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1.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 575442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042976

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a rapidly growing epidemic, which leads to increased mortality rates and health care costs. Nutrients (namely, carbohydrates, fat, protein, mineral substances, and vitamin), sensing, and management are central to metabolic homeostasis, therefore presenting a leading factor contributing to T2D. Understanding the comprehensive effects and the underlying mechanisms of nutrition in regulating glucose metabolism and the interactions of diet with genetics, epigenetics, and gut microbiota is helpful for developing new strategies to prevent and treat T2D. In this review, we discuss different mechanistic pathways contributing to T2D and then summarize the current researches concerning associations between different nutrients intake and glucose homeostasis. We also explore the possible relationship between nutrients and genetic background, epigenetics, and metagenomics in terms of the susceptibility and treatment of T2D. For the specificity of individual, precision nutrition depends on the person's genotype, and microbiota is vital to the prevention and intervention of T2D.

2.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 89: 81-88, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265869

RESUMO

This study investigated carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC)-induced biomimetic mineralization of collagen fibrils, with the aim of synthesizing experimental resins doped with CMC and calcium phosphate microfillers to remineralize artificial caries-affected dentin (ACAD) and enhance resin-dentin bonding durability. A size exclusion test provided evidence for the rejection of CMC (Mw 150 kDa) by collagen fibrils. Transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction conducted on reconstituted two-dimensional collagen showed typical deposition of needle-like hydroxyapatite crystals within collagen fibrils through CMC-induced biomimetic mineralization. The Vickers hardness test revealed significant improvement (P < 0.001) of the hardness of ACAD treated with CMC-containing experimental resins. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed reduced dentin permeability and defect sites after biomimetic mineralization. On microtensile bond strength testing, the CMC-remineralized ACAD had better bonding with resin than ACAD and traditionally remineralized ACAD in both self-etch and etch-and-rinse bonding modes (P < 0.001). In conclusion, CMC is efficient in directing the biomimetic mineralization of collagen fibrils. The experimental resins containing CMC can induce dentin biomimetic remineralization and improve the bonding performance of ACAD.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Cárie Dentária/metabolismo , Dentina/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Resinas Sintéticas/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Biomimética , Quitosana/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Dureza
3.
Peptides ; 99: 189-194, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024714

RESUMO

This study attempted to incorporate the antibacterial peptide nisin into an etch-and-rinse dental adhesive to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the modified adhesive against Streptococcus mutans and the bond strength. Single Bond 2 was used as a negative control, and nisin was incorporated at 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v). The antibacterial activity against S. mutans was evaluated using the film contact test, the agar diffusion test, XTT assays and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of the modified dental adhesive was also evaluated. The cured nisin-incorporated dental adhesive exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of S. mutans (P<0.05), and the inhibitory effect was strengthened as the nisin concentration increased (P<0.05). However, no significant differences in the agar diffusion test were found for the cured nisin-incorporated adhesives compared with the control group. Based on XTT results and CLSM images, the cured nisin-incorporated adhesive interfered with the adherence of S. mutans and the integrity of its biofilms (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the 1% nisin group did not exhibit a significant difference in µTBS (P>0.05), whereas the 3% and 5% nisin groups displayed decreased bond strength (P<0.05).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Cimentos Dentários , Nisina , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cimentos Dentários/síntese química , Cimentos Dentários/química , Cimentos Dentários/farmacologia , Nisina/química , Nisina/farmacologia
4.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 125(1): 72-80, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27996182

RESUMO

The biomimetic remineralization of apatite-depleted dentin is a potential method for enhancing the durability of resin-dentin bonding. To advance this strategy from its initial proof-of-concept design, we sought to investigate the characteristics of polyacrylic acid (PAA) adsorption to desorption from type I collagen and to test the mineralization ability of PAA-bound collagen. Portland cement and ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) were homogenized with a hydrophilic resin blend to produce experimental resins. The collagen fibrils reconstituted on nickel (Ni) grids were mineralized using different methods: (i) group I consisted of collagen treated with Portland cement-based resin in simulated body fluid (SBF); (ii) group II consisted of PAA-bound collagen treated with Portland cement-based resin in SBF; and (iii) group III consisted of PAA-bound collagen treated with ß-TCP-doped Portland cement-based resin in deionized water. Intrafibrillar mineralization was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. We found that a carbonyl-associated peak at pH 3.0 increased as adsorption time increased, whereas a hydrogen bond-associated peak increased as desorption time increased. The experimental resins maintained an alkaline pH and the continuous release of calcium ions. Apatite was detected within PAA-bound collagen in groups II and III. Our results suggest that PAA-bound type I collagen fibrils can be mineralized using Portland cement-based resins.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Colágeno Tipo I/química , Cimentos Dentários/química , Cimentos de Resina/química , Adsorção , Biomimética , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Colagem Dentária , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Níquel/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
5.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 51(3): 148-53, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26980652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on biomodification of demineralized dentine substrate, in its permeability, hydrophobicity, and inhibition ability to collagen enzymatic degradation. METHODS: The dentine substrates were treated with simulated pulpal pressure created by mixtures of 0.02%, 0.1% EGCG/bovine serum albumin (BSA) in acidic environment (pH4.4) for 48 h. A fluid-transport model was used to measure the fluid permeability through demineralized dentine substrate. Positive replicas of dentine substrate were fabricated before and after being subjected to acidic environment for scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination. The blank group contained no EGCG and the positive group were treated with Gluma desensitizer. Static contact angle measurements on demineralized dentin and 0.1% EGCG primed dentin were performed by contact angle analyzer. The priming time were 60 s, 120 s, 0.5 h, 1 h. Dentine specimens bonded with Adper single bond 2 were subjected to 100 mg/L collagenase and observed under SEM. Resin-bonded specimens (with 0.02%, 0.1%, 0.5% EGCG priming, or without EGCG priming) were created for micro-tensile bond strength evaluation (MTBS). Resin-bonded specimens after thermol cycling were created for MTBS evaluation. RESULTS: The fluid permeability in the blank control group increased ([151.3±22.3]%), the fluid permeability in 0.1% EGCG/BSA group decreased ([23.7±6.3]%). Compared to the blank control group, the contact angle of 120 s, 0.5 h, 1 h groups increased by 31.0%, 53.5%, 57.8% in deep dentin and 37.4%, 59.3%, 62.4% in shallow dentin. The SEM examination showed that 0.1% and 0.5% EGCG priming for 120 s significantly increased dentin collagen's resistance to collagenase. The immediate MTBS of 0.1% and 0.5% EGCG groups were (29.4±4.8) and (19.8± 4.9) MPa. After thermol cycling, the MTBS of 0.1% and 0.5% EGCG groups were (19.9±5.1) and (15.3± 6.3) MPa. CONCLUSIONS: Under acidic environment (pH4.4), the 0.1% EGCG can reduce dentine permeability under acidic environment. The 0.1% EGCG can increase hydrophobicity of dentin substrate, and strengthen dentin substrate's resistance to collagenase hydrolysis, thus increased the resin-dentin bonding durability.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Permeabilidade da Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Ácido do Dente , Catequina/farmacologia , Colágeno/química , Colágeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Colagenases/farmacologia , Resinas Compostas , Colagem Dentária , Cimentos Dentários , Polpa Dentária , Dentina/química , Adesivos Dentinários , Glutaral/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Metacrilatos/farmacologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pressão , Cimentos de Resina , Soroalbumina Bovina/farmacologia , Resistência à Tração , Fatores de Tempo
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