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Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111999, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550078


Tramadol is a widely used analgesic with additional antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. This compound has been reported in continental waters reaching concentrations of µg/L as a consequence of its inefficient removal in sewage treatment plants and increasing use over time. In this study, European chubs (Squalius cephalus) were exposed to 1 µg/L of tramadol in water for 42 days with a subsequent 14 days of depuration. Our results revealed that chubs exposed to this analgesic underwent changes in their behaviour as compared to the control group. The behavioural outcome was also influenced by the individual concentration of tramadol in brain tissue. In particular, experimental fish presented anxiolytic-like effects, characterized by less bold and less social individuals. Exposed animals were less frequently out of the shelter and moved a shorter distance, indicating that they explored the new environment less during the boldness test. In the novel object recognition experiment, although they distinguished the new item, they examined it less and displayed a reduced activity. Shoal cohesion was disrupted as observed in an increased distance between individuals. After the depuration phase, this alteration remained whereas the boldness effect disappeared. Moreover, the degree of behavioural changes was correlated with the concentration of the substance in brain. According to our findings, chronic presence of tramadol in the environment can impact the fitness of exposed aquatic fauna by altering evolutionary crucial behaviours.

Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Tramadol/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Água Doce/química , Tramadol/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
PeerJ ; 8: e9356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714655


Background: The aquatic environment has been contaminated with various anthropogenic pollutants, including psychoactive compounds that may alter the physiology and behavior of free-living organisms. The present study focused on the condition and related mortality of the juvenile chub (Squalius cephalus). The aim of the study was to test whether the adverse effects of the antidepressants sertraline and citalopram, the analgesic tramadol and the illicit drug methamphetamine, on fish condition exist under environmentally relevant concentrations and whether these effects persist after a depuration period. Innovative analyses of the fish brain concentrations of these compounds were performed with the aim to show relationship between compound brain tissue concentration and fish condition. Methods: The laboratory experiment consisted of 42 days of exposure and a subsequent 14-day depuration period with regular monitoring of the condition and mortality of exposed and control fish. Identical methodology, including individual brain concentration analyses for the tested compounds, was applied for all substances. Additional study on feeding under sertraline exposure was also conducted. The feeding was measured from the 28th day of the exposure, three times in a week, by observation of food intake during 15 minutes in social environment. Results: The effects of particular psychoactive compounds on chub condition varied. While sertraline induced a lower condition and increased mortality, the effects of methamphetamine were inverse, and tramadol and citalopram had no significant effect at all. Individual brain concentrations of the tested compounds showed that the effects of sertraline and methamphetamine on fish condition were increased with brain concentration increases. Additionally, the food intake was reduced in case of sertraline. In contrast, there was no relationship between tramadol and citalopram brain tissue concentration and fish condition, suggesting that the concentration-dependent effect is strongly compound-specific. Methamphetamine was the only compound with a persistent effect after the depuration period. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the brain concentration evidence approach and suggest that changes in fish condition and other related parameters can be expected in freshwater ecosystems polluted with specific psychoactive compounds.

Aggress Behav ; 46(5): 412-424, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542801


Aggressiveness has been one of the behavioral traits most examined with various standard testing methods. We used two distinct methods (the mirror and the real opponent tests) to evaluate individual aggression and relate it to the activity and individual stress of chub (Squalius cephalus L.). Three hypotheses were formulated and tested: (a) there is a significant positive relationship between the aggressiveness of individuals measured with the mirror and the real opponent tests, indicating their convergent validity; (b) the irregularities in response to the aggressiveness and activity tests lead to the context-specific expression of the behavioral syndromes; and (c) there is a significant positive relationship between the stress induced in individuals by both tests of aggressiveness, demonstrating individually consistent stress-coping strategies. The first and the second hypothesis were confirmed, while the third hypothesis was rejected. Our results suggest that particular tests of aggressiveness could act as a situation with high strength, leaving little variation between individual responses. Thus, we propose that for the proper interpretation of various studies using different tests to study identical behavioral traits, it is important to consider the convergent validity of not only the tested behavioral traits but also the individual stress responses. The chub also showed stress relieve through aggressiveness, suggesting the species as a prospective animal model to the study interaction between the stress and the aggressiveness. A detailed aggression ethogram of chub was provided to facilitate the use of this specie in future studies.

Agressão , Cyprinidae , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome