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Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3997-4003, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893600


Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus is a both medicinal and edible species specified by the China Ministry of Health, with a long history in China. According to the ancient monographs about materia medica, it was found that the records of the Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus on the original plants were confused. This paper reviewed the ancient monographs about materia medica, and made a summarization and textual research on the name, origin, habitat, processing methods, medicinal properties and clinicacy efficacy of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus based the comprehensive analysis on modern literatures and authoritative books of Chinese herbal medicine. The results indicated that there were many bynames of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. Before the Yuan Dynasty, there was a mixed use of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus and Citri Fructus, which were not distinguished from each other in terms of nature and taste until the Yuan dynasty. Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus was a varietas of Citri Fructus. The main shape of the original plant of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus is "like a human hand with fingers" as recorded in ancient monographs about materia medica. The main places of origin of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus were Guangdong, Zhejiang, Fujian, Sichuan, which were relatively stable. There were fewer records about medicinal proces-sing methods of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. Only steaming and baking methods were found in ancient monographs about materia medica, and the steaming method could reduce the irritability of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. The processing of therapeutic dietary of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus was widely used in folk, which was represented by Chaozhou Laoxianghuang, a traditional succade made of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. According to the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus had effects in soothing liver and regulating gas, relieving pain in the stomach, eliminating dampness and resolving phlegm, which was basically consistent with the descriptions in ancient monographs about materia medica. This paper defined the original plant of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, and sorted out and summarized the processing methods, nature and taste of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, so as to provide data support for the standardization of the processing technology and the development and utilization of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus.

Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , China , Frutas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(11): 2694-2701, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627505


Coicis Semen is widely used as a raw material which can be used as both medicine and food among people. According to the ancient monographs on materia medica and relevant documents on the processing specifications in various provinces and cities, herba logical study on the historical evolution of the processing methods of Coicis Semen was conducted in this paper from the aspects of collecting and processing methods of Coicis Semen, the processing methods in the past dynasties and the nature, flavour and efficacy of Coicis Semen. The results showed that the processing methods of Coicis Semen recorded in monographs on materia medica mainly included stir-frying, glutinous rice stir-frying, salt processing(including salt cooking and salt stir-frying), stir-frying with the earth scraped from the wall facing east, and ginger juice stir-frying, etc. Among them, stir-frying, and stir-frying with the earth scraped from the wall facing east are still used nowadays. The bran stir-frying is the improved version of glutinous rice stir-frying in order to be adaptive to the modern-day situation and the needs of the present. In addition, the ancient shell removal and kernel keeping method are also included in the processing procedures in modern local processing specifications, which are combined with frying to form a new method named "Fazhi" processing( "Fazhi" means a processing method of multiple procedures). The 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia records that Coicis Semen is helpful to clear dampness and promote diuresis, strengthen the spleen and prevent diarrhea, eliminate impediment, discharge pus, resolve toxin and a mass, etc., which are consistent with those contained in ancient monographs on materia medica. After the "Fazhi" processing, the cold nature of Coicis Semen has been removed and its nature,flavour and meridian tropism have been changed, so its application scopes expanded. The results of this study clearly traced the history of the collecting and proces-sing of Coicis Semen, summarized the nature, flavour and efficacy of Coicis Semen contained in both ancient and modern literature, and provided a historical basis for the standardization of the subsequent processing technology of Coicis Semen, the clinical application of various processed products, and the further development and utilization of medicinal materials.

Coix , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Gengibre , Materia Medica , Oryza , Culinária , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
Int J Biol Macromol ; 143: 833-841, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765756


A highly active secretory expression system in Bacillus subtilis was constructed for enhancing the heterogeneous secretory expression efficiency of a recombinant amidase from Bacillus megaterium (Bm-Ami). Initially, six promoters PlytR, PspoVG, PaprE, PyvyD, PftsH, PamyE were screened out from 33 endogenous phase-dependent promoters via the strategy of promoter engineering which showed higher transcriptional levels than the original promoter Pcdd. Afterwards, a secretory expression system pBSHdd2-20 containing a dual-promoter PamyE-cdd and a signal peptide Pac was constructed showing an extracellular Bm-Ami activity of 135.58 U mL-1 during shake-flask cultivation, which was 3.58-fold greater than that with plasmid pBSH1 (control). Finally, extracellular amidase activity of a strain containing the plasmid pBSHdd2-20 reached 430 U mL-1 (equal to 10.8 mg mL-1) and 10.72 U mg-1DCW after 52 h in a scale-up fermentation, which was the highest secretory efficiency for Bm-Ami in all studies to date. In conclusion, a highly secretory system constructed in this study can be applied for the industrial production of amidase and provides a basis for the development of an excellent secretory expression system for similar proteins.

Amidoidrolases/genética , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Fermentação , Ordem dos Genes , Engenharia Genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(5): 1805-1811, 2018 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156881


Honeycomb structure endows graphene with extraordinary properties. But could a honeycomb monolayer superlattice also be generated via self-assembly of colloids or nanoparticles? Here we report the construction of mono- and multilayer molecular films with honeycomb structure that can be regarded as self-assembled artificial graphene (SAAG). We construct fan-shaped molecular building blocks by covalently connecting two kinds of clusters, one polyoxometalate and four polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes. The precise shape control enables these complex molecules to self-assemble into a monolayer 2D honeycomb superlattice that mirrors that of graphene but on the mesoscale. The self-assembly of the SAAG was also reproduced via coarse-grained molecular simulations of a fan-shaped building block. It revealed a hierarchical process and the key role of intermediate states in determining the honeycomb structure. Experimental images also show a diversity of bi- and trilayer stacking modes. The successful creation of SAAG and its stacks opens up prospects for the preparation of novel self-assembled nanomaterials with unique properties.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(52): 15699-704, 2015 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26563587


Clusters with diverse structures and functions have been used to create novel cluster-assembled materials (CAMs). Understanding their self-assembly process is a prerequisite to optimize their structure and function. Herein, two kinds of unlike organo-functionalized inorganic clusters are covalently linked by a short organic tether to form a dumbbell-shaped Janus co-cluster. In a mixed solvent of acetonitrile and water, it self-assembles into a crystal with a honeycomb superstructure constructed by hexagonal close-packed cylinders of the smaller cluster and an orderly arranged framework of the larger cluster. Reconstruction of these structural features via coarse-grained molecular simulations demonstrates that the cluster crystallization and the nanoscale phase separation between the two incompatible clusters synergistically result in the unique nano-architecture. Overall, this work opens up new opportunities for generating novel CAMs for advanced future applications.