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1.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 89(6): 063703, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960563

RESUMO

The high sensitivity of scanning probe microscopes poses a barrier to their use in noisy environments. Vibrational noise, whether from structural or acoustic sources, can manifest as relative motion between the probe tip and sample, which then appears in the probe position ("Z") feedback as it tries to cancel this motion. Here we describe an active cancellation process that nullifies the appearance of this vibration by adding a drive signal into the existing Z-feedback loop. The drive is digitally calculated from accelerometer-based vibration measurements. By transferring the vibration cancellation effort to this drive signal, vibration-created noise is significantly reduced. This inexpensive and easy solution requires no major instrumental modifications and is ideal for those looking to place their microscopes in noisier environments, coupled, for example, to active refrigeration systems (e.g., pulse tube cryocoolers) or other high-vibration instruments.

2.
Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 51(4): 354-356, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242731

RESUMO

Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is an extremely rare tumor with only 67 cases of head and neck FDCS reported in the literature. A 65-year-old female had a 6-cm follicular dendritic cell sarcoma resected from the left parotid gland with close margins. It recurred 1 year later as a 5-cm mass that was intensely [18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) avid on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and was re-excised. A follow-up PET/CT did not show any metastatic disease. The use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the management of FDCS warrants further research. We present the 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging findings of this rare tumor.

3.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14404, 2017 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28181501

RESUMO

Configuration transitions of individual molecules and atoms on surfaces are traditionally described using an Arrhenius equation with energy barrier and pre-exponential factor (attempt rate) parameters. Characteristic parameters can vary even for identical systems, and pre-exponential factors sometimes differ by orders of magnitude. Using low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) to measure an individual dibutyl sulfide molecule on Au(111), we show that the differences arise when the relative position of tip apex and molecule changes by a fraction of the molecule size. Altering the tip position on that scale modifies the transition's barrier and attempt rate in a highly correlated fashion, which results in a single-molecular enthalpy-entropy compensation. Conversely, appropriately positioning the STM tip allows selecting the operating point on the compensation line and modifying the transition rates. The results highlight the need to consider entropy in transition rates of single molecules, even at low temperatures.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(25): 257003, 2016 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28036192

RESUMO

We use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to study magnetic Fe impurities intentionally doped into the high-temperature superconductor Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+δ}. Our spectroscopic measurements reveal that Fe impurities introduce low-lying resonances in the density of states at Ω_{1}≈4 meV and Ω_{2}≈15 meV, allowing us to determine that, despite having a large magnetic moment, potential scattering of quasiparticles by Fe impurities dominates magnetic scattering. In addition, using high-resolution spatial characterizations of the local density of states near and away from Fe impurities, we detail the spatial extent of impurity-affected regions as well as provide a local view of impurity-induced effects on the superconducting and pseudogap states. Our studies of Fe impurities, when combined with a reinterpretation of earlier STM work in the context of a two-gap scenario, allow us to present a unified view of the atomic-scale effects of elemental impurities on the pseudogap and superconducting states in hole-doped cuprates; this may help resolve a previously assumed dichotomy between the effects of magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities in these materials.

5.
Science ; 344(6184): 608-11, 2014 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24812396

RESUMO

The unclear relationship between cuprate superconductivity and the pseudogap state remains an impediment to understanding the high transition temperature (T(c)) superconducting mechanism. Here, we used magnetic field-dependent scanning tunneling microscopy to provide phase-sensitive proof that d-wave superconductivity coexists with the pseudogap on the antinodal Fermi surface of an overdoped cuprate. Furthermore, by tracking the hole-doping (p) dependence of the quasi-particle interference pattern within a single bismuth-based cuprate family, we observed a Fermi surface reconstruction slightly below optimal doping, indicating a zero-field quantum phase transition in notable proximity to the maximum superconducting T(c). Surprisingly, this major reorganization of the system's underlying electronic structure has no effect on the smoothly evolving pseudogap.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(5): 1623-7, 2013 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23319646

RESUMO

The competition between proximate electronic phases produces a complex phenomenology in strongly correlated systems. In particular, fluctuations associated with periodic charge or spin modulations, known as density waves, may lead to exotic superconductivity in several correlated materials. However, density waves have been difficult to isolate in the presence of chemical disorder, and the suspected causal link between competing density wave orders and high-temperature superconductivity is not understood. Here we used scanning tunneling microscopy to image a previously unknown unidirectional (stripe) charge-density wave (CDW) smoothly interfacing with the familiar tridirectional (triangular) CDW on the surface of the stoichiometric superconductor NbSe(2). Our low-temperature measurements rule out thermal fluctuations and point to local strain as the tuning parameter for this quantum phase transition. We use this quantum interface to resolve two longstanding debates about the anomalous spectroscopic gap and the role of Fermi surface nesting in the CDW phase of NbSe(2). Our results highlight the importance of local strain in governing phase transitions and competing phenomena, and suggest a promising direction of inquiry for resolving similarly longstanding debates in cuprate superconductors and other strongly correlated materials.


Assuntos
Nióbio/química , Transição de Fase , Teoria Quântica , Compostos de Selênio/química , Algoritmos , Cristalização , Condutividade Elétrica , Microscopia de Tunelamento/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Temperatura de Transição
7.
Nat Mater ; 11(7): 585-9, 2012 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22561901

RESUMO

A complicating factor in unravelling the theory of high-temperature (high-T(c)) superconductivity is the presence of a 'pseudogap' in the density of states, the origin of which has been debated since its discovery. Some believe the pseudogap is a broken symmetry state distinct from superconductivity, whereas others believe it arises from short-range correlations without symmetry breaking. A number of broken symmetries have been imaged and identified with the pseudogap state, but it remains crucial to disentangle any electronic symmetry breaking from the pre-existing structural symmetry of the crystal. We use scanning tunnelling microscopy to observe an orthorhombic structural distortion across the cuprate superconducting Bi(2)Sr(2)Ca(n-1)Cu(n)O(2n+4+x) (BSCCO) family tree, which breaks two-dimensional inversion symmetry in the surface BiO layer. Although this inversion-symmetry-breaking structure can impact electronic measurements, we show from its insensitivity to temperature, magnetic field and doping, that it cannot be the long-sought pseudogap state. To detect this picometre-scale variation in lattice structure, we have implemented a new algorithm that will serve as a powerful tool in the search for broken symmetry electronic states in cuprates, as well as in other materials.

8.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 80(9): 095110, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19791967

RESUMO

Shear piezoelectric motors frequently require large voltage changes on very short time scales. Since piezos behave electrically as capacitors, this requires a drive circuit capable of quickly sourcing or sinking a large amount of current at high voltages. Here we describe a novel circuit design using a high voltage amplifier, transistor switching stage, and auxiliary capacitor. This circuit can drive piezoelectric motors at higher speeds and lower costs than conventional methods and with greater flexibility for computer automation. We illustrate its application in a controller for a scanning tunneling microscope coarse approach mechanism and discuss other possible applications and modifications of this circuit.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 94(19): 197005, 2005 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16090202

RESUMO

The doping dependence of nanoscale electronic structure in superconducting Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8 + delta) is studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. At all dopings, the low energy density-of-states modulations are analyzed according to a simple model of quasiparticle interference and found to be consistent with Fermi-arc superconductivity. The superconducting coherence peaks, ubiquitous in near-optimal tunneling spectra, are destroyed with strong underdoping and a new spectral type appears. Exclusively in regions exhibiting this new spectrum, we find local "checkerboard" charge ordering of high energy states, with a wave vector of Q = (+/- 2pi/4.5a(0),0); (0, +/- 2pi/4.5a(0)) +/- 15%. Surprisingly, this spatial ordering of high energy states coexists harmoniously with the low energy Bogoliubov quasiparticle states.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 88(9): 097002, 2002 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11864044

RESUMO

We present scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the CuO chain plane in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6+x), showing an approximately 25 meV gap in the local density of states (LDOS) filled by numerous intragap resonances: intense peaks in LDOS spectra associated with one-dimensional, Friedel-like oscillations. We discuss how these phenomena shed light on recent results from other probes, as well as their implications for phenomena in the superconducting CuO(2) plane.

11.
Science ; 295(5554): 466-9, 2002 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11799234

RESUMO

Scanning tunneling microscopy is used to image the additional quasi-particle states generated by quantized vortices in the high critical temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta. They exhibit a copper-oxygen bond-oriented "checkerboard" pattern, with four unit cell (4a0) periodicity and a approximately 30 angstrom decay length. These electronic modulations may be related to the magnetic field-induced, 8a0 periodic, spin density modulations with decay length of approximately 70 angstroms recently discovered in La1.84Sr0.16CuO4. The proposed explanation is a spin density wave localized surrounding each vortex core. General theoretical principles predict that, in the cuprates, a localized spin modulation of wavelength lambda should be associated with a corresponding electronic modulation of wavelength lambda/2, in good agreement with our observations.

12.
Nature ; 415(6870): 412-6, 2002 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11807550

RESUMO

Granular superconductivity occurs when microscopic superconducting grains are separated by non-superconducting regions; Josephson tunnelling between the grains establishes the macroscopic superconducting state. Although crystals of the copper oxide high-transition-temperature (high-Tc) superconductors are not granular in a structural sense, theory suggests that at low levels of hole doping the holes can become concentrated at certain locations resulting in hole-rich superconducting domains. Granular superconductivity arising from tunnelling between such domains would represent a new view of the underdoped copper oxide superconductors. Here we report scanning tunnelling microscope studies of underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta that reveal an apparent segregation of the electronic structure into superconducting domains that are approximately 3 nm in size (and local energy gap <50 meV), located in an electronically distinct background. We used scattering resonances at Ni impurity atoms as 'markers' for local superconductivity; no Ni resonances were detected in any region where the local energy gap Delta > 50 +/- 2.5 meV. These observations suggest that underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta is a mixture of two different short-range electronic orders with the long-range characteristics of a granular superconductor.

13.
Nature ; 413(6853): 282-5, 2001 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11565024

RESUMO

The parent compounds of the copper oxide high-transition-temperature (high-Tc) superconductors are unusual insulators (so-called Mott insulators). Superconductivity arises when they are 'doped' away from stoichiometry. For the compound Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x, doping is achieved by adding extra oxygen atoms, which introduce positive charge carriers ('holes') into the CuO2 planes where the superconductivity is believed to originate. Aside from providing the charge carriers, the role of the oxygen dopants is not well understood, nor is it clear how the charge carriers are distributed on the planes. Many models of high-Tc superconductivity accordingly assume that the introduced carriers are distributed uniformly, leading to an electronically homogeneous system as in ordinary metals. Here we report the presence of an electronic inhomogeneity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x, on the basis of observations using scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy. The inhomogeneity is manifested as spatial variations in both the local density of states spectrum and the superconducting energy gap. These variations are correlated spatially and vary on the surprisingly short length scale of approximately 14 A. Our analysis suggests that this inhomogeneity is a consequence of proximity to a Mott insulator resulting in poor screening of the charge potentials associated with the oxygen ions left in the BiO plane after doping, and is indicative of the local nature of the superconducting state.

14.
Nature ; 411(6840): 920-4, 2001 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11418850

RESUMO

Magnetic interactions and magnetic impurities are destructive to superconductivity in conventional superconductors. By contrast, in some unconventional macroscopic quantum systems (such as superfluid 3He and superconducting UGe2), the superconductivity (or superfluidity) is actually mediated by magnetic interactions. A magnetic mechanism has also been proposed for high-temperature superconductivity. Within this context, the fact that magnetic Ni impurity atoms have a weaker effect on superconductivity than non-magnetic Zn atoms in the high-Tc superconductors has been put forward as evidence supporting a magnetic mechanism. Here we use scanning tunnelling microscopy to determine directly the influence of individual Ni atoms on the local electronic structure of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta. At each Ni site we observe two d-wave impurity states of apparently opposite spin polarization, whose existence indicates that Ni retains a magnetic moment in the superconducting state. However, analysis of the impurity-state energies shows that quasiparticle scattering at Ni is predominantly non-magnetic. Furthermore, we show that the superconducting energy gap and correlations are unimpaired at Ni. This is in strong contrast to the effects of non-magnetic Zn impurities, which locally destroy superconductivity. These results are consistent with predictions for impurity atom phenomena derived from a magnetic mechanism.

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