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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(22): 5647-5651, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760077


The conformations adopted by the molecular constituents of a supramolecular assembly influence its large-scale order. At the same time, the interactions made in assemblies by molecules can influence their conformations. Here we study this interplay in extended flat nanosheets made from nonnatural sequence-specific peptoid polymers. Nanosheets exist because individual polymers can be linear and untwisted, by virtue of polymer backbone elements adopting alternating rotational states whose twists oppose and cancel. Using molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical simulations, together with experimental data, we explore the design space of flat nanostructures built from peptoids. We show that several sets of peptoid backbone conformations are consistent with their being linear, but the specific combination observed in experiment is determined by a combination of backbone energetics and the interactions made within the nanosheet. Our results provide a molecular model of the peptoid nanosheet consistent with all available experimental data and show that its structure results from a combination of intra- and intermolecular interactions.

Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Peptoides/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Polímeros , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
Methods Mol Biol ; 1777: 23-68, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744827


For the structural characterization methods discussed here, information on molecular conformation and intermolecular organization within nanostructured peptide assemblies is discerned through analysis of solid-state NMR spectral features. This chapter reviews general NMR methodologies, requirements for sample preparation, and specific descriptions of key experiments. An attempt is made to explain choices of solid-state NMR experiments and interpretation of results in a way that is approachable to a nonspecialist. Measurements are designed to determine precise NMR peak positions and line widths, which are correlated with secondary structures, and probe nuclear spin-spin interactions that report on three-dimensional organization of atoms. The formulation of molecular structural models requires rationalization of data sets obtained from multiple NMR experiments on samples with carefully chosen 13C and 15N isotopic labels. The information content of solid-state NMR data has been illustrated mostly through the use of simulated data sets and references to recent structural work on amyloid fibril-forming peptides and designer self-assembling peptides.

Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Marcação por Isótopo , Nanofibras/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(10): 2574-2578, 2018 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658722


Peptoid nanosheets are supramolecular protein-mimetic materials that form from amphiphilic polypeptoids with aromatic and ionic side chains. Nanosheets have been studied at the nanometer scale, but the molecular structure has been difficult to probe. We report the use of 13C-13C dipolar recoupling solid-state NMR measurements to reveal the configuration of backbone amide bonds selected by 13C isotopic labeling of adjacent α-carbons. Measurements on the same molecules in the amorphous state and in nanosheets revealed that amide bonds in the center of the amino block of peptoid (NaeNpe)7-(NceNpe)7 (B28) favor the trans configuration in the amorphous state and the cis configuration in the nanosheet. This unexpected result contrasts with previous NMR and theoretical studies of short solvated peptoids. Furthermore, examination of the amide bond at the junction of the two charged blocks within B28 revealed a mixture of both cis and trans configurational states, consistent with the previously predicted brickwork-like intermolecular organization.

Nanoscale ; 10(3): 1508-1516, 2018 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303206


Dipeptide derivative molecules can self-assemble into space-filling nanofiber networks at low volume fractions (<1%), allowing the formation of molecular gels with tunable mechanical properties. The self-assembly of dipeptide-based molecules is reminiscent of pathological amyloid fibril formation by naturally occurring polypeptides. Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) is the most widely studied such molecule, but the thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena giving rise to Fmoc-FF gel formation remain poorly understood. We have previously presented evidence that the gelation process is a first order phase transition characterized by low energy barriers to nucleation, short induction times, and rapid quasi-one-dimensional crystal growth, stemming from solvent-solute interactions and highly specific molecular packing. Here, we discuss the phase behavior of Fmoc-FF in different solvents. We find that Fmoc-FF gel formation can be induced in apolar solvents, in addition to previously established pathways in aqueous systems. We further show that in certain solvent systems anisotropic crystals (nanofibers) are an initial metastable state, after which macroscopic crystal aggregates with no preferred axis of growth are formed. The molecular conformation is sensitive to solvent composition during assembly, indicating that Fmoc-FF may be a simple model system to study complex thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena involved in peptide self-assembly.