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1.
J Nutr Biochem ; : 108750, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933581

RESUMO

Lycopene has a wide range of biological functions, especially its antioxidant capacity. However, effects of lycopene on muscle fatigue resistant and muscle fiber type conversion are unknown. In this study, we found that lycopene significantly prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion in mice. We also showed that lycopene increased the proportion of slow-twitch muscle fiber by promoting muscle fiber type conversion from fast-twitch to slow-twitch in mice and in C2C12 myotubes. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling was activated by lycopene. AMPK upstream and downstream regulators including nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-ß (CaMKKß), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1ɑ (PGC-1ɑ) were also increased by lycopene. AMPK inhibitor compound C markedly attenuated the lycopene-induced skeletal muscle fiber type conversion in C2C12 myotubes. Taken together, we provided the first evidence that lycopene increases the proportion of slow-twitch muscle fiber through AMPK signaling pathway to improve fatigue resistant of skeletal muscle.

2.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-7, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928841

RESUMO

Thirty castrated Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire (DLY) pigs were randomly divided into three groups and slaughtered at 180, 210, and 240 days of age, respectively. Here, we found that the live weight, carcass weight, carcass length, dressing percentage, eye muscle area, backfat deposit, muscle yellowness b* value, drip loss, and cooking loss increased significantly, and the muscle pH 45 min value decreased dramatically as the slaughter age of DLY pigs extended. Moreover, increasing the slaughter age of DLY pigs could obtain higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) percentage, crude protein, essential amino acids (EAA) contents and EAA/NEAA level, and lower n-6/n-3 PUFA level and antioxidant capacity. Together, this study suggests that the older slaughter age improves the carcass traits and nutritional value of pork, but leads to a significant decrease in pork sensory quality in DLY finishing pigs.

3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6653790, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815656

RESUMO

Mn(III) ortho-N-alkyl- and N-alkoxyalkyl porphyrins (MnPs) were initially developed as superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics. These compounds were later shown to react with numerous reactive species (such as ONOO-, H2O2, H2S, CO3 •-, ascorbate, and GSH). Moreover, the ability of MnPs to oxidatively modify activities of numerous proteins has emerged as their major mechanism of action both in normal and in cancer cells. Among those proteins are transcription factors (NF-κB and Nrf2), mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs, antiapoptotic bcl-2, and endogenous antioxidative defenses. The lead Mn porphyrins, namely, MnTE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-010, AEOL10113), MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-001), and MnTnHex-2-PyP5+, were tested in numerous injuries of normal tissue and cellular and animal cancer models. The wealth of the data led to the progression of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ into four Phase II clinical trials on glioma, head and neck cancer, anal cancer, and multiple brain metastases, while MnTE-2-PyP5+ is in Phase II clinical trial on atopic dermatitis and itch.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5533210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855070

RESUMO

This study elucidated the function role of dietary selenium-enriched yeast (SeY) supplementation on growth performance, immune function, and antioxidant capacity in weaned pigs exposure to oxidative stress. Thirty-two similarity weight pigs were randomly divided into four treatments: (1) nonchallenged control, (2) control+SeY, (3) control+diquat, and (4) control+SeY+diquat. The period of experiment was 21 days; on day 16, pigs were injected with diquat or sterile saline. Results revealed that oxidative stress was notably detrimental to the growth performance of piglets, but SeY supplementation ameliorated this phenomenon, which might be regarding the increasing of body antioxidant capacity and immune functions. In details, SeY supplementation improved the digestibility of crude protein (CP), ash, and gross energy (GE). Moreover, the serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase(GPT), and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were reduced via SeY supplemented, and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins A (IgA), IgG, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) ,and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were improved in the diquat-challenged pigs (P < 0.05). In addition, SeY supplementation acutely enhanced the activities of these antioxidant enzymes in the liver and thymus upon diquat challenge, which involved with the upregulation of the critical genes related antioxidant signaling such as the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (P < 0.05). Importantly, we also found that SeY supplementation apparently reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the liver, thymus, and serum (P < 0.05). Specifically, the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the liver and thymus were downregulated by SeY upon diquat challenge. These results suggested that SeY can attenuate oxidative stress-induced growth retardation, which was associated with elevating body antioxidant capacity, immune functions, and suppressed inflammatory response.

5.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(5): 637-642, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662585

RESUMO

The relationship between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and the outcome of embryo transfer is under debate. Our aim was to explore the relationship between mtDNA copy number in human blastocysts and embryonic development to determine whether mtDNA represents a novel biomarker for the prediction of implantation potential. A total of 246 blastocysts were analyzed by next-generation sequencing. There was no correlation between mtDNA copy number and maternal age in all blastocyst groups and euploid blastocyst groups. Additionally, the mtDNA copy number was not significantly higher in aneuploid blastocysts. Subsequently, no relationship was observed between mtDNA copy number and blastocyst quality. The assessment of clinical pregnancy outcome after the transfer of euploid blastocysts to the uterus indicated that the mtDNA copy number was significantly lower in the clinical pregnancy group than in those who failed implantation. The cut-off value of mtDNA copy number was 320.5, which was a highly predictive value. Blastocysts with an increased mtDNA copy number had lower implantation potential, and mtDNA copy number was largely equal in terms of maternal age, chromosome ploidy, and quality of blastocysts.

6.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(10)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712429

RESUMO

Carbohydrates represent the most important energy source in the diet of humans and animals. A large number of studies have shown that dietary carbohydrates (DCHO) are related to the bacterial community in the gut, but their relationship with the composition of intestinal fungi is still unknown. Here, we report the response of the colonic fungal community to different compositions of DCHO in a pig model. Three factors, ratio (2:1, 1:1, and 1:2) of amylose to amylopectin (AM/AP), level of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; 1%, 2%, and 3%), and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS; 400, 800, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight), were considered according to an L9 (34) orthogonal design to form nine diets with different carbohydrate compositions. Sequencing based on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region showed that the fungal community in the colon of the pigs responded to DCHO in the order of MOS, AM/AP, and NSP. A large part of some low-abundance fungal genera correlated with the composition of DCHO, represented by Saccharomycopsis, Mrakia, Wallemia, Cantharellus, Eurotium, Solicoccozyma, and Penicillium, were also associated with the concentration of glucose and fructose, as well as the activity of ß-d-glucosidase in the colonic digesta, suggesting a role of these fungi in the degradation of DCHO in the colon of pigs. Our study provides direct evidence for the relationship between the composition of DCHO and the fungal community in the colon of pigs, which is helpful to understand the function of gut microorganisms in pigs.IMPORTANCE Although fungi are a large group of microorganisms along with bacteria and archaea in the gut of monogastric animals, the nutritional significance of fungi has been ignored for a long time. Our previous studies revealed a distinct fungal community in the gut of grazing Tibetan pigs (J. Li, D. Chen, B. Yu, J. He, et al., Microb Biotechnol 13:509-521, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13507) and a close correlation between fungal species and short-chain fatty acids, the main microbial metabolites of carbohydrates in the hindgut of pigs (J. Li, Y. Luo, D. Chen, B. Yu, et al., J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 104:616-628, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13300). These groundbreaking findings indicate a potential relationship between intestinal fungi and the utilization of DCHO. However, no evidence directly proves the response of intestinal fungi to changes in DCHO. Here, we show a clear alteration of the colonic fungal community in pigs triggered by different compositions of DCHO simulated by varied concentrations of starch, nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), and oligosaccharides. Our results highlight the potential involvement of intestinal fungi in the utilization of nutrients in monogastric animals.

7.
Food Funct ; 12(7): 2962-2971, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690750

RESUMO

This study was conducted to compare the effect of raw (WB) or mixed fungi-fermented wheat bran (FWB) on the growth, nutrient digestibility and intestinal health in weaned piglets. After the preparation of FWB, twenty-one cross-bred weaned piglets (7.20 ± 0.5 kg) were separated into three groups for a 40-day trial. The pigs in the control group were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet. For the other two groups, 8% of expanded corn in the basal diet was replaced by equivalent WB or FWB. Results showed that the content of main nutrients and the composition of dietary fiber in FWB improved compared to that for WB. The digestibility of fiber in pigs fed FWB improved (P < 0.05) compared to the control and/or WB without affecting their growth performance. Both WB and FWB decreased the conditional pathogen (Streptococcus) or/and E. coli virulence factor (STb) in the colon compared to control (P < 0.05), and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (VCR) in jejunum increased (P < 0.05). The number of goblet cells, the expression of MUC-1 and pBD1 in jejunal mucosa, and the proportion of blood CD4+ T lymphocyte subset improved (P < 0.05) by FWB rather than WB. Furthermore, although only WB elevated (P < 0.05) the concentration of butyrate in the colon, both WB and FWB increased the number of butyrate-producing bacteria (P < 0.05) compared to the control. Thus, the main advantage of FWB over WB in weaned pigs is its improvement in fiber digestibility.

8.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33703997

RESUMO

Leucine can promote slow-twitch muscle fibers formation, and this effect may be mediated by AMPK signaling pathway. In addition, adiponectin (AdipoQ) plays an important role in regulation of muscle fiber type transformation. AdipoQ is located in the upstream of AMPK and its secretion can be regulated by leucine. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore whether leucine affects muscle fiber type transformation through AdipoQ signaling pathway. Our data showed that 4 mM leucine significantly increased protein expression levels of slow MyHC, Myoglobin, Troponin I-SS, AdipoQ, AdipoR1, phospho-AMPK (p-AMPK) and PGC-1α and mRNA expression levels of AMPKα2, PGC-1α, AdipoQ and AdipoR1, and significantly decreased fast MyHC protein expression. In addition, 4 mM leucine significantly increased the SDH activity while significantly decreased the LDH activity. However, knockdown of AdipoR1 expression by AdipoR1-siRNA abolished leucine-induced upregulation of protein expressions of slow MyHC, AdipoR1, p-AMPK, PGC-1α and NRF1, mRNA expressions of MyHC I, MyHC IIa, AdipoR1, AMPKα2 and PGC-1α, ATP5G, TFAM and NRF1, and mtDNA level, as well as downregulation of protein expression of fast MyHC and mRNA expression of MyHC IIb. Together, our data revealed that leucine promotes muscle fiber type transformation from fast-twitch to slow-twitch through AdipoQ signaling pathway.

9.
BMC Med Imaging ; 21(1): 48, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-mass enhancement (NME) is a diagnostic dilemma and highly reliant on the experience of the radiologists. Texture analysis (TA) could serve as an objective method to quantify lesion characteristics. However, it remains unclear what role TA plays in a predictive model based on routine MRI characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore the value of TA in distinguishing between benign and malignant NME in premenopausal women. METHODS: Women in whom NME was histologically proven (n = 147) were enrolled (benign: 58; malignant: 89) was retrospective. Then, 102 and 45 patients were classified as the training and validation groups, respectively. Scanning sequences included Fat-suppressed T2-weighted and fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted which were acquired on a 1.5T MRI system. Clinical and routine MR characteristics (CRMC) were evaluated by two radiologists according to the Breast Imaging and Reporting and Data system (2013). Texture features were extracted from all post-contrast sequences in the training group. The combination model was built and then assessed in the validation group. Pearson's chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare categorical variables and continuous variables, respectively. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve were employed to assess the diagnostic performance of CRMC, TA, and their combination model in NME diagnosis. RESULTS: The combination model showed superior diagnostic performance in differentiating between benign and malignant NME compared to that of CRMC or TA alone (AUC, 0.887 vs 0.832 vs 0.74). Moreover, compared to CRMC, the model showed high specificity (72.5% vs 80%). The results obtained in the validation group confirmed the model was promising. CONCLUSIONS: With the combined use of TA and CRMC could afford an improved diagnostic performance in differentiating between benign and malignant NME.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715204

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of Bacillus coagulans and yeast hydrolysate supplementation on growth performance, immune response and intestinal barrier function of weaned piglets. Twenty-four weaned piglets with an average body weight (BW) of 6.89 ± 0.15 kg were divided into four diets for 28 days. The treatments were basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with antibiotic (20 mg/kg colistin sulphate and 40 mg/kg bacitracin zinc, AT), probiotics (400 mg/kg Bacillus coagulans ≥5 × 109 CFU/g, BC) or yeast hydrolysate (5000 mg/kg yeast hydrolysate, YH). Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were improved by AT and YH diets (p < 0.05), while BC diet only increased ADG (p < 0.05). The complement 3 (C3), lysozyme (LZM) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations in serum were increased in BC diet (p < 0.05). Feeding AT and YH caused the increase of jejunal villus height (p < 0.05), and a higher ratio of villus height/crypt depth was observed in AT, BC and YH groups (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in jejunal mucosa was up-regulated by AT, BC and YH diets (p < 0.05). Dietary AT, BC or YH inclusion decreased the interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) concentration and TNF-α mRNA expression (p < 0.05), and YH supplementation even down-regulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 expressions (p < 0.05). In summary, the dietary administration of BC or YH both improves growth performance through promoting the intestinal barrier function, indicating both of them can serve as potential alternatives to antibiotics growth promoters for the piglet production.

11.
Food Funct ; 12(6): 2693-2702, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667291

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the role and underlying molecular mechanism of quercetin in regulating skeletal muscle fiber type transition. We found that dietary quercetin supplementation in mice significantly increased oxidative fiber-related gene expression, slow-twitch fiber percentage and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. By contrast, quercetin decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, fast MyHC protein expression, fast-twitch fiber percentage, and MyHC IIb mRNA expression. Furthermore, quercetin significantly increased serum adiponectin (AdipoQ) concentration, and the expression levels of AdipoQ and AdipoR1. However, inhibition of adiponectin signaling by AdipoR1 siRNA significantly attenuated the effects of quercetin on muscle fiber type-related gene expression, the percentages of slow MyHC-positive and fast MyHC-positive fibers, and metabolic enzyme activity in C2C12 myotubes. Together, our data indicated that quercetin could promote skeletal fiber switching from glycolytic type II to oxidative type I through AdipoQ signaling.

12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ferulic acid (FA) is a common polyphenolic compound. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of dietary FA supplementation on growth performance and muscle fiber type conversion in weaned piglets. In this study, eighteen 21-day-old DLY (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) weaned piglets were randomly divided into control, 0.05% FA, and 0.45% FA groups. RESULTS: Our study showed that dietary FA supplementation had no effect on growth performance, but it could upregulate the expression of slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein, increase the activities of succinic dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, and downregulate the expression of fast MyHC protein. Dietary FA supplementation also increased the expression levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), myocyte enhancer factor 2C, and troponin I-SS, increased the proportion of slow-twitch fiber, and decreased the proportion of fast-twitch fiber. In addition, our results showed that dietary FA supplementation increased the messenger RNA abundance of mitochondrial nuclear transcription genes, including ATP synthase membrane subunit c locus 1, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, mitochondrial transcription factor B1, and cytochrome c. CONCLUSION: We provided the first evidence that FA could promote muscle fiber type conversion from fast-twitch to slow-twitch via the Sirt1/AMP-activated protein kinase/PGC-1α signaling pathway and could improve the mitochondrial function in weaned piglets. This means that FA can be used as a dietary supplement to improve the quality of pork. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

13.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 17, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male obesity has profound effects on morbidity and mortality, but relatively little is known about the impact of obesity on gametes and the potential for adverse effects of male obesity to be passed to the next generation. DNA methylation contributes to gene regulation and is erased and re-established during gametogenesis. Throughout post-pubertal spermatogenesis, there are continual needs to both maintain established methylation and complete DNA methylation programming, even during epididymal maturation. This dynamic epigenetic landscape may confer increased vulnerability to environmental influences, including the obesogenic environment, that could disrupt reprogramming fidelity. Here we conducted an exploratory analysis that showed that overweight/obesity (n = 20) is associated with differences in mature spermatozoa DNA methylation profiles relative to controls with normal BMI (n = 47). RESULTS: We identified 3264 CpG sites in human sperm that are significantly associated with BMI (p < 0.05) using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. These CpG sites were significantly overrepresented among genes involved in transcriptional regulation and misregulation in cancer, nervous system development, and stem cell pluripotency. Analysis of individual sperm using bisulfite sequencing of cloned alleles revealed that the methylation differences are present in a subset of sperm rather than being randomly distributed across all sperm. CONCLUSIONS: Male obesity is associated with altered sperm DNA methylation profiles that appear to affect reprogramming fidelity in a subset of sperm, suggestive of an influence on the spermatogonia. Further work is required to determine the potential heritability of these DNA methylation alterations. If heritable, these changes have the potential to impede normal development.

14.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-37, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298213

RESUMO

To explore the effect of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) on intestinal health in weaned pigs upon Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC) challenge, thirty-two male weaned pigs were randomly assigned into four groups. Pigs fed with a basal diet or basal diet containing MOS (0.6 g/kg) were orally infused with ETEC or culture medium. Results showed that MOS significantly elevated the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and gross energy (GE) in both ETEC-challenged and non-challenged pigs (P < 0.05). MOS also elevated serum concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgM (P < 0.05), but decreased serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 (P < 0.05) in ETEC-challenged pigs. Interestingly, MOS increased villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (V/C) in duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05). MOS also increased duodenal sucrase and ileal lactase activity in ETEC-challenged pigs (P < 0.05). MOS decreased the abundance of Escherichia coli, but increased the abundance of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacillus in cecum (P < 0.05). Importantly, MOS not only elevated the expression levels of zonula occludins-1 (ZO-1), claudin-1, and glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2) in duodenum (P < 0.05), but also elevated the expression levels of ZO-1, GLUT-2, and L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1) in ileum (P < 0.05) upon ETEC challenge. These results suggested that MOS can alleviate inflammation and intestinal injury in weaned pigs upon ETEC challenge, which was associated with suppressed secretion of inflammatory cytokines and elevated serum immunoglobulins, as well as improved intestinal epithelium functions and microbiota.

15.
Discov Med ; 30(159): 19-25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crescent formation is a serious pathological change in the IgA nephropathy (IgAN) which is believed to be primarily mediated by a mixture of parietal epithelial cells, macrophages, and myofibroblasts. It was recommended that IgAN patients with rapid renal hypofunction with a crescent body >50% should begin treatment with corticosteroids combined with cyclophosphamide. However, for patients with partial crescent formation, whether immunosuppressive therapy is necessary is a contested topic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from IgAN patients with partial crescent formation who underwent repeat renal biopsy were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: From the first to the second renal biopsy, the mean hemoglobin level and albumin level increased significantly (P < 0.05), and uric acid and triglyceride levels decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Also, the 24-hour urinary protein excretion decreased significantly (P < 0.001), but no differences in blood pressure, creatinine level, or estimated glomerular filtration rate. For pathological indices, there were no differences in fluorescence intensity of IgA or C3 deposition (P > 0.05), but the mesangial cell proliferation decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and the proportions of global glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis increased significantly (P < 0.05, respectively). In addition, a decreased tendency in the proportion of crescent formation was observed in the second renal biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Immunosuppressive therapy for IgAN patients with partial crescent formation can reduce proteinuria, stabilize renal function, improve anemia, and mitigate acute kidney injury in the short term.

16.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322714

RESUMO

Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound that has antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antimicrobial, antiviral, and vasodilatory effects. This study was conducted to explore the effects of dietary FA supplementation on antioxidant capacity and lipid metabolism in weaned piglets. Eighteen 21-day-old castrated male DLY (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) weaned piglets were randomly divided into control, 0.05%, and 0.45% FA groups. The results showed that, in serum, CAT and T-SOD activities and content of HDL-C were increased, but the content of MDA and the activities of T-CHO and LDL-C were decreased, by FA supplementation. In liver, dietary FA supplementation increased CAT, T-SOD, and GSH-PX activities and upregulated the mRNA levels of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, GST, GPX1, GR, Nrf2, HSL, CPT1b, and PPARα but decreased the contents of MDA and TG. Furthermore, dietary FA supplementation increased the protein level of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO-1. In longissimus dorsi muscle, dietary FA supplementation increased the activity of T-SOD and the mRNA abundance of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, GST, GPX1, GR, and Nrf2 but decreased the contents of MDA and T-CHO. Additionally, dietary FA supplementation increased the protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1. Together, our data suggest that FA could improve antioxidant capacity and lipid metabolism in weaned piglets.

17.
Food Funct ; 11(11): 9599-9612, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151222

RESUMO

To explore the protective effect of Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-induced inflammation and intestinal injury, twenty-four weaned pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: (1) non-challenge (CON, fed with basal diet), (2) ETEC-challenge (ECON, fed with basal diet), and (3) ETEC challenge + FOS treatment (EFOS, fed with basal diet plus 2.5 g kg-1 FOS). On day 19, the CON group was orally infused with sterilized culture while pigs in the ECON group and EFOS group were orally infused with ETEC (2.5 × 1011 colony-forming units). After 3 days, pigs were slaughtered for sample collection. We showed that ETEC challenge significantly reduced average daily gain (ADG); however, FOS improved the ADG (P < 0.05), apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), gross energy (GE), and ash and reduced the diarrhea incidence (P < 0.05). FOS reduced plasma concentrations of IL-1ß and TNF-α and down-regulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in the jejunum and ileum as well as IL-1ß and TNF-α in the duodenum. The concentrations of plasma immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and secreted IgA (SIgA) in the jejunum (P < 0.05) were elevated. Interestingly, FOS elevated the villus height in the duodenum, and elevated the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum in the EFOS group pigs (P < 0.05). Moreover, FOS increased lactase activity in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05). The activities of sucrase and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) were higher in the EFOS group than in the ECON group (P < 0.05). Importantly, FOS up-regulated the expressions of critical genes in intestinal epithelium function such as zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT1) in the duodenum and the expressions of ZO-1 and glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) in the jejunum (P < 0.05). FOS also up-regulated the expressions of occludin, fatty acid transporter-4 (FATP4), sodium glucose transport protein 1 (SGLT1), and GLUT2 in the ileum (P < 0.05). FOS significantly increased the concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid in the cecal digesta. Additionally, FOS reduced the populations of Escherichia coli, but elevated the populations of Bacillus and Bifidobacterium in the caecal digesta (P < 0.05). These results suggested that FOS could improve the growth performance and intestinal health in weaned pigs upon ETEC challenge, which was associated with suppressed inflammatory responses and improved intestinal epithelium functions and microbiota.

18.
Food Funct ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196069

RESUMO

Daidzein (DAI) is a kind of natural isoflavonic phytoestrogen with estrogenic activity. However, little is known about its influence on early fetal growth in mammalian animals. The current study aimed to explore the characteristics of amniotic fluid exposure to dietary DAI using 1H NMR-based metabolomics and biochemical analysis. Here, we found that DAI supplementation at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 significantly enhanced the number of viable embryos at the early gestation stage (P < 0.05). DAI significantly elevated the concentrations of estrogen (E) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the amniotic fluid (P < 0.05). Moreover, DAI tended to increase the concentration of progesterone, but decrease the concentration of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the amniotic fluid (0.05 < P < 0.10). Interestingly, the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was higher in the DAI group than in the CON group (P < 0.05). An 1H NMR-based metabolomics analysis identified and quantified more than 30 compounds in the amniotic fluid, and some critical metabolites such as arginine, creatine, and citrate were found to be significantly elevated upon DAI supplementation (P < 0.05). Importantly, the metabolic pathways involved in arginine and proline metabolisms were found to be significantly affected by DAI. Collectively, dietary DAI may improve embryo survival by improving hormones, antioxidant capacity, and metabolic profiles in the maternal amniotic fluid.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185791

RESUMO

Antibiotics are widely used to treat various inflammatory bowel diseases caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). However, continuous use of antibiotics may lead to drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the role of human ß-defensin 118 (DEFB118) in regulating the ETEC-induced inflammation and intestinal injury. ETEC-challenged or non-challenged mice were treated by different concentrations of DEFB118. We show that ETEC infection significantly increased fecal score (P < 0.05) and serum concentrations of interlukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Moreover, the concentrations of D-lactic acid, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine (CREA), and urea (P < 0.05) were both increased in the ETEC-challenged mice. However, DEFB118 significantly decreased their concentrations in the serum (P < 0.05). DEFB118 not only alleviated tissue damage in spleen upon ETEC challenge, but also increased the villus height in duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05). Moreover, DEFB118 improved the localization and abundance of tight junction protein ZO-1 in jejunal epithelium. Interestingly, DEFB118 decreased the expression levels of critical genes involving in mucosal inflammatory responses (NF-κB, TLR4, IL-1ß, and TNF-α) and the apoptosis (caspase3) upon ETEC challenge (P < 0.05), whereas DEFB118 significantly upregulated the expression of mucosa functional genes such as the mucin1 (MUC1) and sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1) in the ETEC-challenged mice (P < 0.05). These results indicated a novel function of the DEFB118. The anti-inflammatory effect of DEFB118 should make it an attractive candidate to prevent various bacteria-induced inflammatory bowel diseases.

20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161077

RESUMO

Arabinoxylan (AX) has many beneficial health effects that are closely related to its structural characteristics. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of molecular weight (Mw) and degree of substitution (DS) on the antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of triticale bran AX and its hydrolysates in vitro. At low and similar Mw, the antioxidant activity of AX was inversely proportional to its DS. When DS was close, the antioxidant activity of AX was inversely proportional to its Mw at high DS, but the opposite result was found at low DS. As for the hypoglycemic performance, when DS was similar, the hypoglycemic activity of AX was proportional to its Mw. At low and similar Mw, the α-glucosidase inhibitory ability and glucose adsorption ability of AX was positively correlated with DS, whereas the α-amylase inhibitory ability and glucose delayed absorption ability showed the opposite results. Mw and DS had significant effects on the antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of AX, and these two factors often need to be combined to explain the varied effects under different conditions.

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