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1.
Talanta ; 221: 121165, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076045

RESUMO

We investigated caffeine and l-theanine, quality characteristics for camellia sinensis, in milled and ground black tea samples with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy giving a direct comparison between the performances of benchtop and handheld NIR spectrometers. The constructed partial least squares regression (PLSR) models for all spectrometers were validated by test-set-validation and according to the obtained root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP). The performances of the spectrometers were as follows: The benchtop spectrometer NIRFlex N-500 (Büchi, Flawil, Switzerland) showed the best results for milled samples with a RMSEP of 0.14% for caffeine and 0.12% for l-theanine. For the ground samples, a RMSEP of 0.17% for caffeine and 0.12% for l-theanine was gained. While the handheld spectrometers MicroNIR 2200 (Viavi Solutions (former: JDS Uniphase Corporation), Milpitas, USA) and the microPHAZIR (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, USA) both provided good results for the prediction of caffeine in milled samples (RMSEP of 0.22% and 0.26%), only the microPHAZIR was able to satisfactorily determine the caffeine content in ground samples (RMSEP of 0.28%). The investigation of l-theanine with handheld spectrometers did not lead to convincing results, since R2 was 0.75 for milled samples while ground samples could not be calculated. Decisive differences were concluded in how different NIR instruments capture the chemical information on caffeine vs. l-theanine. The handheld spectrometers manifested limited applicability to l-theanine. Deeper insight was obtained through the detailed NIR band assignments of caffeine and l-theanine derived from quantum mechanical simulation. Narrow working spectral region of handhelds omits the characteristic absorption bands of l-theanine. Therefore, information on l-theanine content measured by the evaluated miniaturized spectrometers is insufficient to enable its effective quantification. In contrast, the most characteristic NIR absorption of caffeine matches the working spectral regions of the handheld NIR spectrometers, hence their performance is comparable with the benchtop device.

2.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 193: 113686, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142115

RESUMO

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for qualitative and quantitative phytoanalysis. It is a rapid and high-throughput analytical method, with on-site capability, high chemical specificity, and no/minimal sample preparation. NIR spectroscopy is a powerful non-invasive and low-cost alternative with significant practical advantages compared to the conventional methods of analysis. These advantages are particularly exposed in the field of phytoanalysis. In contrast to synthetic medicines, natural products feature chemical diversity that can vary depending on the medicinal plant cultivation conditions, geographical origin or harvest time. The content of bioactive compounds and their derivatives, and thus, the quality parameters of the natural medicine need to be controlled with respect to a number of conditions. NIR spectroscopy has been proved to be particularly competitive in such difficult scenarios. In recent years, remarkable advances in the field of spectroscopic instrumentation and methods of analysis have appeared. Noteworthy was the appearance and dynamic continuing development of miniaturized, on-site capable NIR spectrometers. This was accompanied by application of new tools increasing the potential and reliability of NIR spectroscopy in phytoanalytical applications. The present review discussed the major principles of this technique and critically assesses its future application potential in phytoanalytical strategies. Major attention is given to the current development trends based on the most recent literature published in the field.

3.
J Biophotonics ; : e202000424, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210464

RESUMO

The goal of this project is to identify any in-depth benefits and drawbacks in the diagnosis of amalgam tattoos and other pigmented intraoral lesions using hyperspectral imagery collected from amalgam tattoos, benign, and malignant melanocytic neoplasms. Software solutions capable of classifying pigmented lesions of the skin already exist, but conventional red, green and blue images may be reaching an upper limit in their performance. Emerging technologies, such as hyperspectral imaging (HSI) utilize more than a hundred, continuous data channels, while also collecting data in the infrared. A total of 18 paraffin-embedded human tissue specimens of dark pigmented intraoral lesions (including the lip) were analyzed using visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR) hyperspectral imagery obtained from HE-stained histopathological slides. Transmittance data were collected between 450 and 900 nm using a snapshot camera mounted to a microscope with a halogen light source. VIS-NIR spectra collected from different specimens, such as melanocytic cells and other tissues (eg, epithelium), produced distinct and diagnostic spectra that were used to identify these materials in several regions of interest, making it possible to distinguish between intraoral amalgam tattoos (intramucosal metallic foreign bodies) and melanocytic lesions of the intraoral mucosa and the lip (each with P < .01 using the independent t test). HSI is presented as a diagnostic tool for the rapidly growing field of digital pathology. In this preliminary study, amalgam tattoos were reliably differentiated from melanocytic lesions of the oral cavity and the lip.

4.
Haematologica ; Online ahead of print2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054105

RESUMO

Mutations in HFE cause hereditary hemochromatosis type I hallmarked by increased iron absorption, iron accumulation in hepatocytes and iron deficiency in myeloid cells. HFE encodes an MHC-I like molecule, but its function in immune responses to infection remains incompletely understood. Here, we investigated putative roles of Hfe in myeloid cells and hepatocytes, separately, upon infection with Salmonella Typhimurium, an intracellular bacterium with iron-dependent virulence. We found that constitutive and macrophage-specific deletion of Hfe protected infected mice. The propagation of Salmonella in macrophages was reduced due to limited intramacrophage iron availability for bacterial growth and increased expression of the anti-microbial enzyme nitric oxide synthase-2. By contrast, mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Hfe succumbed earlier to Salmonella infection because of unrestricted extracellular bacterial replication associated with high iron availability in the serum and impaired expression of essential host defense molecules such as interleukin-6, interferon-γ and nitric oxide synthase-2. Wild-type mice subjected to dietary iron overload phenocopied hepatocyte-specific Hfe deficiency suggesting that increased iron availability in the serum is deleterious in Salmonella infection and underlies impaired host immune responses. Moreover, the macrophage-specific effect is dominant over hepatocyte-specific Hfe-depletion, as Hfe knock-out mice have increased survival despite the higher parenchymal iron load associated with systemic loss of Hfe. We conclude that cell-specific expression of Hfe in hepatocytes and macrophages differentially affects the course of infections with specific pathogens by determining bacterial iron access and the efficacy of anti-microbial immune effector pathways. This may explain the high frequency and evolutionary conservation of human HFE mutations.

5.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1133: 150-177, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993867

RESUMO

Infrared (IR; or mid-infrared, MIR; 4000-400 cm-1; 2500-25,000 nm) spectroscopy has become one of the most powerful and versatile tools at the disposal of modern bioscience. Because of its high molecular specificity, applicability to wide variety of samples, rapid measurement and non-invasivity, IR spectroscopy forms a potent approach to elucidate qualitative and quantitative information from various kinds of biological material. For these reasons, it became an established bioanalytical technique with diverse applications. This work aims to be a comprehensive and critical review of the recent accomplishments in the field of biomolecular and bioanalytical IR spectroscopy. That progress is presented on a wider background, with fundamental characteristics, the basic principles of the technique outlined, and its scientific capability directly compared with other methods being used in similar fields (e.g. near-infrared, Raman, fluorescence). The article aims to present a complete examination of the topic, as it touches the background phenomena, instrumentation, spectra processing and data analytical methods, spectra interpretation and related information. To suit this goal, the article includes a tutorial information essential to obtain a thorough perspective of bio-related applications of the reviewed methodologies. The importance of the fundamental factors to the final performance and applicability of IR spectroscopy in various areas of bioscience is explained. This information is interpreted in critical way, with aim to gain deep understanding why IR spectroscopy finds extraordinarily intensive use in this remarkably diverse and dynamic field of research and utility. The major focus is placed on the diversity of the applications in which IR biospectroscopy has been established so far and those onto which it is expanding nowadays. This includes qualitative and quantitative analytical spectroscopy, spectral imaging, medical diagnosis, monitoring of biophysical processes, and studies of physicochemical properties and dynamics of biomolecules. The application potential of IR spectroscopy in light of the current accomplishments and the future prospects is critically evaluated and its significance in the progress of bioscience is comprehensively presented.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(17)2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887485

RESUMO

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L., fructus) is a very potent herbal drug, deriving from traditional European medicine (TEM). Ripe elderberries are rich in anthocyanins, flavonols, flavonol esters, flavonol glycosides, lectins, essential oils, unsaturated fatty acids and vitamins. Nevertheless, unripe elderflower fruits contain a certain amount of sambunigrin, a toxic cyanogenic glycoside, whose concentration decreases in the ripening process. Therefore, quality assurance must be carried out. The standard method described in literature is the photometric determination (pH-differential method) of the total anthocyanin content (TAC) that is the highest when the berries are ripe. The drawback of the pH-differential method is the extensive sample preparation and the low accuracy of the method. Therefore, the goal of this publication was to develop a fast non invasive near-infrared (NIR) method for the determination of TAC in whole berries. TAC of elderberries was measured using pH-differentiation method where TAC values of 632.87 mg/kg to 4342.01 mg/kg were measured. Additionally, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside-5-O-glucoside which represent more than 98% of TAC in elderberry were quantified using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-multiple wavelength detection-ultra high resolution-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MWD-UHR-Q-TOF-MS) and their sum parameter was determined, ranging between 499.43 mg/kg and 8199.07 mg/kg. Using those two methods as reference, whole elderberries were investigated by NIR spectroscopy with the Büchi NIRFlex N-500 benchtop spectrometer. According to the constructed partial least squares regression (PLSR) models the performance was as follows: a relative standard deviation (RSDPLSR) of 13.5% and root mean square error of calibration (RMSECV/RMSEC) of 1.31 for pH-differentiation reference and a RSDPLSR of 12.9% and RMSECV/RMSEC of 1.28 for the HPLC reference method. In this study, we confirm that it is possible to perform a NIR screening for TAC in whole elderberries. Using quantum chemical calculations, we obtained detailed NIR band assignments of the analyzed compounds and interpreted the wavenumber regions established in PLSR models as meaningful for anthocyanin content. The NIR measurement turned out to be a fast and cost-efficient alternative for the determination of TAC compared to pH-differential method and UHPLC-MWD-UHR-Q-TOF-MS. Due to the benefit of no sample preparation and extraction the technology can be considered as sustainable green technology. With the above mentioned inversely proportional ratio of TAC to total amount of toxic cyanogenic glycosides, NIR proves to be a reliable screening method for the ideal harvest time with maximal content of TAC and lowest content of cyanogenic glycosides in elderberry.

7.
Chemistry ; 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820844

RESUMO

This review article focuses on the principles and applications of miniaturized near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. This technology and its applicability has advanced considerably over the last few years and revolutionized several fields of application. What is particularly remarkable is that the applications have a distinctly diverse nature, ranging from agriculture and the food sector, through to materials science, industry and environmental studies. Unlike a rather uniform design of a mature benchtop FTNIR spectrometer, miniaturized instruments employ diverse technological solutions, which have an impact on their operational characteristics. Continuous progress leads to new instruments appearing on the market. The current focus in analytical NIR spectroscopy is on the evaluation of the devices and associated methods, and to systematic characterization of their performance profiles.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708892

RESUMO

While a shift in energy metabolism is essential to cancers, the knowledge about the involvement of the mitochondrial genome in tumorigenesis and progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still very limited. In this study, we evaluated 37 OSCC tumors and the corresponding benign mucosa tissue pairs by deep sequencing of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). After extensive quality control, we identified 287 variants, 137 in tumor and 150 in benign samples exceeding the 1% threshold. Variant heteroplasmy levels were significantly increased in cancer compared to benign tissues (p = 0.0002). Furthermore, pairwise high heteroplasmy frequency difference variants (∆HF% > 20) with potential functional impact were increased in the cancer tissues (p = 0.024). Fourteen mutations were identified in the protein-coding region, out of which thirteen were detected in cancer and only one in benign tissue. After eight years of follow-up, the risk of mortality was higher for patients who harbored at least one ∆HF% > 20 variant in mtDNA protein-coding regions relative to those with no mutations (HR = 4.6, (95%CI = 1.3-17); p = 0.019 in primary tumor carriers). Haplogroup affiliation showed an impact on survival time, which however needs confirmation in a larger study. In conclusion, we observed a significantly higher accumulation of somatic mutations in the cancer tissues associated with a worse prognosis.

9.
Molecules ; 25(12)2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604876

RESUMO

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy occupies a specific spot across the field of bioscience and related disciplines. Its characteristics and application potential differs from infrared (IR) or Raman spectroscopy. This vibrational spectroscopy technique elucidates molecular information from the examined sample by measuring absorption bands resulting from overtones and combination excitations. Recent decades brought significant progress in the instrumentation (e.g., miniaturized spectrometers) and spectral analysis methods (e.g., spectral image processing and analysis, quantum chemical calculation of NIR spectra), which made notable impact on its applicability. This review aims to present NIR spectroscopy as a matured technique, yet with great potential for further advances in several directions throughout broadly understood bio-applications. Its practical value is critically assessed and compared with competing techniques. Attention is given to link the bio-application potential of NIR spectroscopy with its fundamental characteristics and principal features of NIR spectra.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(23): 13017-13029, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478350

RESUMO

Previous measurements of fundamental, first-, second- and third overtones of the OH-stretching vibration of phenol and 2,6-difluoro-phenol by use of visible (Vis), near-infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy revealed an oscillating pattern in the intensity quotient between the two kinds of solvents, carbon tetrachloride and n-hexane, upon increase of the vibrational quantum number, which could not be reproduced utilizing quantum mechanical calculations in implicit solvation. In the present study this phenomenon was successfully explained for the first time, employing an explicit consideration of solute-solvent interactions in combination with modern grid-based methods to solve the time-independent Schrödinger equation. The capabilities of this framework of (i) not requiring any assumptions on the form of the resulting wave function, (ii) focusing the description on the vibrational mode of interest and (iii) taking solute-solvent interactions explicitly into account are a particularly lucid example of the advantages in applying state-of-the-art approaches in investigations of challenging vibrational quantum problems. The property of grid-based methods being directly applied onto any given potential energy grid together with point (i) enable to analyse the impact of mechanical- and electrical anharmonicity independently. Especially the detailed investigation of the latter contribution when moving from a harmonic to an anharmonic potential in conjunction with the explicit consideration of solvent effects at the example of an actual chemical system (i.e. not discussing these effects employing mere model potentials) demonstrate the manifold benefit achieved using the applied DFT/Numerov strategy.

11.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 237: 118359, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413729

RESUMO

Vibrational coupling between carbohydrates and the hydration shell is unveiled as the underlying mechanism that improves wavenumber-selectively the carbohydrate discrimination performance by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The investigation is based on measurement of six carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose and sorbitol) in aqueous solution in different concentration levels (5 mg/L, ~0.03 mmol/dm-3 and 20 mg/L, ~0.1 mmol/dm-3). The results of multivariate classification are interpreted by quantum mechanical NIR spectra simulations. The simulation unveils that the phenomenon is vibration-selective and thus wavenumber-selective, and leads to an enhancement of the qualitative information contained in the specific spectral regions. The location of these regions and the related performance correspond fully to the appearance and magnitude of the unveiled cooperative vibration effect.

12.
Molecules ; 25(8)2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316308

RESUMO

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, combined with multivariate data analysis techniques, was used to rapidly differentiate between South African game species, irrespective of the treatment (fresh or previously frozen) or the muscle type. These individual classes (fresh; previously frozen; muscle type) were also determined per species, using hierarchical modelling. Spectra were collected with a portable handheld spectrophotometer in the 908-1676-nm range. With partial least squares discriminant analysis models, we could differentiate between the species with accuracies ranging from 89.8%-93.2%. It was also possible to distinguish between fresh and previously frozen meat (90%-100% accuracy). In addition, it was possible to distinguish between ostrich muscles (100%), as well as the forequarters and hindquarters of the zebra (90.3%) and springbok (97.9%) muscles. The results confirm NIR spectroscopy's potential as a rapid and non-destructive method for species identification, fresh and previously frozen meat differentiation, and muscle type determination.

13.
Talanta ; 209: 120488, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892098

RESUMO

This study investigated the performance of a handheld Raman spectrometer in quantifying melamine in infant formula. Furthermore, the spectrometer's standard stationary sample holder was compared to a custom-built sample rotation unit. The Raman spectra were divided into a calibration set, which was used to construct the partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models, and a test set, which served the purpose of evaluating the model performance with independent samples. It was found that it was possible to reduce the prediction error of melamine in infant formula by up to about 70% using the simple in-house constructed rotation setup. Compared to the rotation setup, even an increased number of point measurements using the spectrometer's standard sample holder was not able to compensate for the lack of representative sample presentation of the inhomogeneous solid mixture to the Raman spectrometer. Moreover, it was found that the custom-built rotation unit enabled faster sample measurements by an adaption of spectrometer parameters. At the same time, the prediction error of the test set samples was kept far lower than with the stationary setup.


Assuntos
Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Software , Triazinas/análise , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Leite/química , Análise Multivariada , Análise Espectral Raman
14.
ACS Nano ; 14(1): 28-117, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478375

RESUMO

The discovery of the enhancement of Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on nanostructured metal surfaces is a landmark in the history of spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Significant experimental and theoretical effort has been directed toward understanding the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect and demonstrating its potential in various types of ultrasensitive sensing applications in a wide variety of fields. In the 45 years since its discovery, SERS has blossomed into a rich area of research and technology, but additional efforts are still needed before it can be routinely used analytically and in commercial products. In this Review, prominent authors from around the world joined together to summarize the state of the art in understanding and using SERS and to predict what can be expected in the near future in terms of research, applications, and technological development. This Review is dedicated to SERS pioneer and our coauthor, the late Prof. Richard Van Duyne, whom we lost during the preparation of this article.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(14): 5683-5695, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821673

RESUMO

2D polymer sheets with six positively charged pyrylium groups at each pore edge in a stacked single crystal can be transformed into a 2D polymer with six pyridines per pore by exposure to gaseous ammonia. This reaction furnishes still a crystalline material with tunable protonation degree at regular nano-sized pores promising as separation membrane. The exfoliation is compared for both 2D polymers with the latter being superior. Its liquid phase exfoliation yields nanosheet dispersions, which can be size-selected using centrifugation cascades. Monolayer contents of ≈30 % are achieved with ≈130 nm sized sheets in mg quantities, corresponding to tens of trillions of monolayers. Quantification of nanosheet sizes, layer number and mass shows that this exfoliation is comparable to graphite. Thus, we expect that recent advances in exfoliation of graphite or inorganic crystals (e.g. scale-up, printing etc.) can be directly applied to this 2D polymer as well as to covalent organic frameworks.

16.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795360

RESUMO

Over the last few decades, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has distinguished itself as one of the most rapidly advancing spectroscopic techniques [...].


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Modelos Moleculares , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
17.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(47): 10001-10013, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687819

RESUMO

This work reports a theoretical study of infrared (IR) spectra of four nucleobases (adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine) in the crystalline state. The effects responsible for the fine spectral features were revealed, and the nonfundamental bands significantly contributing to the IR fingerprint region were successfully reproduced. Additionally, we compared the fundamental bands simulated for periodic models in harmonic approximation with the results obtained for finite models in anharmonic approximation. On this basis, we concluded that accurate description of the chemical neighborhood is more essential for the IR fingerprint region than the anharmonicity. Comparison with previous results indicates that the vibrational properties and the nature of intermolecular interactions of nucleobases in the crystalline state remain similar to those in solution. Therefore, the conclusions obtained for well-defined crystalline structures of nucleobases are general and helpful in understanding the vibrational spectra and properties of nucleobases and their derivatives. Finally, this work evidences that anharmonic force field based on finite models may be applied as an inexpensive correction to the harmonic spectrum of an infinite periodic system.

18.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618818

RESUMO

The predictive power of the two major water bands centered at 6900 cm - 1 and 5200 cm - 1 in the near-infrared (NIR) region was compared to carbohydrate-related spectral areas located in the first overtone (around 6000 cm - 1 ) and combination (around 4500 cm - 1 ) region using glucose in aqueous solutions as a model substance. For the purpose of optimal coverage of stronger as well as weaker absorbing NIR regions, cells with three different declared optical pathlengths were employed. The sample set consisted of multiple separately prepared batches in the range of 50-200 mmol/L. Moreover, the samples were divided into a calibration set for the construction of the partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models and a test set for the validation process with independent samples. The first overtone and combination region showed relative prediction errors between 0.4-1.6% with only one PLS-R factor required. On the other hand, the errors for the water bands were found between 1.6-8.3% and up to three PLS-R factors required. The best PLS-R models resulted from the cell with 1 mm optical pathlength. In general, the results suggested that the carbohydrate-related regions in the first overtone and combination region should be preferred over the regions of the two dominant water bands.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/química , Glucose/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Água/química , Soluções
19.
Talanta ; 205: 120115, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450462

RESUMO

A set of 42 millet (panicum miliaceum L.) samples was investigated for its protein content using standard Kjeldahl analysis and near-infrared spectroscopy. The performance of three handheld spectrometers was compared to a benchtop instrument. The used spectrometers operate in different regions of the NIR, which gives interesting insights into the applicability of each region. Additionally, semi-automated, consumer-oriented multivariate data analysis was compared to sophisticated data evaluation. The performance of the near-infrared instruments was compared using important statistical parameters of the established cross- and test set validated partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models. Milled and intact samples were analysed, in order to further evaluate the importance of homogeneity. The results showed that the benchtop spectrometer is capable of accurately analysing protein content of millet grains, with root mean square error (RMSEP) values for milled and intact grains of approximately 0.5%. Two PLS-R models of handheld instruments also yielded good results for milled grains with RMSEP values of about 0.6%. The semi-automated multivariate data analysis showed some drawbacks compared to standard data processing software. For intact grains, however, similar results could be achieved.


Assuntos
Panicum/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Análise de Dados , Grão Comestível/química , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Panicum/classificação , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/instrumentação , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos
20.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284547

RESUMO

The present study demonstrates the applicability of at-line monitoring of the extraction process of Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves (Rosmarini folium) and the development of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis methods. Therefore, whole dried Rosmarini folium samples were extracted by maceration with 70% (v/v) ethanol. For the experimental design three different specimen-taking plans were chosen. At first, monitoring was carried out using three common analytical methods: (a) total hydroxycinnamic derivatives according to the European Pharmacopoeia, (b) total phenolic content according to Folin-Ciocalteu, and (c) rosmarinic acid content measured by UHPLC-UV analysis. Precision validation of the wet chemical assays revealed a repeatability of (a) 0.12% relative standard deviation (RSD), (b) 1.1% RSD, and (c) 0.28% RSD, as well as an intermediate precision of (a) 4.1% RSD, (b) 1.3% RSD, and (c) 0.55% RSD. The collected extracts were analyzed with a NIR spectrometer using a temperature-controlled liquid attachment. Samples were measured in transmission mode with an optical path length of 1 mm. The combination of the recorded spectra and the previously obtained analytical reference values in conjunction with multivariate data analysis enabled the successful establishment of partial least squares regression (PLSR) models. Coefficients of determination (R2) were: (a) 0.94, (b) 0.96, and (c) 0.93 (obtained by test-set validation). Since Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the reference analyses correlated with each other just one of the PSLR models is required. Therefore, it is suggested that PLSR model (b) be used for monitoring the extraction process of Rosmarini folium. The application of NIR spectroscopy provides a fast and non-invasive alternative analysis method, which can subsequently be implemented for on- or in-line process control.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rosmarinus/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise
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