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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595648

RESUMO

We report 281 individuals carrying a pathogenic recurrent NF1 missense variant at p.Met1149, p.Arg1276, or p.Lys1423, representing three nontruncating NF1 hotspots in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) cohort, together identified in 1.8% of unrelated NF1 individuals. About 25% (95% confidence interval: 20.5-31.2%) of individuals heterozygous for a pathogenic NF1 p.Met1149, p.Arg1276, or p.Lys1423 missense variant had a Noonan-like phenotype, which is significantly more compared with the "classic" NF1-affected cohorts (all p < .0001). Furthermore, p.Arg1276 and p.Lys1423 pathogenic missense variants were associated with a high prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities, including pulmonic stenosis (all p < .0001), while p.Arg1276 variants had a high prevalence of symptomatic spinal neurofibromas (p < .0001) compared with "classic" NF1-affected cohorts. However, p.Met1149-positive individuals had a mild phenotype, characterized mainly by pigmentary manifestations without externally visible plexiform neurofibromas, symptomatic spinal neurofibromas or symptomatic optic pathway gliomas. As up to 0.4% of unrelated individuals in the UAB cohort carries a p.Met1149 missense variant, this finding will contribute to more accurate stratification of a significant number of NF1 individuals. Although clinically relevant genotype-phenotype correlations are rare in NF1, each affecting only a small percentage of individuals, together they impact counseling and management of a significant number of the NF1 population.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(9): 1689-1690, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321866
3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263215

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Haploinsufficiency of DYRK1A causes a recognizable clinical syndrome. The goal of this paper is to investigate congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and genital defects (GD) in patients with DYRK1A variants. METHODS: A large database of clinical exome sequencing (ES) was queried for de novo DYRK1A variants and CAKUT/GD phenotypes were characterized. Xenopus laevis (frog) was chosen as a model organism to assess Dyrk1a's role in renal development. RESULTS: Phenotypic details and variants of 19 patients were compiled after an initial observation that one patient with a de novo pathogenic variant in DYRK1A had GD. CAKUT/GD data were available from 15 patients, 11 of whom presented with CAKUT/GD. Studies in Xenopus embryos demonstrated that knockdown of Dyrk1a, which is expressed in forming nephrons, disrupts the development of segments of embryonic nephrons, which ultimately give rise to the entire genitourinary (GU) tract. These defects could be rescued by coinjecting wild-type human DYRK1A RNA, but not with DYRK1AR205* or DYRK1AL245R RNA. CONCLUSION: Evidence supports routine GU screening of all individuals with de novo DYRK1A pathogenic variants to ensure optimized clinical management. Collectively, the reported clinical data and loss-of-function studies in Xenopus substantiate a novel role for DYRK1A in GU development.

4.
J Perinatol ; 39(8): 1111-1117, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize factors associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in prenatally diagnosed omphalocele cases. STUDY DESIGN: Prenatally diagnosed omphalocele cases at a single referral center from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical variables and antenatal imaging measurements were collected. Associations between prenatal and neonatal characteristics and the adverse outcome of death or prolonged length of stay (LOS) were analyzed. RESULTS: Out of 63 fetal cases, 33 were live-born, > 50% had other anomalies, and neonatal mortality was 12%. Adverse outcomes were associated with neonatal variables, including lower median 1-min Apgar score, initial mechanical ventilation, and late-onset sepsis, but not approach to omphalocele closure. With multivariate analysis, death or prolonged LOS was associated only with low lung volumes by fetal MRI (OR 34 (3-422), p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Low lung volumes by fetal MRI were associated with death or prolonged LOS in neonates with prenatally diagnosed omphalocele and may guide clinicians with counseling families.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1543-1546, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207089

RESUMO

1p36 deletion syndrome is a well-described condition with a recognizable phenotype, including cognitive impairment, seizures, and structural brain anomalies such as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). In a large series of these individuals by Battaglia et al., "birth history was notable in 50% of the cases for varying degrees of perinatal distress." Given the potential for perinatal distress, seizures and PVL, we questioned if this disorder has clinical overlap with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We reviewed the medical records of 69 individuals with 1p36 deletion to clarify the perinatal phenotype of this disorder and determine if there is evidence of perinatal distress and/or hypoxic injury. Our data provides evidence that these babies have signs of perinatal distress. The majority (59% term; 75% preterm) needed resuscitation and approximately 18% had cardiac arrest. Most had abnormal brain imaging (84% term; 73% preterm) with abnormal white matter findings in over half of patients. PVL or suggestion of "hypoxic insult" was present in 18% of term and 45% of preterm patients. In conclusion, individuals with 1p36 deletion have evidence of perinatal distress, white matter changes, and seizures, which can mimic HIE but are likely related to their underlying chromosome disorder.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(2): 150-158, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614194

RESUMO

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a dominant multisystemic malformation syndrome due to mutations in five genes-NIPBL, SMC1A, HDAC8, SMC3, and RAD21. The characteristic facial dysmorphisms include microcephaly, arched eyebrows, synophrys, short nose with depressed bridge and anteverted nares, long philtrum, thin lips, micrognathia, and hypertrichosis. Most affected individuals have intellectual disability, growth deficiency, and upper limb anomalies. This study looked at individuals from diverse populations with both clinical and molecularly confirmed diagnoses of CdLS by facial analysis technology. Clinical data and images from 246 individuals with CdLS were obtained from 15 countries. This cohort included 49% female patients and ages ranged from infancy to 37 years. Individuals were grouped into ancestry categories of African descent, Asian, Latin American, Middle Eastern, and Caucasian. Across these populations, 14 features showed a statistically significant difference. The most common facial features found in all ancestry groups included synophrys, short nose with anteverted nares, and a long philtrum with thin vermillion of the upper lip. Using facial analysis technology we compared 246 individuals with CdLS to 246 gender/age matched controls and found that sensitivity was equal or greater than 95% for all groups. Specificity was equal or greater than 91%. In conclusion, we present consistent clinical findings from global populations with CdLS while demonstrating how facial analysis technology can be a tool to support accurate diagnoses in the clinical setting. This work, along with prior studies in this arena, will assist in earlier detection, recognition, and treatment of CdLS worldwide.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450842

RESUMO

Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder characterized by hearing loss, ocular anomalies, palatal defects, and skeletal abnormalities. The autosomal dominant form is the most common, but autosomal recessive forms have also been described. We report the second case of autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome due to homozygosity for a loss of function mutation in COL9A3, which encodes the α3 chain of type IX procollagen. The clinical features were similar to the previously described COL9A3 Stickler syndrome family, including moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss, high myopia, and both tibial and femoral bowing at birth. Radiographs demonstrated abnormal capital femoral epiphyses and mild irregularities of the vertebral endplates. This case further establishes the phenotype associated with mutations in this gene. We suggest that loss of the α3 chain of type IX collagen results in a Stickler syndrome phenotype similar to that of the other autosomal recessive forms caused by mutations in genes encoding the α1 and α2 chains of type IX collagen.

8.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in KAT6A have recently been identified as a cause of syndromic developmental delay. Within 2 years, the number of patients identified with pathogenic KAT6A variants has rapidly expanded and the full extent and variability of the clinical phenotype has not been reported. METHODS: We obtained data for patients with KAT6A pathogenic variants through three sources: treating clinicians, an online family survey distributed through social media, and a literature review. RESULTS: We identified 52 unreported cases, bringing the total number of published cases to 76. Our results expand the genotypic spectrum of pathogenic variants to include missense and splicing mutations. We functionally validated a pathogenic splice-site variant and identified a likely hotspot location for de novo missense variants. The majority of clinical features in KAT6A syndrome have highly variable penetrance. For core features such as intellectual disability, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications, genotype- phenotype correlations show that late-truncating pathogenic variants (exons 16-17) are significantly more prevalent. We highlight novel associations, including an increased risk of gastrointestinal obstruction. CONCLUSION: Our data expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum for individuals with genetic pathogenic variants in KAT6A and we outline appropriate clinical management.

9.
Genet Med ; 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158690

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Defects in the cohesin pathway are associated with cohesinopathies, notably Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). We aimed to delineate pathogenic variants in known and candidate cohesinopathy genes from a clinical exome perspective. METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients referred for clinical exome sequencing (CES, N = 10,698). Patients with causative variants in novel or recently described cohesinopathy genes were enrolled for phenotypic characterization. RESULTS: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic single-nucleotide and insertion/deletion variants (SNVs/indels) were identified in established disease genes including NIPBL (N = 5), SMC1A (N = 14), SMC3 (N = 4), RAD21 (N = 2), and HDAC8 (N = 8). The phenotypes in this genetically defined cohort skew towards the mild end of CdLS spectrum as compared with phenotype-driven cohorts. Candidate or recently reported cohesinopathy genes were supported by de novo SNVs/indels in STAG1 (N = 3), STAG2 (N = 5), PDS5A (N = 1), and WAPL (N = 1), and one inherited SNV in PDS5A. We also identified copy-number deletions affecting STAG1 (two de novo, one of unknown inheritance) and STAG2 (one of unknown inheritance). Patients with STAG1 and STAG2 variants presented with overlapping features yet without characteristic facial features of CdLS. CONCLUSION: CES effectively identified disease-causing alleles at the mild end of the cohensinopathy spectrum and enabled characterization of candidate disease genes.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 154-162, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961569

RESUMO

TRAF7 is a multi-functional protein involved in diverse signaling pathways and cellular processes. The phenotypic consequence of germline TRAF7 variants remains unclear. Here we report missense variants in TRAF7 in seven unrelated individuals referred for clinical exome sequencing. The seven individuals share substantial phenotypic overlap, with developmental delay, congenital heart defects, limb and digital anomalies, and dysmorphic features emerging as key unifying features. The identified variants are de novo in six individuals and comprise four distinct missense changes, including a c.1964G>A (p.Arg655Gln) variant that is recurrent in four individuals. These variants affect evolutionarily conserved amino acids and are located in key functional domains. Gene-specific mutation rate analysis showed that the occurrence of the de novo variants in TRAF7 (p = 2.6 × 10-3) and the recurrent de novo c.1964G>A (p.Arg655Gln) variant (p = 1.9 × 10-8) in our exome cohort was unlikely to have occurred by chance. In vitro analyses of the observed TRAF7 mutations showed reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that missense mutations in TRAF7 are associated with a multisystem disorder and provide evidence of a role for TRAF7 in human development.

11.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In response to genetic testing being widely ordered by nongenetics clinicians, the Consent and Disclosure Recommendations (CADRe) Workgroup of the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen; clinicalgenome.org ) developed guidance to facilitate communication about genetic testing and efficiently improve the patient experience. Considering ethical, legal, and social implications, and medical factors, CADRe developed and pilot tested two rubrics addressing consent for genetic testing and results disclosure. The CADRe rubrics allow for adjusting the communication approach based on circumstances specific to patients and ordering clinicians. METHODS: We present results of a formative survey of 66 genetics clinicians to assess the consent rubric for nine genes (MLH1, CDH1, TP53, GJB2, OTC; DMD, HTT, and CYP2C9/VKORC1). We also conducted interviews and focus groups with family and patient stakeholders (N = 18), nongenetics specialists (N = 27), and genetics clinicians (N = 32) on both rubrics. RESULTS: Formative evaluation of the CADRe rubrics suggests key factors on which to make decisions about consent and disclosure discussions for a "typical" patient. CONCLUSION: We propose that the CADRe rubrics include the primary issues necessary to guide communication recommendations, and are ready for pilot testing by nongenetics clinicians. Consultation with genetics clinicians can be targeted toward more complex or intensive consent and disclosure counseling.

12.
Prenat Diagn ; 38(3): 160-165, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29417608

RESUMO

Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from maternal serum has been clinically available since 2011. This technology has revolutionized our ability to screen for the common aneuploidies trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 18, and trisomy 13. More recently, clinical laboratories have offered screening for other chromosome abnormalities including sex chromosome abnormalities and copy number variants (CNV) without little published data on the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. In this debate, the pros and cons of performing prenatal screening via cfDNA for all chromosome abnormalities is discussed. At the time of the debate in 2017, the general consensus was that the literature does not yet support using this technology to screen for all chromosome abnormalities and that education is key for both providers and the patients so that the decision-making process is as informed as possible.

13.
Mol Genet Metab ; 123(3): 297-300, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396029

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF STUDY: Patients with neonatal urea cycle defects (UCDs) typically experience severe hyperammonemia during the first days of life, which results in serious neurological injury or death. Long-term prognosis despite optimal pharmacological and dietary therapy is still poor. The combination of intravenous sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate (Ammonul®) can eliminate nitrogen waste independent of the urea cycle. We report attempts to improve outcomes for males with severe ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), a severe X-linked condition, via prenatal intravenous administration of Ammonul and arginine to heterozygous carrier females of OTCD during labor. METHODS USED: Two heterozygote OTCD mothers carrying male fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of OTCD received intravenous Ammonul, arginine and dextrose-containing fluids shortly before birth. Maintenance Ammonul and arginine infusions and high-caloric enteral nutrition were started immediately after birth. Ammonul metabolites were measured in umbilical cord blood and the blood of the newborn immediately after delivery. Serial ammonia and biochemical analyses were performed following delivery. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Therapeutic concentrations of Ammonul metabolites were detected in umbilical cord and neonatal blood samples. Plasma ammonia and glutamine levels in the postnatal period were within the normal range. Peak ammonia levels in the first 24-48h were 53mcmol/l and 62mcmol/l respectively. The boys did not experience neurological sequelae secondary to hyperammonemia and received liver transplantation at ages 3months and 5months. The patients show normal development at ages 7 and 3years. CONCLUSION: Prenatal treatment of mothers who harbor severe OTCD mutations and carry affected male fetuses with intravenous Ammonul and arginine, followed by immediate institution of maintenance infusions after delivery, results in therapeutic levels of benzoate and phenylacetate in the newborn at delivery and, in conjunction with high-caloric enteral nutrition, prevents acute hyperammonemia and neurological decompensation. Following initial medical management, early liver transplantation may improve developmental outcome.

14.
Clin Chem ; 64(2): 336-345, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal diagnosis in pregnancies at risk of single-gene disorders is currently performed using invasive methods such as chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. This is in contrast with screening for common aneuploidies, for which noninvasive methods with a single maternal blood sample have become standard clinical practice. METHODS: We developed a protocol for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of inherited single-gene disorders using droplet digital PCR from circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal plasma. First, the amount of cfDNA and fetal fraction is determined using a panel of TaqMan assays targeting high-variability single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Second, the ratio of healthy and diseased alleles in maternal plasma is quantified using TaqMan assays targeting the mutations carried by the parents. Two validation approaches of the mutation assay are presented. RESULTS: We collected blood samples from 9 pregnancies at risk for different single-gene disorders, including common conditions and rare metabolic disorders. We measured cases at risk of hemophilia, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, cystic fibrosis, ß-thalassemia, mevalonate kinase deficiency, acetylcholine receptor deficiency, and DFNB1 nonsyndromic hearing loss. We correctly differentiated affected and unaffected pregnancies (2 affected, 7 unaffected), confirmed by neonatal testing. We successfully measured an affected pregnancy as early as week 11 and with a fetal fraction as low as 3.7% (0.3). CONCLUSIONS: Our method detects single-nucleotide mutations of autosomal recessive diseases as early as the first trimester of pregnancy. This is of importance for metabolic disorders in which early diagnosis can affect management of the disease and reduce complications and anxiety related to invasive testing.

15.
Hum Mutat ; 39(2): 255-265, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105242

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in genes, which encode DNA repair and damage response proteins, result in a number of genomic instability syndromes with features of accelerated aging. ERCC4 (XPF) encodes a protein that forms a complex with ERCC1 and is required for the 5' incision during nucleotide excision repair. ERCC4 is also FANCQ, illustrating a critical role in interstrand crosslink repair. Pathogenic variants in this gene cause xeroderma pigmentosum, XFE progeroid syndrome, Cockayne syndrome (CS), and Fanconi anemia. We performed massive parallel sequencing for 42 unsolved cases submitted to the International Registry of Werner Syndrome. Two cases, each carrying two novel heterozygous ERCC4 variants, were identified. The first case was a compound heterozygote for: c.2395C > T (p.Arg799Trp) and c.388+1164_792+795del (p.Gly130Aspfs*18). Further molecular and cellular studies indicated that the ERCC4 variants in this patient are responsible for a phenotype consistent with a variant of CS. The second case was heterozygous for two variants in cis: c.[1488A > T; c.2579C > A] (p.[Gln496His; Ala860Asp]). While the second case also had several phenotypic features of accelerated aging, we were unable to provide biological evidence supporting the pathogenic roles of the associated ERCC4 variants. Precise genetic causes and disease mechanism of the second case remains to be determined.

16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(12): 3221-3225, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884880

RESUMO

Mutations in GLI3, which encodes a transcription factor of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, cause several developmental anomalies linked to inappropriate tissue patterning. Here, we report a novel missense variant in the fifth zinc finger domain of GLI3 (c.1826G>A; p.(Cys609Tyr)) initially identified in a proband with preaxial polydactyly type IV, developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, skeletal, and genitourinary anomalies. Additional family members exhibited various digital anomalies such as preaxial polydactyly, syndactyly, and postaxial polydactyly either in isolation or combined. Functional studies of Cys609Tyr GLI3 in cultured cells showed abnormal GLI3 processing leading to decreased GLI3 repressor production, increased basal transcriptional activity, and submaximal GLI reporter activity with Hedgehog pathway activation, thus demonstrating an intriguing molecular mechanism for this GLI3-related phenotype. Given the complexity of GLI3 post-translational processing and opposing biological functions as a transcriptional activator and repressor, our findings highlight the importance of performing functional studies of presumed GLI3 variants. This family also demonstrates how GLI3 variants are variably expressed.


Assuntos
Acrocefalossindactilia/genética , Dedos/anormalidades , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polidactilia/genética , Polegar/anormalidades , Dedos do Pé/anormalidades , Proteína Gli3 com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Acrocefalossindactilia/diagnóstico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Genes Reporter , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polidactilia/diagnóstico , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transdução de Sinais , Dedos de Zinco
17.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 73, 2017 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: De novo missense variants in CDK13 have been described as the cause of syndromic congenital heart defects in seven individuals ascertained from a large congenital cardiovascular malformations cohort. We aimed to further define the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of this newly described disorder. METHODS: To minimise ascertainment bias, we recruited nine additional individuals with CDK13 pathogenic variants from clinical and research exome laboratory sequencing cohorts. Each individual underwent dysmorphology exam and comprehensive medical history review. RESULTS: We demonstrate greater than expected phenotypic heterogeneity, including 33% (3/9) of individuals without structural heart disease on echocardiogram. There was a high penetrance for a unique constellation of facial dysmorphism and global developmental delay, as well as less frequently seen renal and sacral anomalies. Two individuals had novel CDK13 variants (p.Asn842Asp, p.Lys734Glu), while the remaining seven unrelated individuals had a recurrent, previously published p.Asn842Ser variant. Summary of all variants published to date demonstrates apparent restriction of pathogenic variants to the protein kinase domain with clustering in the ATP and magnesium binding sites. CONCLUSIONS: Here we provide detailed phenotypic and molecular characterisation of individuals with pathogenic variants in CDK13 and propose management guidelines based upon the estimated prevalence of anomalies identified.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase CDC2/genética , Face/anormalidades , Cardiopatias Congênitas/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Síndrome
18.
Circulation ; 136(11): 1037-1048, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28687708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are localized and occur sporadically. However, they also can be multifocal in autosomal-dominant disorders, such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and capillary malformation (CM)-AVM. Previously, we identified RASA1 mutations in 50% of patients with CM-AVM. Herein we studied non-RASA1 patients to further elucidate the pathogenicity of CMs and AVMs. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide linkage study on a CM-AVM family. Whole-exome sequencing was also performed on 9 unrelated CM-AVM families. We identified a candidate gene and screened it in a large series of patients. The influence of several missense variants on protein function was also studied in vitro. RESULTS: We found evidence for linkage in 2 loci. Whole-exome sequencing data unraveled 4 distinct damaging variants in EPHB4 in 5 families that cosegregated with CM-AVM. Overall, screening of EPHB4 detected 47 distinct mutations in 54 index patients: 27 led to a premature stop codon or splice-site alteration, suggesting loss of function. The other 20 are nonsynonymous variants that result in amino acid substitutions. In vitro expression of several mutations confirmed loss of function of EPHB4. The clinical features included multifocal CMs, telangiectasias, and AVMs. CONCLUSIONS: We found EPHB4 mutations in patients with multifocal CMs associated with AVMs. The phenotype, CM-AVM2, mimics RASA1-related CM-AVM1 and also hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. RASA1-encoded p120RASGAP is a direct effector of EPHB4. Our data highlight the pathogenetic importance of this interaction and indicts EPHB4-RAS-ERK signaling pathway as a major cause for AVMs.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas/diagnóstico , Malformações Arteriovenosas/genética , Capilares/anormalidades , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Mancha Vinho do Porto/diagnóstico , Mancha Vinho do Porto/genética , Receptor EphB4/genética , Proteína p120 Ativadora de GTPase/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
19.
J Med Genet ; 54(9): 613-623, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in forkhead box protein P1 (FOXP1) cause intellectual disability (ID) and specific language impairment (SLI), with or without autistic features (MIM: 613670). Despite multiple case reports no specific phenotype emerged so far. METHODS: We correlate clinical and molecular data of 25 novel and 23 previously reported patients with FOXP1 defects. We evaluated FOXP1 activity by an in vitro luciferase model and assessed protein stability in vitro by western blotting. RESULTS: Patients show ID, SLI, neuromotor delay (NMD) and recurrent facial features including a high broad forehead, bent downslanting palpebral fissures, ptosis and/or blepharophimosis and a bulbous nasal tip. Behavioural problems and autistic features are common. Brain, cardiac and urogenital malformations can be associated. More severe ID and NMD, sensorineural hearing loss and feeding difficulties are more common in patients with interstitial 3p deletions (14 patients) versus patients with monogenic FOXP1 defects (34 patients). Mutations result in impaired transcriptional repression and/or reduced protein stability. CONCLUSIONS: FOXP1-related ID syndrome is a recognisable entity with a wide clinical spectrum and frequent systemic involvement. Our data will be helpful to evaluate genotype-phenotype correlations when interpreting next-generation sequencing data obtained in patients with ID and/or SLI and will guide clinical management.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/química , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/genética , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Síndrome , Transcrição Genética
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; : 2007-2073, 2017 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28544249

RESUMO

The 37th Annual David W. Smith Workshop on Malformations and Morphogenesis occurred on September 9th-14th, 2016 at the University of California-Los Angeles Conference Center in Lake Arrowhead, CA. The Workshop, which honors the legacy of David W. Smith, brought together clinicians and researchers interested in congenital malformations and their underlying mechanisms of morphogenesis. The Workshop highlighted five themes besides mechanisms of morphogenesis and New Syndromes: Neural Crestopathies, Mosaicism, Disorders of Skin Pigmentation, Therapies, and Ear Malformations and Hearing Loss. This Conference Report includes the abstracts presented at the 2016 Workshop.

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