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1.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 44: 105-120, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483252

RESUMO

There is a recurring debate on the role of the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the moderation of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in anxiety disorders. Results, however, are still inconclusive. We here aim to perform a meta-analysis on the role of 5-HTTLPR in the moderation of CBT outcome in anxiety disorders. We investigated both categorical (symptom reduction of at least 50%) and dimensional outcomes from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up. Original data were obtained from ten independent samples (including three unpublished samples) with a total of 2,195 patients with primary anxiety disorder. No significant effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype on categorical or dimensional outcomes at post and follow-up were detected. We conclude that current evidence does not support the hypothesis of 5-HTTLPR as a moderator of treatment outcome for CBT in anxiety disorders. Future research should address whether other factors such as long-term changes or epigenetic processes may explain further variance in these complex gene-environment interactions and molecular-genetic pathways that may confer behavioral change following psychotherapy.

2.
J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ ; 26(1): 13-20, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338237

RESUMO

Deaf/deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) children are at an increased risk of developing mental health problems, with growing evidence that they may experience greater anxiety symptoms than hearing peers. The present study investigated whether Australian children with varying degrees of hearing loss experienced increased anxiety symptoms compared to hearing children. Furthermore, we examined whether child anxiety symptoms were associated with known risk factors including psychological symptoms of anxiety and depression in parents, age at detection, early intervention and device fitting, type of hearing device, and peer problems. Participants were 65 parents of children with hearing loss aged between 4 and 11 years old (M = 6.05, SD = 1.60) seeking treatment for hearing loss at a specialized hearing clinic in Australia. Based on parent reports, we found that the children with hearing loss had fewer anxiety symptoms than their hearing peers (using normative data). Psychological distress of parents was the only factor that uniquely associated with child anxiety. Parents of children with hearing loss were found to experience greater emotional distress compared to parents of hearing children. This suggests parents may require additional support to cope with the social and economic strains associated with childhood hearing loss.

3.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(1): 76-86, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341172

RESUMO

A major barrier to improving care effectiveness for mental health is a lack of consensus on outcomes measurement. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) has already developed a consensus-based standard set of outcomes for anxiety and depression in adults (including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale, and the WHO Disability Schedule). This Position Paper reports on recommendations specifically for anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder in children and young people aged between 6 and 24 years. An international ICHOM working group of 27 clinical, research, and lived experience experts formed a consensus through teleconferences, an exercise using an adapted Delphi technique (a method for reaching group consensus), and iterative anonymous voting, supported by sequential research inputs. A systematic scoping review identified 70 possible outcomes and 107 relevant measurement instruments. Measures were appraised for their feasibility in routine practice (ie, brevity, free availability, validation in children and young people, and language translation) and psychometric performance (ie, validity, reliability, and sensitivity to change). The final standard set recommends tracking symptoms, suicidal thoughts and behaviour, and functioning as a minimum through seven primarily patient-reported outcome measures: the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory for Children, the Children's Revised Impact of Events Scale, the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale, the KIDSCREEN-10, the Children's Global Assessment Scale, and the Child Anxiety Life Interference Scale. The set's recommendations were validated through a feedback survey involving 487 participants across 45 countries. The set should be used alongside the anxiety and depression standard set for adults with clinicians selecting age-appropriate measures.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Psicometria/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Consenso , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Anxiety Disord ; 76: 102292, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor mental health literacy and greater alignment with norms of hegemonic masculinity are established barriers to mental health help-seeking in men. However, little is known about how these variables influence adolescent male help-seeking and in particular, help-seeking for anxiety disorders. This study investigated the relationship between i) anxiety mental health literacy, ii) alignment with traditional masculinity norms and iii) help-seeking attitudes, intentions and behaviour in a sample of adolescent males. METHODS: 1732 adolescent males (aged 12-18 years) participated online whilst at school. RESULTS: Participant attitudes towards formal help-seeking, intentions to seek help from a family member and from an online source were found to predict professional help-seeking behaviour by the adolescent and/or by their parents on the adolescents' behalf. In adolescents with a low or average personal alignment with norms of hegemonic masculinity, greater anxiety mental health literacy was positively associated with more favourable attitudes towards formal and informal help-seeking. However, this relationship was not found in adolescent males with a greater alignment with norms of hegemonic masculinity. LIMITATIONS: The study had a correlational research design and used self-report measures. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health initiatives which consider the impact of masculinity and gender stereotypes have the potential to significantly improve help-seeking in this population.

5.
Psychiatry ; : 1-16, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946338

RESUMO

Objective: The association between creativity and psychopathology has intrigued researchers and recent studies have affirmed genetic and epidemiological links. In particular, epidemiological research highlights the need to study what aspects of the creative individual protect or provide risk for transition to psychosis. Two factors, associated with transition to psychosis, will be investigated, namely anxiety and adverse life events. Method: A diverse sample of 110 participants (18-35 years) was examined, including early psychosis (EP), creative professionals who are clinically vulnerable or "at-risk" (ARCC), those with no psychotic symptoms (CC), and non-creative (NCC) participants. Measures of anxiety (DASS) and adverse life events (ALE) were administered to the participants to determine whether these factors were positively or negatively associated with creativity and whether they were able to differentiate the EP from ARCC, CC and NCC participants. Results: Creative cognition and achievement were positively correlated with anxiety. The EP and ARCC groups were more closely aligned than expected on measures of anxiety and adverse life events. Childhood sexual/physical assault were the only variables that differentiated these two groups. Conclusions: These results provide further support for the association between creative professionals and those with early psychosis. It provides corroborating evidence of the vulnerability of creative individuals who appear to be aligned with the early psychosis group on anxiety, aspects of paranoia and overall trauma. The results provide possible innovative avenues for intervention in EP and ARCC.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 276: 678-685, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined measurement variance for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale - Parent Form (SCAS-P; Spence, 1999). In addition, we developed and evaluated a new parent report measure for anxiety (Macquarie Anxiety Behavioural Scale; MABS). METHOD: The sample consisted of 734 parents of children aged 3-19 years (i) who were seeking help for their child's anxiety, (ii) who had received a diagnosis of ASD, or (iii) from the community. RESULTS: Evidence for measurement variance of the SCAS-P and MABS was found, revealing different factor structures between the ASD and non-ASD groups. MIMIC modelling showed that the scales performed significantly different across ASD and non-ASD groups. Differential item functioning on a number of the SCAS-P and MABS items was also found. LIMITATIONS: This study relied on parent report of symptoms and of community acquired diagnoses of ASD. CONCLUSION: The MABS is a new parent measure to assess anxiety in children and adolescents and the proposed factor structure produced a reasonably good fit for the data. Similar to the SCAS-P, ASD was found to impact on some of the MABS items indicating that ASD influences parental responding. Eighteen MABS items showed measurement invariance across the anxious and ASD groups and can be considered suitable items for the assessment of anxiety in ASD.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632763

RESUMO

Methods to deliver empirically validated treatments for anxious youth that require fewer therapist resources (low intensity) are beginning to emerge. However, the relative efficacy of low-intensity treatment for youth anxiety against standard face-to-face delivery has not been comprehensively evaluated. Young people aged 6-16 years with a primary anxiety disorder (N = 281) were randomly allocated to treatment delivered either face-to-face or in a low-intensity format. Face-to-face treatment comprised ten, 60-min sessions delivered by a qualified therapist. Low intensity comprised information delivered in either printed (to parents of children under 13) or electronic (to adolescents aged 13 +) format and was supported by up to four telephone sessions with a minimally qualified therapist. Youth receiving face-to-face treatment were significantly more likely to remit from all anxiety disorders (66%) than youth receiving low intensity (49%). This difference was reflected in parents' (but not child) reports of child's anxiety symptoms and life interference. No significant moderators were identified. Low intensity delivery utilised significantly less total therapist time (175 min) than face-to-face delivery (897 min) and this was reflected in a large mean difference in therapy costs ($A735). Standard, face-to-face treatment for anxious youth is associated with significantly better outcomes than delivery of similar content using low-intensity methods. However, the size of this difference was relatively small. In contrast, low-intensity delivery requires markedly less time from therapists and subsequently lower treatment cost. Data provide valuable information for youth anxiety services.Clinical trial registration information: A randomised controlled trial of standard care versus stepped care for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders; https://anzctr.org.au/ ; ACTRN12612000351819.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders in children and young people are common and bring significant personal and societal costs. Over the last two decades, there has been a substantial increase in research evaluating psychological and pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders in children and young people and exciting and novel research has continued as the field strives to improve efficacy and effectiveness, and accessibility of interventions. This increase in research brings potential to draw together data across studies to compare treatment approaches and advance understanding of what works, how, and for whom. There are challenges to these efforts due largely to variation in studies' outcome measures and variation in the way study characteristics are reported, making it difficult to compare and/or combine studies, and this is likely to lead to faulty conclusions. Studies particularly vary in their reliance on child, parent, and/or assessor-based ratings across a range of outcomes, including remission of anxiety diagnosis, symptom reduction, and other domains of functioning (e.g., family relationships, peer relationships). METHODS: To address these challenges, we convened a series of international activities that brought together the views of key stakeholders (i.e., researchers, mental health professionals, young people, parents/caregivers) to develop recommendations for outcome measurement to be used in treatment trials for anxiety disorders in children and young people. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: This article reports the results of these activities and offers recommendations for selection and reporting of outcome measures to (a) guide future research and (b) improve communication of what has been measured and reported. We offer these recommendations to promote international consistency in trial reporting and to enable the field to take full advantage of the great opportunities that come from data sharing going forward.

9.
Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev ; 23(3): 407-426, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583200

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders are common mental health problems amongst youth with harmful impacts often extending into adulthood. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have become increasingly popular for addressing mental health issues, particularly in schools; however, it remains unclear how effective they are for reducing youth anxiety. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy and effect moderators of MBIs on anxiety outcomes in children and adolescents. Eligible studies were published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of MBIs conducted with participants aged 18 years or younger, investigating anxiety outcomes using a well-validated anxiety scale. A systematic search of RCTs published through to February 2019 identified 20 studies for inclusion (n = 1582). A random effects model was used to synthesise MBI effects. Stratified meta-analyses as well as individual, random effects meta-regressions were performed to examine how effects varied by age group, intervention setting, control type, research location, and intervention dosage. Although, across all studies, there was a small beneficial effect of MBIs on anxiety post treatment (d = 0.26), this was significantly moderated by research location, with RCTs conducted in Iran producing large effects (d = 1.25), and RCTs conducted in Western countries demonstrating no significant beneficial effect compared to controls (very small, d = 0.05). Effects were non-significant at follow-up assessment points. Post-treatment effects were significant for MBIs conducted with children (d = 0.41) and for MBIs when compared to passive controls (d = 0.33), but non-significant for adolescents (d = 0.21), for MBIs conducted in schools (d = 0.30) and in clinics (d = 0.13), and when MBIs were compared to active controls (d = 0.12). Results suggest that MBIs are likely to have a small to medium, yet temporary effect in reducing anxiety symptoms in children (not adolescents), but amongst Western youth populations the most likely outcome, from RCTs to date, is that MBIs produce no beneficial effect in anxiety reduction. Results revealed a lack of evidence to support investment in school-based MBIs to address youth anxiety.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440754

RESUMO

This study developed an online diagnostic tool for anxiety disorders in youth, and evaluated its reliability and validity amongst 297 children aged 6-16 years (Mage = 9.34, 46% male). Parents completed the online tool, the Youth Online Diagnostic Assessment (YODA), which is scored either using a fully-automated algorithm, or combined with clinician review. In addition, parents and children completed a clinician-administered diagnostic interview and self-report measures of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and wellbeing. The fully-automated YODA demonstrated relatively weak agreement with the diagnostic interview for identifying the presence of any anxiety disorder and specific anxiety disorders, apart from separation anxiety (which had moderate agreement). The clinician-reviewed YODA showed better agreement than fully-automated scoring, particularly for identifying the presence of any anxiety disorder. The YODA demonstrated good agreement with parent-reported measures of symptoms/interference. The YODA offers a fully or largely automated method to determine the presence of anxiety disorders in youth, with particular value in situations where low-resource assessments are needed. While it currently requires further research and improvement, the YODA provides a promising start to the development of such a tool.

11.
Aggress Behav ; 46(3): 193-209, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064639

RESUMO

Despite the extensive evaluation of school-based interventions for bullying, victimization remains a significant problem in schools. Bullying victimization is significantly predicted by contextual (school-related) factors. As a consequence whole-school programs have been commonly used to prevent and reduce bullying victimization. Evidence also points to individual risk factors (such as emotional distress) in predicting victimization, yet programs to prevent bullying victimization by changing these individual risks are far less developed. Few studies have approximated "real-world" implementation conditions in their trials. The current effectiveness trial evaluated the combination of a whole-school program designed to prevent bullying perpetration and victimization together with a targeted intervention for at-risk students, teaching them individual and dyadic strategies to reduce their anxiety and manage victimization, allowing schools some latitude to implement programs as they typically would. Students from Grades 3 and 4 (N = 8,732) across 135 schools were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: combined intervention; whole-school intervention only; individual intervention only; and care as usual. Victimization decreased significantly and similarly across all four conditions at 12 and 24 months following baseline. Similar reductions and failure to discriminate conditions were found on other key constructs: anxiety; bullying perpetration; and depression. Possible reasons for the failure to demonstrate victimization prevention differences and lessons learned from this large, effectiveness trial are considered.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910493

RESUMO

AIM: While associations between creativity and psychopathology have been well researched, the specific cognitive processes that distinguish highly creative from those with psychopathology warrant further investigation. This study will examine whether IQ, executive function, cognitive inhibition or spatial working memory differentiate individuals with early psychosis, clinically vulnerable creative individuals, creative controls and non-creative controls. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 110 participants: early psychosis (n = 21); clinically vulnerable creative controls (n = 25); creative controls (n = 30) and non-creative control (n = 34). The Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis assessed early psychosis participants and the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to screen for psychopathology in the remaining groups. Several cognitive tests were administered: IQ, neurocognitive measures of executive function and spatial working memory. Creativity was assessed using the Torrance Test of Creativity and Creative Achievement Questionnaire. A measure of vividness of mental imagery was also given. RESULTS: Across all cognitive tests, spatial working memory differentiated the early psychosis group from both creative and non-creative control groups. Spatial working memory predicted group membership but vivid imagery was a better predictor of creative achievement. The early psychosis, clinically vulnerable creative and creative groups all recorded significantly higher results on creative achievement and creative cognition compared to non-creative controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide further support for spatial working memory as an early neuro-cognitive marker for early psychosis. Spatial working memory, rather than IQ or executive function, may also be an early protective factor for clinically vulnerable young creative individuals.

13.
Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev ; 23(2): 229-249, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989444

RESUMO

Worry is common in children and adolescents, yet some youth experience excessive worries that persist over time and cause significant distress. Whilst the literature on worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) in adults is well established, relatively less is known about the cognitive mechanisms underlying child and adolescent worry. An influential cognitive model of adult pathological worry (Hirsch and Matthews in Behav Res Therapy 50:636-646, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2012.06.007, 2012) proposes that negative information-processing biases, reduced executive functions, and verbal worry are critical in the aetiology of GAD in adults. The current systematic review investigated whether this cognitive model of worry could be extended to understand child and adolescent worry. Following a systematic search of the literature and screening for eligibility, 30 studies were identified. Evidence indicates that negative information-processing biases and reduced executive functions play an important role in worry and GAD in children and adolescents. However, evidence that children and adolescents experience verbal worry is inconclusive. Building upon Hirsch and Matthews' cognitive model (Behav Res Therapy 50:636-646, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2012.06.007, 2012), we propose a model of child and adolescent worry to provide a guiding framework for future research. We conclude that cognitive models of worry should incorporate a developmental framework in order to provide greater insight into the mechanisms uniquely associated with worry in children and adolescents and help to identify the cognitive processes to target for early interventions and treatments.

14.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; : 1-8, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951760

RESUMO

Objective: This study examined the content-specificity of dysfunctional social beliefs to Social Anxiety Disorder (SoAD) in a large, clinically referred sample of children with a variety of anxiety, mood and externalizing disorders. The effects of comorbidity on the content-specificity of dysfunctional social beliefs were examined.Method: Participants included 912 children aged 7-12 years (Mage = 9.15; 45.5% female) who presented at a specialized clinic for assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders. Children with SoAD were compared to children with nonsocial anxiety disorders, children with SoAD and mood disorders, and children with SoAD and externalizing disorders, on self-reported dysfunctional social threat beliefs, physical threat, hostility, and personal failure beliefs.Results: Children with SoAD endorsed significantly higher levels of dysfunctional social threat beliefs when compared to children with nonsocial anxiety disorders. However, children with SoAD and mood comorbidity scored significantly higher on dysfunctional social beliefs than all other groups.Conclusions: Results suggest that within childhood anxiety disorders, dysfunctional social beliefs are content-specific for SoAD. Externalizing comorbidity does not seem to change the level of dysfunctional social beliefs in this group. However, mood comorbidity leads to endorsement of higher levels of dysfunctional social beliefs. These results provide support for, and refine, the content-specificity hypothesis and highlight the importance of taking comorbidity into account when examining and treating dysfunctional beliefs in youth.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 569-576, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the utility of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale - Parent Form (SCAS-P) across parents of children with (i) anxiety and (ii) Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). METHOD: Parents of children aged 7-18 years with anxiety or ASD completed the SCAS-P. Multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) structural equation modelling was utilized to analyse the data. RESULTS: Analysis revealed different factor structures between the Anxious and ASD groups and evidence for measurement variance across groups in some parts of the SCAS-P. CONCLUSION: Results on the SCAS-P in children with ASD need to be interpreted with caution. Some SCAS-P items cannot be interpreted in the same way in an ASD population compared to neurotypical children with anxiety.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Adolescente , Ansiedade , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Behav Res Ther ; 121: 103452, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430687

RESUMO

Cognitive theories of anxiety suggest that anxious children interpret negatively only those materials specifically related to the content of their anxiety. So far, there are only a few studies available that report on this postulated content-specificity of interpretation processes across different anxiety disorders in children, and most of them focused on social anxiety. Therefore, we examined interpretation bias and its content-specificity in a group of clinically anxious children between the ages of 6-12 years with various anxiety disorders, using an "ambiguous scenarios" task. Children were asked to finish scenarios that were related to either social threat, general threat, or separation threat. In total, 105 clinically anxious children, 21 control children and their mothers were assessed with the ADIS-C/P and the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale. As expected, clinically anxious children provided significantly more negative endings to the scenarios than control children. Within the clinically anxious group, specific interpretation biases were found: Interpretation of scenarios related to social threat, general threat, and separation threat were only predicted by the children's self-reported levels of social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and separation anxiety, respectively. These findings support the content-specificity hypothesis that clinically anxious children display interpretation biases that are specific to fear-relevant stimuli.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino
17.
Behav Res Ther ; 120: 103432, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) programs with ethnic and cultural sensitivity are scarce. This study was the first randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavior therapy for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders using bidirectional cultural adaptation. METHODS: The Japanese Anxiety Children/Adolescents Cognitive Behavior Therapy program (JACA-CBT) was developed based on existing evidence-based CBT for anxious youth and optimized through feedback from clinicians in the indigenous cultural group. Fifty-one children and adolescents aged 8-15 with anxiety disorders were randomly allocated to either a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT: 122.08 days, SD = 48.15) or a wait-list control condition (WLC: 70.00 days, SD = 11.01). Participants were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment as well as 3 and 6 months after completion of treatment (92.88 days, SD = 17.72 and 189.42 days, SD = 25.06) using a diagnostic interview, self-report measures of anxiety, depression, cognitive errors, and a parent-report measure of anxiety. RESULTS: A significant difference was found between the CBT and WLC at post-treatment, specifically 50% of participants in the treatment condition were free from their principal diagnoses compared to 12% in the wait-list condition, χ2 (1, N = 51) = 8.55, η2 = 0.17, p < .01. In addition, participants in the treatment condition showed significant improvement in clinical severity and child-self reported depression, F (1, 49) = 12.38, p < .001, F (1, 47.60) = 5.95, p < .05. At post-treatment, Hedge's g between the conditions was large for clinical severity, 1.00 (95% CI = 0.42-1.58), and moderate for the self-report anxiety scale, 0.43 (0.19-1.04), two depression scales, 0.39 (0.22-1.00), 0.48 (0.14-1.09), and the cognitive errors scale, 0.38 (0.24-0.99). Finally, significant improvements in diagnostic status were evident at the 3 and 6-month follow-up assessments when combining the CBT and WLC, ps < .001. CONCLUSION: The current results support the transportability of CBT and the efficacy of a bidirectional, culturally adapted cognitive behavior therapy in an underrepresented population.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Psychol Assess ; 31(8): 1006-1018, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070449

RESUMO

Questionnaire measures offer a time and cost-effective alternative to full diagnostic assessments for identifying and differentiating between potential anxiety disorders and are commonly used in clinical practice. Little is known, however, about the capacity of questionnaire measures to detect specific anxiety disorders in clinically anxious preadolescent children. This study aimed to establish the ability of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) subscales to identify children with specific anxiety disorders in a large clinic-referred sample (N = 1,438) of children aged 7 to 12 years. We examined the capacity of the Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety, and Physical Injury Fears (phobias) subscales to discriminate between children with and without the target disorder. We also identified optimal cutoff scores on subscales for accurate identification of children with the corresponding disorder, and examined the contribution of child, mother, and father reports. The Separation Anxiety subscale was able to accurately identify children with separation anxiety disorder, and this was replicated across all 3 reporters. Mother- and father-reported Social Phobia subscales also accurately identified children with social anxiety disorder, although child report was only able to accurately detect social anxiety disorder in girls. Using 2 or more reporters improved the sensitivity of the Separation Anxiety and Social Phobia subscales but reduced specificity. The Generalized Anxiety and Physical Injury Fears subscales failed to accurately identify children with the corresponding disorders. These findings have implications for the potential use of mother-, father-, and child-report SCAS subscales to detect specific disorders in preadolescent children in clinical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 150, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123309

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder and the anxiety disorders are highly prevalent, disabling and moderately heritable. Depression and anxiety are also highly comorbid and have a strong genetic correlation (rg ≈ 1). Cognitive behavioural therapy is a leading evidence-based treatment but has variable outcomes. Currently, there are no strong predictors of outcome. Therapygenetics research aims to identify genetic predictors of prognosis following therapy. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of symptoms following cognitive behavioural therapy in adults with anxiety disorders (n = 972), adults with major depressive disorder (n = 832) and children with anxiety disorders (n = 920; meta-analysis n = 2724). We estimated the variance in therapy outcomes that could be explained by common genetic variants (h2SNP) and polygenic scoring was used to examine genetic associations between therapy outcomes and psychopathology, personality and learning. No single nucleotide polymorphisms were strongly associated with treatment outcomes. No significant estimate of h2SNP could be obtained, suggesting the heritability of therapy outcome is smaller than our analysis was powered to detect. Polygenic scoring failed to detect genetic overlap between therapy outcome and psychopathology, personality or learning. This study is the largest therapygenetics study to date. Results are consistent with previous, similarly powered genome-wide association studies of complex traits.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Humanos
20.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 50(5): 803-814, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879167

RESUMO

The current study examined whether children varying in their levels of social anxiety, separation anxiety and spider fear exhibit a negative interpretation bias specific for their fears. Furthermore, age and gender were assessed as moderators of this relation. Children (N = 603) of the age of 7-12 years were asked to solve ambiguous scenarios reflecting social threat, separation threat or spider threat. Children's levels of anxiety were assessed with self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that children scoring higher on self-reported social anxiety, separation anxiety or spider fear, displayed a negative interpretation bias for the threat-scenarios pertaining to their specific anxiety or fear, even after controlling for comorbidity with other anxiety subtypes. Contrary to our hypotheses, we did not find moderating effects of age or gender. These results indicate that even in a community sample, content-specificity of negative interpretation biases is present.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Julgamento , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
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