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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11141, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366974

RESUMO

The activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and the ROS content were analyzed in two typical storage-tolerant cultivars (Xushu 32 and Shangshu 19) and another two storage-sensitive cultivars (Yanshu 25 and Sushu 16) to explore the association between the storage capacity of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) and ROS scavenging capability. The storage roots of the storage-tolerant cultivars maintained higher activities and expression levels of antioxidative enzymes, including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD); lower activity and expression of lipoxygenase (LOX); and lower accumulation of ROS metabolites compared with the storage-sensitive cultivars. The antioxidative capability and ROS parameters of leaves were positively correlated with those of storage roots. Our results provide valuable insight for evaluating the storability of sweetpotato cultivars by analyzing the capabilities of the antioxidative system and the contents of ROS metabolites.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(16): 4435-4443, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945533

RESUMO

Aspergillus niger, which is a fungal pathogen, causes rot in a variety of fruits. In this study, the cystathionine ß-synthase cbsA gene was deleted by homologous recombination to study its role in sulfur metabolism and pathogenicity of A. niger. The results showed that Δ cbsA strain maintained normal mycelia growth and sporulation compared with the control strain A. niger MA 70.15, whereas the contents of cysteine and glutathione (GSH) increased significantly after cbsA deletion. However, Δ cbsA strain showed reduced endogenous H2S production. Further results showed that cbsA gene deletion induced higher resistance to cadmium stress and stronger infectivity to pears. It was also found that a stronger response of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was induced in Δ cbsA mutant-infected pear compared with the control strain. In all, the present research suggested the important role of cbsA in sulfur metabolism and pathogenicity of A. niger in pear fruit.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger/enzimologia , Aspergillus niger/patogenicidade , Cistationina beta-Sintase/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pyrus/microbiologia , Enxofre/metabolismo , Aspergillus niger/genética , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Cistationina beta-Sintase/genética , Cisteína/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Glutationa/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Virulência
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(8): 3824-3833, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sweet potato is susceptible to chilling injury during low-temperature storage. To explore the correlation between chilling injury and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, the content of ROS and the activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed in the typical storage-tolerant cultivar Xushu 32 and storage-sensitive cultivar Yanshu 25. RESULTS: The activities of antioxidant enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) were enhanced rapidly in the early period of storage in response to chilling stress. Thereafter, the content of ROS metabolites increased consistently due to gradual decrease in ROS scavenging enzymes. Storage-tolerant cultivar Xushu 32 had higher antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expressions as well as higher content of antioxidant metabolites and lower content of ROS metabolites compared with storage-sensitive cultivar Yanshu 25, suggesting that the capacity of ROS scavenging by antioxidant enzymes and antioxidants is highly associated with the tolerance of sweet potato to chilling stress. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that the antioxidative system is activated in the storage root of sweet potato and the antioxidative capacity is positively associated with better storage performance in the storage-tolerant cultivar. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/enzimologia , Tubérculos/química , Ascorbato Peroxidases/genética , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutationa Redutase/genética , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1404, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319669

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been postulated to be the third gasotransmitter in both animals and plants after nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). In this review, the physiological roles of H2S in plant growth, development and responses to biotic, and abiotic stresses are summarized. The enzymes which generate H2S are subjected to tight regulation to produce H2S when needed, contributing to delicate responses of H2S to environmental stimuli. H2S occupies a central position in plant sulfur metabolism as it is the link of inorganic sulfur to the first organic sulfur-containing compound cysteine which is the starting point for the synthesis of methionine, coenzyme A, vitamins, etc. In sulfur assimilation, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR) is the rate-limiting enzyme with the greatest control over the pathway and probably the generation of H2S which is an essential component in this process. APR is an evolutionarily conserved protein among plants, and two conserved domains PAPS_reductase and Thioredoxin are found in APR. Sulfate reduction including the APR-catalyzing step is carried out in chloroplasts. APR, the key enzyme in sulfur assimilation, is mainly regulated at transcription level by transcription factors in response to sulfur availability and environmental stimuli. The cis-acting elements in the promoter region of all the three APR genes in Solanum lycopersicum suggest that multiple factors such as sulfur starvation, cytokinins, CO2, and pathogens may regulate the expression of SlAPRs. In conclusion, as a critical enzyme in regulating sulfur assimilation, APR is probably critical for H2S generation during plants' response to diverse environmental factors.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(40): 10380-10387, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208706

RESUMO

Ethylene (C2H4) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) play important physiological roles in regulating fruit ripening and senescence. The mechanism of H2S in ethylene-induced tomato fruit ripening and senescence is still unknown. Here, we show that exogenous H2S reduced the production of superoxide anion (·O2-), malondialdehyde (MDA), and H2O2 in tomato fruit. Further, additional H2S was found to induce the activities of guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase compared with C2H4 treatment alone, whereas the activities of lipoxygenase, polyphenol oxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase were adversely affected. Moreover, the expression of the antioxidant-encoding genes SlAPX2, SlCAT1, SlPOD12, and SlCuZnSOD was generally up-regulated with C2H4-H2S cotreatment, compared with their expression after ethylene treatment. Thus, the present results suggest that exogenous H2S acts as a fruit-ripening regulator by antagonizing the effect of ethylene, thereby providing a potential application for H2S in the postharvest storage of fruit.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Etilenos/farmacologia , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Ascorbato Peroxidases/genética , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(21): 5401-5409, 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745230

RESUMO

Aspergillus niger, a common saprophytic fungus, causes rot in many fruits. We studied the role of a putative catalase-peroxidase-encoding gene, cpeB, in oxidative stress and virulence in fruit. The cpeB gene was deleted in A. niger by homologous recombination, and the Δ cpeB mutant showed decreased CAT activity compared with that of the wild type. The cpeB gene deletion caused increased sensitivity to H2O2 stress, and spore germination was significantly reduced; in addition, the reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) metabolites superoxide anions (·O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulated in the Δ cpeB mutant during H2O2 stress. Furthermore, ROS metabolism in A. niger infected apples was determined, and our results showed that the Δ cpeB mutant induced an attenuated response in apple fruit during the fruit-pathogen interaction; the cpeB gene deletion significantly reduced the development of lesions, suggesting that the cpeB gene in A. niger is essential for full virulence in apples.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger/enzimologia , Catalase/genética , Catalase/fisiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Malus , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus niger/patogenicidade , Catalase/química , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0188289, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29155872

RESUMO

Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a gaseous signaling molecule in animal cells, has recently been found to play a physiological role in plants. Here we studied the role of SO2 in gibberellic acid (GA3)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers. The application of the SO2 donor (NaHSO3/Na2SO3, 1:3 M/M) effectively alleviated PCD in barley aleurone layers in a dose-dependent manner with an optimal concentration of 50 µM. Further investigations showed that SO2 reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (⋅O2-) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in aleurone layers. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) were enhanced by SO2 donor treatment. Meanwhile, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity was attenuated by SO2 donor treatment. Furthermore, an induction of endogenous H2S and NO were also observed in SO2-treated aleurone layers, suggesting interactions of SO2 with other well-known signaling molecules. Taken together, we show that SO2 negatively regulated PCD by acting as an antioxidant to scavenge excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during PCD.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Dióxido de Enxofre/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Giberelinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Hordeum/metabolismo , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sulfatos/química , Dióxido de Enxofre/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo
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