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467318

RESUMO

Growing evidences show a direct link between diarrhea and disorders of gut microbiota in pigs. However, whether there are microbial markers associated with post-weaning diarrhea remains unknown. In the current study, we compared the microbial community, functions and metabolites between healthy weaned piglets (group H, n=7) and piglets with post-weaning diarrhea (group D, n=7), in order to find out diarrhea associated microbial markers. Each of 7 fecal samples was collected from H and D piglets (weaned at 21 d and sampled at 26 d). The metagenomic and untargeted metabolomic analysis revealed that the microbial composition, function and metabolic profile in D pigs was considerably reshaped, including the reduced abundance and number of Bacteroides, which significantly correlated with the diarrhea status of host. The carbohydrate metabolism, biosynthesis and metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and the activity of glycan and carbohydrates digestion related enzymes showed extensively down-regulated in D pigs compared with H pigs. Diarrhea significantly changed the metabolic profiles of fecal microbiota, and most of the altered metabolites were negatively or positively correlated with the change in the abundance of Bacteroides. In conclusion, the lower abundance of Bacteroides and its associated metabolic dysfunction may be regarded as microbial markers of physiological post-weaning diarrhea in piglets.

5.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 142, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides including various defensins have been attracting considerable research interest worldwide, as they have potential to substitute for antibiotics. Moreover, AMPs also have immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we explored the role and its potential mechanisms of ß-defensin 118 (DEFB118) in alleviating inflammation and injury of IPEC-J2 cells (porcine jejunum epithelial cell line) upon the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) challenge. RESULTS: The porcine jejunum epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) pretreated with or without DEFB118 (25 µg/mL) were challenged by ETEC (1×106 CFU) or culture medium. We showed that DEFB118 pretreatment significantly increased the cell viability (P<0.05) and decreased the expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as the interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in IPEC-J2 cells exposure to ETEC (P<0.05). Interestingly, DEFB118 pretreatment significantly elevated the abundance of the major tight-junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), but decreased the number of apoptotic cells upon ETEC challenge (P<0.05). The expression of caspase 3, caspase 8, and caspase 9 were downregulated by DEFB118 in the IPEC-J2 cells exposure to ETEC (P<0.05). Importantly, DEFB118 suppressed two critical inflammation-associated signaling proteins, nuclear factor-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (IκB-α) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) in the ETEC-challenged IPEC-J2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: DEFB118 can alleviate ETEC-induced inflammation in IPEC-J2 cells through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in reduced secretion of inflammatory cytokines and decreased cell apoptosis. Therefore, DEFB118 can act as a novel anti-inflammatory agent.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Inflamação , Doenças dos Suínos , beta-Defensinas , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo
6.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 806253, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35237678

RESUMO

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a natural polyphenol that possesses potent antioxidant activity. However, little is known about its exact role in regulating the intestinal health under oxidative stress. This study was conducted to explore the effect of dietary CGA supplementation on intestinal barrier functions in weaned pigs upon oxidative stress. Twenty-four weaned pigs were allocated to three treatments and were given a basal diet (control) or basal diet containing CGA (1,000 mg/kg) for 21 days. Pigs were challenged by sterile saline (control) or diquat [10 mg/kg body weight (BW)] on the 15th day. Results showed that CGA attenuated the BW reduction, reduced the serum concentrations of diamine oxidase and D-lactate, and elevated serum antioxidant enzymes activities in diquat-challenged weaned pigs (P < 0.05). Moreover, diquat challenge decreased villus height and activities of sucrase and alkaline phosphatase in jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05), but CGA elevated the villus height and enzyme activities in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). In addition, CGA not only decreased the expression levels of Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 (P < 0.05) but also elevated the expression levels of sodium glucose transport protein-1, glucose transporter-2, occludin, claudin-1, zonula occludens-1, and antioxidant genes such as nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 in intestinal mucosa of weaned pigs upon oxidative stress (P < 0.05). These findings suggested that CGA can attenuate oxidative stress-induced growth retardation and intestinal mucosa disruption, which was linked to elevated antioxidative capacity and enhanced intestinal barrier integrity.

7.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 13(1): 30, 2022 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sialyllactose (SL) is one of the most abundant oligosaccharides present in porcine breast milk. However, little is known about its effect on growth performance and intestinal health in weaned pigs. This study was conducted to explore the protective effect of SL on intestinal epithelium in weaned pigs upon enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) challenge. METHODS: Thirty-two pigs were randomly divided into four treatments. Pigs fed with a basal diet or basal diet containing SL (5.0 g/kg) were orally infused with ETEC or culture medium. RESULTS: SL supplementation elevated the average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency in the ETEC-challenged pigs (P < 0.05). SL also improved the digestibilities of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), and ash in non-challenged pigs (P < 0.05). Moreover, SL not only elevated serum concentrations of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM), but also significantly decreased the serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) upon ETEC challenge (P < 0.05). Interestingly, SL increased the villus height, the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (V:C), and the activities of mucosal sucrase and maltase in the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05). SL also elevated the concentrations of microbial metabolites (e.g. acetic acid, propanoic acid, and butyric acid) and the abundance of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacillus in the cecum (P < 0.05). Importantly, SL significantly elevated the expression levels of jejunal zonula occludins-1 (ZO-1), occluding, and fatty acid transport protein-4 (FATP4) in the ETEC-challenged pigs (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SL can alleviate inflammation and intestinal injury in weaned pigs upon ETEC challenge, which was associated with suppressed secretion of inflammatory cytokines and elevated serum immunoglobulins, as well as improved intestinal epithelium functions and microbiota.

8.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-7, 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264052

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of resveratrol on porcine muscle fiber type gene expression in porcine myotubes. Here, results showed that resveratrol treatment significantly promoted slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and inhibited fast MyHC in porcine myotubes. The phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the downstream factors of AMPK signaling, such as Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) and peroxlsome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactlvator-1α (PGC-1α), were also increased by resveratrol, suggesting that resveratrol could activate the AMPK signaling pathway. Interestingly, resveratrol inhibited the expression of miR-22-3p in porcine myotubes. Furthermore, AMPK inhibitor compound C and miR-22-3p mimic effectively eliminated the effects of resveratrol on slow MyHC and fast MyHC expressions in porcine myotubes. Taken together, our findings indicate that resveratrol regulates muscle fiber type gene expression through the AMPK signaling pathway and miR-22-3p in porcine myotubes.

9.
Food Funct ; 13(6): 3649-3659, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262136

RESUMO

As the demand of consumers for good meat quality is increasing, there is more interest in improving pork quality by nutritional regulation. Dihydromyricetin (DHM), a group of bioactive flavonoids, exhibits excellent biological functions and pharmacological activities. This study aimed to investigate whether dietary DHM supplementation in growing-finishing pigs could provide high-quality pork. A total of 24 healthy castrated Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire (DLY) pigs with an average body weight of 26.95 ± 0.26 kg were randomly divided into four groups (basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 100, 300 and 500 mg kg-1 DHM) with 6 duplicates and one pig per replicate. The growth performance, carcass traits and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs were detected. Then, tandem mass tag (TMT) based quantitative proteomics, western blotting and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were used to explore the regulatory mechanism of DHM on pork quality. The results showed that DHM decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G) and improved the sensory quality (shear force and meat color) and nutritional value (crude protein content and amino acid composition) of pork in growing-finishing pigs. Totally 22 differentially expressed proteins were identified, among which the down-regulated heat shock protein-ß1 (HSPB1) and up-regulated Troponin C-slow (TNNC1) contributed towards explaining the positive effect of DHM on the tenderness and meat color of pork. GO enrichment analysis revealed that better meat color was also linked to higher levels of oxidative metabolism and hemoglobin complexes in pork. Western blotting and RT-qPCR analysis showed that DHM induced a muscle fiber type transformation from fast-switch to slow-switch by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signal, thereby improving the pork quality. Taken together, our findings provide effective evidence for the application of DHM in high-quality pork production.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Ração Animal , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Flavonóis , Carne/análise , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Suínos
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 734171, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35173714

RESUMO

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection can cause transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE), especially in suckling piglets, resulting in a significant economic loss for the global pig industry. The pathogenesis of TGEV infection is closely related to intestinal inflammation. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has anti-inflammatory activity and immunomodulatory properties, but it is unclear whether ATRA can attenuate the inflammatory response induced by TGEV. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of ATRA on TGEV-induced inflammatory injury in intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. The results showed that TGEV infection triggered inflammatory response and damaged epithelial barrier integrity in IPEC-J2 cells. However, ATRA attenuated TGEV-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. ATRA also significantly reversed the reduction of ZO-1 and Occludin protein levels induced by TGEV infection and maintained epithelial barrier integrity. Moreover, ATRA treatment significantly prevented the upregulation of IкBα and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation levels and the nuclear translocation of NF-кB p65 induced by TGEV. On the other hand, treatment of TGEV-infected IPEC-J2 cells with the NF-κB inhibitors (BAY11-7082) significantly decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, ATRA treatment significantly downregulated the mRNA abundance and protein levels of TLR3, TLR7, RIG-I and MDA5, and downregulated their downstream signaling molecules TRIF, TRAF6 and MAVS mRNA expressions in TGEV-infected IPEC-J2 cells. However, the knockdown of RIG-I and MDA5 but not TLR3 and TLR7 significantly reduced the NF-κB p65 phosphorylation level and inflammatory cytokines levels in TGEV-infected IPEC-J2 cells. Our results indicated that ATRA attenuated TGEV-induced IPEC-J2 cells damage via suppressing inflammatory response, the mechanism of which is associated with the inhibition of TGEV-mediated activation of the RLRs/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível/patogenicidade , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/metabolismo , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/virologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Suínos , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Nutrients ; 14(4)2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215512

RESUMO

Phyllanthus emblica L. (PE) is commonly known as a medicine and food homologous plant, which is abundant in natural products polyphenols. In the present study, polyphenols were extracted from PE fruit by response surface method, and the anti-aging ability was determined. PE fruit polyphenols exhibited strong antioxidant capacities in scavenging free radicals, and anti-cholinesterase ability by inhibition of AChE (IC50 0.2186 ± 0.0416 mg/mL) and BuChE (IC50 0.0542 ± 0.0054 mg/mL) in vitro. Moreover, PE fruit polyphenols showed strong protective effect against the aging process in Caenorhabditis elegans model, including increased thermal resistance, extended lifespan by 18.53% (p < 0.05), reduced activity of AChE by 34.71% and BuChE by 45.38% (p < 0.01). This was accompanied by the enhancement in antioxidant enzymes activity of SOD by 30.74% (p < 0.05) and CAT by 8.42% (p > 0.05), while decrease in MDA level by 36.25% (p < 0.05). These properties might be interrelated with the presence of abundant flavonols and phenolic acids identified by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, such as quercetin, myricetin, ellagic, gallic, and chlorogenic acids, together with their glycosides. The remarkable antioxidant and anti-aging potential of PE fruit polyphenols could be implemented in the food and pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Phyllanthus emblica , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia
12.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35204227

RESUMO

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) can cause diarrhea, dehydration, and high mortality in piglets, which is closely related to intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis caused by TGEV infection. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the active metabolite of vitamin A, which has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. However, it is unknown whether ATRA can attenuate TGEV-induced IPEC-J2 cells apoptosis. Therefore, we investigated the protective effects of ATRA on TGEV-induced apoptosis of IPEC-J2 cells and explored the potential molecular mechanism. Our results indicated that TGEV infection caused IPEC-J2 cells damage and apoptosis. However, ATRA treatment attenuated TGEV-induced IPEC-J2 cells damage by upregulating the mRNA expressions of ZO-1, Occludin, and Mucin-1. ATRA treatment also attenuated TGEV-induced apoptosis in IPEC-J2 cells by downregulating the expression of Caspase-3, which is related to the inhibition of death receptor (Fas and Caspase-8) and mitochondrial (Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-9) pathways. Moreover, ATRA treatment prevented TGEV-induced ROS and MDA production and the upregulation of P38MAPK phosphorylation level, which is related to the increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and T-AOC) and the mRNA abundance of antioxidant-related genes (GPX1, GPX2, SOD1, CAT, GCLC, and GCLM). In addition, treatment of TGEV-infected IPEC-J2 cells with the ROS inhibitors (NAC) significantly reduced the protein levels of p-P38MAPK, Fas, Bax, and Cleaved-caspase-3 and the percentage of apoptotic cells. Our results indicated that ATRA attenuated TGEV-induced apoptosis in IPEC-J2 cells via improving the antioxidant capacity, thereby inhibiting the cell damage. the mechanism of which is associated with the inhibition of ROS-mediated P38MAPK signaling pathway.

13.
Food Funct ; 13(3): 1506-1518, 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060577

RESUMO

Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural polyphenolic compound, which shows various effects, such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and inhibition of platelet aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of EA on muscle endurance and explored its possible underlying mechanism. Our data showed that EA significantly improved muscle endurance in mice. EA increased the protein level of slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) I and decreased the protein level of fast MyHC. We also found that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway was activated by EA. Finally, our data indicated that EA could increase mitochondrial biogenesis and function by increasing the content of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the concentration of ATP, the activities of succinodehydrogenase (SDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and the mRNA levels of ATP synthase (ATP5G), mtDNA transcription factor A (TFAM), mitochondrial transcription factor b1 (Tfb1m) and citrate synthase (Cs) in mice and C2C12 myotubes. These results proved that EA could enhance muscle endurance via transforming the muscle fiber type and improving mitochondrial biogenesis and function.


Assuntos
Ácido Elágico/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais não Endogâmicos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Fibras Musculares de Contração Lenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo
14.
Anim Nutr ; 8(1): 256-264, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988307

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate effects of dietary lycopene supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant ability and muscle fiber type transformation in finishing pigs. In a 70-day experiment, 18 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire barrows were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments including a basal diet supplemented with 0, 100 and 200 mg/kg lycopene, respectively. Each dietary treatment had 6 replicates with one pig each. Results showed that dietary 200 mg/kg lycopene supplementation increased muscle redness a∗ value, intramuscular fat and crude protein contents, and decreased muscle lightness L∗ and yellowness b∗ values (P < 0.05), suggesting that addition of 200 mg/kg lycopene to the diet of finishing pigs improved color, nutritional value and juiciness of pork after slaughter. Results also showed that dietary lycopene supplementation enhanced antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs (P < 0.05). Moreover, dietary supplementation of 200 mg/kg lycopene significantly increased slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein level and slow-twitch fiber percentage, and decreased fast MyHC protein level and fast-twitch fiber percentage (P < 0.05), suggesting that the addition of 200 mg/kg lycopene to the diet of finishing pigs promoted muscle fiber type conversion from fast-twitch to slow-twitch. Together, we provide the first evidence that dietary 200 mg/kg lycopene supplementation improves meat quality, enhances antioxidant capacity and promotes muscle fiber type transformation from fast-twitch to slow-twitch in finishing pigs.

15.
Asian J Androl ; 24(1): 73-77, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747722

RESUMO

This study analyzed the effects of male age and abstinence time on semen quality and explored the best abstinence time for Chinese males among different age groups. Semen parameters, including sperm kinetics, morphology, and DNA fragmentation index (DFI), were reviewed from 2952 men. Samples were divided into six age groups (≤25 years, 26-30 years, 31-35 years, 36-40 years, 41-45 years, and >45 years) and were divided into six groups according to different abstinence time (2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, and 7 days). The differences in semen quality between the groups were compared, and the effect of age and abstinence time on semen quality was analyzed. Significant differences were observed in semen volume, progressive motility (PR), and DFI among the age groups (all P < 0.05), and no significant differences were observed in sperm morphological parameters (all P > 0.05). There were significant differences in semen volume, PR, and DFI among different abstinence time groups (all P < 0.05) and no significant differences in sperm morphological parameters (all P > 0.05). Pearson analysis showed that male age and abstinence time were both significantly correlated with sperm kinetics and DFI (both P < 0.05), while no significant correlation was found with sperm morphological parameters (all P > 0.05). The box plots and histograms of men's age, abstinence time, and semen quality show that most semen quality parameters differ significantly between the 2 days and 7 days abstinence groups and other groups at different ages. Except for the sperm morphology parameters, sperm kinetic parameters and sperm DFI are linearly related to male age and abstinence time.


Assuntos
Análise do Sêmen , Motilidade Espermática , Adulto , Fragmentação do DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides
16.
Anim Biotechnol ; 33(2): 356-361, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802366

RESUMO

This study was conducted to explore the effects of dietary ferulic acid (FA) supplementation on intestinal antioxidant capacity and intestinal barrier function in weaned piglets. Eighteen 21-day-old castrated male DLY (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) weaned piglets were randomly divided into control, 0.05% FA, and 0.45% FA groups, respectively. The experiment lasted for 5 weeks. The results showed that dietary 0.05 and 0.45% FA supplementation significantly increased catalase activity (p < 0.001), the protein levels of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (p < 0.05), and the mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase 1, glutathione reductase and Nrf2 (p < 0.05) in jejunum when compared with the control group. Dietary 0.05% FA supplementation also increased the mRNA level of glutathione S-transferase (p < 0.05) in jejunum. Meanwhile, Dietary 0.05 and 0.45% FA supplementation significantly increased the protein expression of zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) (p < 0.05), and dietary supplementation of 0.05% FA increased the mRNA levels of ZO-1, zonula occludens 2, mucin 1, mucin 2, occluding, and claudin-1 (p < 0.05) in jejunum. Together, our data suggest that dietary 0.05% FA supplementation improves the intestinal antioxidant capacity and intestinal barrier function of weaned piglets.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Masculino , Suínos , Desmame
17.
Anim Biotechnol ; 33(2): 330-338, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33703997

RESUMO

Leucine can promote slow-twitch muscle fibers formation, and this effect may be mediated by AMPK signaling pathway. In addition, adiponectin (AdipoQ) plays an important role in regulation of muscle fiber type transformation. AdipoQ is located in the upstream of AMPK and its secretion can be regulated by leucine. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore whether leucine affects muscle fiber type transformation through AdipoQ signaling pathway. Our data showed that 4 mM leucine significantly increased protein expression levels of slow MyHC, Myoglobin, Troponin I-SS, AdipoQ, AdipoR1, phospho-AMPK (p-AMPK) and PGC-1α and mRNA expression levels of AMPKα2, PGC-1α, AdipoQ and AdipoR1, and significantly decreased fast MyHC protein expression. In addition, 4 mM leucine significantly increased the SDH activity while significantly decreased the LDH activity. However, knockdown of AdipoR1 expression by AdipoR1-siRNA abolished leucine-induced upregulation of protein expressions of slow MyHC, AdipoR1, p-AMPK, PGC-1α and NRF1, mRNA expressions of MyHC I, MyHC IIa, AdipoR1, AMPKα2 and PGC-1α, ATP5G, TFAM and NRF1, and mtDNA level, as well as downregulation of protein expression of fast MyHC and mRNA expression of MyHC IIb. Together, our data revealed that leucine promotes muscle fiber type transformation from fast-twitch to slow-twitch through AdipoQ signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Adiponectina , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/farmacologia , Adiponectina/genética , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Adiponectina/farmacologia , Animais , Leucina/metabolismo , Leucina/farmacologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos
18.
Anim Biotechnol ; 33(2): 339-345, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928841

RESUMO

Thirty castrated Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire (DLY) pigs were randomly divided into three groups and slaughtered at 180, 210, and 240 days of age, respectively. Here, we found that the live weight, carcass weight, carcass length, dressing percentage, eye muscle area, backfat deposit, muscle yellowness b* value, drip loss, and cooking loss increased significantly, and the muscle pH 45 min value decreased dramatically as the slaughter age of DLY pigs extended. Moreover, increasing the slaughter age of DLY pigs could obtain higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) percentage, crude protein, essential amino acids (EAA) contents and EAA/NEAA level, and lower n-6/n-3 PUFA level and antioxidant capacity. Together, this study suggests that the older slaughter age improves the carcass traits and nutritional value of pork, but leads to a significant decrease in pork sensory quality in DLY finishing pigs.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Carne , Animais , Fenótipo , Suínos
19.
Anim Biotechnol ; 33(2): 346-355, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061706

RESUMO

In this study, our aim is to investigate the effect of dimer procyanidin B2 [epicatechin-(4ß-8)-epicatechin] (PB2) on porcine skeletal myofiber gene expression in vitro. Our data showed PB2 promoted the protein expression of slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) in porcine myotubes, concomitant with the increases in mRNA levels of MyHC I, MyHC IIa and Tnni1. We also found PB2 activated AMPK signaling in porcine myotubes. NRF1 and CaMKKß that are two important upstream factors of AMPK, and Sirt1 and PGC-1α that are two major downstream factors of AMPK, were also up-regulated by PB2. The mechanism study showed the effect of PB2 on slow-twitch myofiber gene expression was abolished by AMPK inhibitor compound C or by AMPKα1 siRNA. Together, we found PB2 induced porcine skeletal slow-twitch myofiber gene expression by AMPK signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Catequina , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/farmacologia , Animais , Biflavonoides , Catequina/metabolismo , Catequina/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica , Fibras Musculares de Contração Lenta/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos
20.
J Nutr Biochem ; 99: 108859, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517095

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary L-theanine supplementation on skeletal muscle fiber type transition in mice. Our data indicated that dietary 0.15% L-theanine supplementation significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of muscle fiber type related genes (MyHC I, MyHC IIa, PGC-1α, Sirt1, Tnnt1, Tnnc1, Tnni1, MEF2C) and the protein expression levels of MyHC IIa, myoglobin, PGC-1α, Sirt1 and Troponin I-SS, but significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of MyHC IIb. Dietary 0.15% L-theanine supplementation significantly increased the activities of SDH and MDH and decreased the activity of LDH. Furthermore, immunofluorescence demonstrated that dietary 0.15% L-theanine supplementation significantly increased the percentage of type I fibers, and significantly decreased the percentage of type II fibers. In addition, we found that dietary 0.15% L-theanine supplementation increased the fatigue-resistant, antioxidant capacity, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function in skeletal muscle of mice. Furthermore, dietary 0.15% L-theanine supplementation significantly increased the mRNA levels of prox1, CaN and NFATc1, the protein levels of prox1, CNA and NFATc1 and the activity of CaN in GAS muscle when compared with the control group. These results indicated that dietary L-theanine supplementation promoted skeletal muscle fiber transition from type II-type I, which might be via activation of CaN and/or NFATc1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Glutamatos/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Biogênese de Organelas , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
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