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1.
Muscle Nerve ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432607

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the functional consequences of diaphragm involvement in patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM). METHODS: Ultrasound diaphragm thickening fraction (TFdi), lung function and dyspnea levels were compared between IBM patients and matched controls. Patients with IBM were grouped into "low" and "high" diaphragm activity based on TFdi values (with cut-off value being the lowest observed TFdi in the control group), and clinical characteristics were compared between groups. RESULTS: 20 IBM patients were included. TFdi was significantly lower in patients and correlated with time since symptom onset (rho = 0.74, p < 0.001). Patients had significantly lower forced vital capacity and higher dyspnea scores than controls. IBM patients with "low" diaphragm activity (n = 9) had lower 6-minute walking distance, higher resting and exertional dyspnea and a larger positional decrease in vital capacity (all p ≤ 0.03) than patients with 'high' activity. Timed up-and-go time and St-George's Respiratory Questionnaire were not different between groups. DISCUSSION: Diaphragm involvement in IBM is related to disease duration and has detrimental effects on lung function, dyspnea and exercise capacity. Further studies are required to investigate its potential as a therapeutic target.

2.
Clin Rheumatol ; 40(1): 93-100, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the perceived importance and frequency with which out-of-pocket medication costs are discussed between rheumatologists and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Canada. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was distributed to patients with RA and rheumatologists; both were asked to rate their perceived importance of discussing medication costs, and how often these discussions occurred. Predictors of (1) patients discussing costs with their rheumatologist and (2) the perceived importance of discussing medication cost for patients were explored. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients and 64 rheumatologists completed the survey; 68% patients and 75% of physicians rated the perceived importance of discussing medication costs as "quite" or "very important"; 22% of patients reported never talking about medication cost, but no physicians reported never discussing costs with patients. The only predictor of talking about cost among patients (at 10% level) was whether they perceived it as highly important (p = 0.058). Higher perceived importance of discussing out-of-pocket costs was associated with a more positive attitude to shared decision-making (p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Discussions about cost do not always happen, even with diseases with potentially high medication costs like RA. Cost was more likely to be discussed by patients who perceived it as "very important," suggesting the onus might be on patients to initiate these conversations. Without any significant predictors regarding what may make physicians more likely to think it was important to discuss medication costs, there is a need to reinforce recommendations that all physicians seek to discuss costs with all of their patients when suggesting medications. Key Points • There is a need for patients and physicians to discuss costs in the treatment decision-making process. Our findings suggest this does not always happen. • Among patients, medication cost was more likely to be discussed by those who perceived it as "very important" and higher perceived importance of discussing out-of-pocket costs was associated with a more positive attitude to shared decision-making. • Our results did not reveal any significant predictors regarding what may make physicians more likely to think it was important to discuss medication costs, suggesting that there is a need to reinforce recommendations that all physicians seek to discuss medication costs with all of their patients when suggesting medications.

3.
J Rheumatol ; 48(1): 16-24, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare medication persistence of tofacitinib with persistence of injectable biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We performed a retrospective new-user cohort study of patients with RA in the IBM MarketScan Research Databases. New users of tofacitinib or bDMARD were identified between November 2012 and December 2016. Persistence, in number of years, was the time between treatment initiation and the earliest occurrence of discontinuation or switching from the medication prescribed at cohort entry. Persistence of tofacitinib was compared with bDMARD persistence using Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustment for high-dimensional propensity scores. Similar methods were used for an analysis of post first-line therapy in patients who switched to tofacitinib from a bDMARD. RESULTS: New tofacitinib users (n = 1031) were 56 years of age, on average, and 82% were women. New bDMARD users (n = 17,803) were 53 years of age, on average, and 78% were women. New tofacitinib users had shorter medication persistence (median 0.81 yrs) compared to bDMARD patients (1.02 yrs). After adjustment, the HR for discontinuation of tofacitinib compared with bDMARD was 1.14 (95% CI 1.05-1.25). Patients who switched to tofacitinib from a bDMARD had longer persistence than patients who switched to a bDMARD (adjusted HR for discontinuation 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97). CONCLUSION: Further research is warranted to understand the reasons for discontinuation of tofacitinib despite its ease of administration and to understand the observed differences between switchers and new users.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease with varied and unpredictable levels of disease activity. The ability to self-manage lupus is important in controlling disease activity. Our objective was to determine levels of patient activation toward self-management in lupus. METHODS: We used baseline results from the MyLupusGuideTM study that had recruited 541 lupus patients from ten centers. We used the Patient Activation Measure (PAM), a validated self-reported tool designed to measure activation towards self-management ability, as our primary variable and examined its association with demographic, disease-related, patient-provider communication and psychosocial variables captured in our study protocol. Univariable and multivariable linear regressions were performed using linear mixed models, with a random effect for centers. RESULTS: The average age was 50±14 years, 93% were female, 74% were Caucasian and the average disease duration was 17±12 years. The mean PAM score was 61.2±13.5 with 36% of participants scoring in the two lower levels, indicating low activation. Variables associated with low activation included being single, lower physical health status, lower self-reported disease activity, lower self-efficacy, use of more emotional coping and less distraction and instrumental coping strategies, and perceived lack of clarity in patient-doctor communication. CONCLUSION: Low patient activation was observed in more than one third of lupus patients indicating a large proportion of patients perceived that they are lacking in lupus self-management skills. These results highlight a modifiable gap in perceived self-management ability among patients with lupus.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14607, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884119

RESUMO

The 'real-world' patient population of metastatic melanoma is not fully represented in clinical trials investigating checkpoint inhibitors. We described therapy discontinuation in an unselected population-based cohort of adults with metastatic melanoma who started therapy with pembrolizumab, nivolumab, or nivolumab/ipilimumab from January 2015 to August 2017. Therapy discontinuation was defined as a gap between doses beyond 120 days, and/or initiation of another cancer therapy. We estimated drug-specific rate ratios for therapy discontinuation adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, health care use, and past cancer therapies. We included 876 metastatic melanoma patients initiating pembrolizumab (44.3%), nivolumab/ipilimumab (31.2%), and nivolumab (24.5%). At 12 months of follow-up, the probabilities of therapy discontinuation were 49.9% (95% confidence interval, CI 43.6-56.5) for pembrolizumab, 58.8% (95% CI 50.5-67.3) for nivolumab, and 59.2% (95% CI 51.7-66.8) for nivolumab/ipilimumab. Stratified analyses based on prior cancer therapy, brain metastases at baseline, and sex showed similar trends. In multivariable analyses, compared with pembrolizumab, patients starting nivolumab (rate ratio 1.38, 95% CI 1.08-1.77) or nivolumab/ipilimumab (rate ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.65) were more likely to discontinue therapy. Our findings indicate frequent discontinuations of checkpoint inhibitors at one year. The lower discontinuation associated with pembrolizumab should be confirmed in further studies.

6.
RMD Open ; 6(2)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe systemic sclerosis (SSc) with myopathy in patients without classic SSc-specific and SSc-overlap autoantibodies (aAbs), referred to as seronegative scleromyositis. METHODS: Twenty patients with seronegative scleromyositis diagnosed by expert opinion were analysed retrospectively for SSc features at myositis diagnosis and follow-up, and stratified based on HEp-2 nuclear patterns by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) according to International Consensus of Autoantibody Patterns. Specificities were analysed by protein A-assisted immunoprecipitation. Myopathy was considered an organ involvement of SSc. RESULTS: SSc sine scleroderma was a frequent presentation (45%) at myositis diagnosis. Myositis was the most common first non-Raynaud manifestation of SSc (55%). Lower oesophagal dysmotility was present in 10 of 11 (91%) investigated patients. At follow-up, 80% of the patients met the American College of Rheumatology/EULAR SSc classification criteria. Two-thirds of patients had a positive HEp-2 IIF nuclear pattern (all with titers ≥1/320), defining three novel scleromyositis subsets. First, antinuclear antibody (ANA)-negative scleromyositis was associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and renal crisis. Second, a speckled pattern uncovered multiple rare SSc-specific aAbs. Third, the nuclear dots pattern was associated with aAbs to survival of motor neuron (SMN) complex and a novel scleromyositis subset characteriszed by calcinosis but infrequent ILD and renal crisis. CONCLUSIONS: SSc skin involvement is often absent in early seronegative scleromyositis. ANA positivity, Raynaud phenomenon, SSc-type capillaroscopy and/or lower oesophagal dysmotility may be clues for scleromyositis. Using HEp-2 IIF patterns, three novel clinicoserological subsets of scleromyositis emerged, notably (1) ANA-negative, (2) ANA-positive with a speckled pattern and (3) ANA-positive with nuclear dots and anti-SMN aAbs.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between sunlight exposure and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) using general population data in Quebec, Canada. METHODS: A random sample of 7600 individuals (including 786 positive ACPA subjects and 201 self-reported rheumatoid arthritis, RA cases) from the CARTaGENE cohort was studied cross-sectionally. All subjects were nested in four census metropolitan areas, and mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ACPA positivity related to sunlight exposure, adjusting for sun-block use, industrial fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposures, smoking, age, sex, French Canadian ancestry, and family income. We also performed sensitivity analyses excluding subjects with RA, defining ACPA positivity by higher titers, and stratifying by age and sex. RESULTS: The adjusted ORs and 95% CIs did not suggest conclusive associations between ACPA and sunlight exposure or sun-block use, but robust positive relationships were observed between industrial PM2.5 emissions and ACPA (OR 1.19 per µg/m3 , 95% CI 1.03 - 1.36 in primary analyses). CONCLUSIONS: We did not see clear links between ACPA and sunlight exposure or sun-block use, but we did note positive associations with industrial PM2.5 . Future studies of sunlight and RA (or ACPA) should take air pollution exposures into account.

8.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the magnitude, domains, and duration of change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) who underwent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as compared to SSc patients with similar characteristics who did not undergo autologous HSCT. METHODS: The study was designed as a retrospective study comparing SSc patients who underwent autologous HSCT and SSc patients who met the criteria for transplantation but were treated with conventional care. Outcomes included scores on the 36-item Short Form (SF-36) health survey and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and its disease-specific symptom scales. Differences in scores between the groups were compared using linear models, adjusting for baseline scores and inverse probability of treatment and censoring weights. RESULTS: In total, 41 SSc patients who underwent autologous HSCT and 65 SSc patients treated with conventional care were compared. In marginal linear weighted models, the SF-36 physical component summary score was a mean ± SEM 7.02 ± 1.94 points higher at the first annual visit (P = 0.001) and 14.40 ± 6.16 points higher at the seventh annual visit (P = 0.03) in patients treated with autologous HSCT compared to the conventional care group. HAQ scores were significantly better in the autologous HSCT group compared to the conventional care group during follow-up (mean ± SEM difference from baseline -0.57 ± 0.13 [P < 0.001] at the first annual visit and -0.94 ± 0.49 [P = 0.07] at the seventh annual visit). There were no differences in the SF-36 mental component summary scores between the 2 groups either at baseline or during follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study provides robust complementary HRQoL data, including overall and event-free survival data, to expand on the standard repertoire of biomedical variables, thus potentially supporting the physical benefits of autologous HSCT in patients with SSc.

9.
Patient ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676996

RESUMO

Patient-oriented research is a process whereby patients or caregivers are included as research partners so that research focusses on topics that are priorities and lead to findings that translate into practice. Using a case study of preferences for stem cell transplant in scleroderma, we report on a patient-oriented research approach to developing a discrete choice experiment. Our patient-oriented research application followed the four guiding principles in Canada's Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research: inclusiveness, support, mutual respect and co-build. In this case study, patient partners were involved at different levels of engagement to match individual availability, skillset and roles in the team. They advised, to different degrees, on all aspects of the study from design to analyses. Using a patient-oriented research approach led to the inclusion of attributes that would likely have been excluded (e.g. support from a multidisciplinary team), and realistic framing of patient-relevant and sometimes sensitive attributes (e.g. mortality and cost). Meeting locations and times were adjusted to accommodate all-team circumstances. Institutional constraints on the reimbursement for patient partners influenced the timing and extent of involvement. We found that adopting a patient-oriented research approach to discrete choice experiment design injected unique knowledge and expertise into the team, improved the representativeness of the sample recruited, minimised researcher biases, and ensured appropriate attribute selection and descriptions. The patient-oriented research approach highlighted some constraints of discrete choice experiment designs and, while not a solution, might ensure the methodological trade-offs remain patient relevant. Institutional challenges must be addressed to progress patient-oriented health economics research.

10.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 86, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of associations between industrial air emissions and rheumatic diseases, or diseases-related serological biomarkers, are few. Moreover, previous evaluations typically studied individual (not mixed) emissions. We investigated associations between individual and combined exposures to industrial sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and fine particles matter (PM2.5) on anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), a characteristic biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Serum ACPA was determined for 7600 randomly selected CARTaGENE general population subjects in Quebec, Canada. Industrial SO2, NO2, and PM2.5 concentrations, estimated by the California Puff (CALPUFF) atmospheric dispersion model, were assigned based on residential postal codes at the time of sera collection. Single-exposure logistic regressions were performed for ACPA positivity defined by 20 U/ml, 40 U/ml, and 60 U/ml thresholds, adjusting for age, sex, French Canadian origin, smoking, and family income. Associations between regional overall PM2.5 exposure and ACPA positivity were also investigated. The associations between the combined three industrial exposures and the ACPA positivity were assessed by weighted quantile sum (WQS) regressions. RESULTS: Significant associations between individual industrial exposures and ACPA positivity defined by the 20 U/ml threshold were seen with single-exposure logistic regression models, for industrial emissions of PM2.5 (odds ratio, OR = 1.19, 95% confidence intervals, CI: 1.04-1.36) and SO2 (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06), without clear associations for NO2 (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.17). Similar findings were seen for the 40 U/ml threshold, although at 60 U/ml, the results were very imprecise. The WQS model demonstrated a positive relationship between combined industrial exposures and ACPA positivity (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.10-1.69 at 20 U/ml) and suggested that industrial PM2.5 may have a closer association with ACPA positivity than the other exposures. Again, similar findings were seen with the 40 U/ml threshold, though 60 U/ml results were imprecise. No clear association between ACPA and regional overall PM2.5 exposure was seen. CONCLUSIONS: We noted positive associations between ACPA and industrial emissions of PM2.5 and SO2. Industrial PM2.5 exposure may play a particularly important role in this regard.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Anti-Proteína Citrulinada/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Quebeque , Análise de Regressão
11.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(8): 102595, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have revolutionized cancer therapy, their use is associated with immune toxicities referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAE). Here we describe the clinical presentation and management of rheumatic immune-related adverse events (Rh-irAE) in a national multi-center cohort. METHODS: All patients presenting with Rh-irAE at 9 academic sites across Canada between January 2013 and January 2019 were identified and included in this retrospective cohort study. Standardized data were extracted by chart review. RESULTS: 117 patients who developed 136 Rh-irAE were identified. The most frequent Rh-irAE was symmetric polyarthritis (n = 45). Other Rh-irAE included non-inflammatory musculoskeletal symptoms (n = 18), polymyalgia rheumatica (n = 17) and myositis (n = 9). Prednisone was the most commonly used treatment (n = 76) with a mean maximum dose of 60 ± 74 mg/d and duration of treatment of 8.4 ± 11 months. Forty-two patients required conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) and two required biologic DMARD to control the Rh-irAE. ICI was discontinued due to the Rh-irAE in 22 patients. There were no deaths related to Rh-irAE. Treatment of the Rh-irAE did not appear to negatively impact the tumor response to immunotherapy with 23 patients experiencing tumor progression prior to treatment of the Rh-irAE and 13 following treatment. CONCLUSION: In this largest multi-center cohort of Rh-irAE described to date, symmetric polyarthritis was the most common Rh-irAE. There was considerable heterogeneity of treatment, although this did not appear to negatively impact the anti-tumor response. This study can inform the development of evidence-based recommendations to optimize Rh-irAE and cancer outcomes in patients treated with ICI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Reumáticas/induzido quimicamente
12.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(8): 102583, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553611

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare chronic disease of unknown etiology characterized by vascular abnormalities and fibrosis involving the skin and internal organs, especially the gastrointestinal tract, lung, heart and kidneys. Although the disease was historically stratified according to the extent of skin involvement, more recent approaches place more emphasis on patterns and extent of internal organ involvement. Despite numerous clinical trials, disease-modifying treatment options are still limited resulting in persistent poor quality of life and high mortality. This review provides an overview of autoantibodies in SSc and novel approaches to stratify the disease into clinically actionable subsets.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/terapia
14.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 132, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes of therapeutic studies in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) have mainly been measured for specific organs, particularly the skin and lungs. A new composite response index in dcSSc (CRISS) has been developed for clinical trials. The goal of this study was to determine whether, in an observational dcSSc cohort, immunosuppression was associated with global disease improvement measured with the CRISS. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a multi-centered SSc registry comparing 47 patients newly exposed to immunosuppression for ≥ 1 year to 254 unexposed patients. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was performed to create comparable exposed and unexposed groups by balancing for age, sex, disease duration, modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS), forced vital capacity, patient and physician global assessments, and Health Assessment Questionnaire score. A CRISS score ≥ 0.6 at 1 year was defined as improvement. RESULTS: Exposed patients had shorter disease duration (5.5 versus 11.7 years, p < 0.01), more interstitial lung disease (67.4% versus 40.3%, p < 0.01), and worse physician global severity scores (4.2 versus 2.5 points, p < 0.01) compared to unexposed patients. Improvement in CRISS scores was more common in exposed patients after IPTW (odds ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval 1.11, 3.09). Of the individual CRISS variables, only mean patient global assessment scores were significantly better among exposed than unexposed patients (- 0.4 versus 0 points, p = 0.03) while other variables including mRSS were similar. CONCLUSION: Using a composite response measure, immunosuppression was associated with better outcomes at 1 year in a dcSSc cohort. These results provide real-world data that align with clinical trials to support our current use of immunosuppression.

15.
J Rheumatol ; 47(10): 1584-1586, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541080

RESUMO

The Canadian Inflammatory Myopathy Study (CIMS) is a multicenter prospective cohort recruiting in 8 centers across Canada. One of the aims of CIMS is to conduct and participate in clinical trials in autoimmune inflammatory myopathies (AIM). Conducting clinical trials in rare diseases such as AIM presents challenges. During this symposium, experts in the field presented different solutions to successfully conduct clinical trials in AIM, including the importance of collaboration and careful trial design, as well as training and mentoring of young investigators.

16.
Biometrics ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438470

RESUMO

Identifying disease-associated changes in DNA methylation can help us gain a better understanding of disease etiology. Bisulfite sequencing allows the generation of high-throughput methylation profiles at single-base resolution of DNA. However, optimally modeling and analyzing these sparse and discrete sequencing data is still very challenging due to variable read depth, missing data patterns, long-range correlations, data errors, and confounding from cell type mixtures. We propose a regression-based hierarchical model that allows covariate effects to vary smoothly along genomic positions and we have built a specialized EM algorithm, which explicitly allows for experimental errors and cell type mixtures, to make inference about smooth covariate effects in the model. Simulations show that the proposed method provides accurate estimates of covariate effects and captures the major underlying methylation patterns with excellent power. We also apply our method to analyze data from rheumatoid arthritis patients and controls. The method has been implemented in R package SOMNiBUS.

17.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(4): e16799, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc), or scleroderma, is a rare disease that often results in significant disruptions to activities of daily living and can negatively affect physical and psychological well-being. Because there is no known cure, SSc treatment focuses on reducing symptoms and disability and improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Self-management programs are known to increase self-efficacy for disease management in many chronic diseases. The Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network (SPIN) developed a Web-based self-management program (SPIN self-management; SPIN-SELF) to increase self-efficacy for disease management and to improve HRQoL for patients with SSc. OBJECTIVE: The proposed study aims to assess the feasibility of conducting a full-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the SPIN-SELF program by evaluating the trial implementation processes, required resources and management, scientific aspects, and participant acceptability and usage of the SPIN-SELF program. METHODS: The SPIN-SELF feasibility trial will be conducted via the SPIN Cohort. The SPIN Cohort was developed as a framework for embedded pragmatic trials using the cohort multiple RCT design. In total, 40 English-speaking SPIN Cohort participants with low disease management self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease Scale score ≤7), who have indicated interest in using a Web-based self-management program, will be randomized with a 3:2 ratio into the SPIN-SELF program or usual care for 3 months. Feasibility outcomes include trial implementation processes, required resources and management, scientific aspects, and patient acceptability and usage of the SPIN-SELF program. RESULTS: Enrollment of the 40 participants occurred between July 5, 2019, and July 27, 2019. By November 25, 2019, data collection of trial outcomes was completed. Data analysis is underway, and results are expected to be published in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The SPIN-SELF program is a self-help tool that may improve disease-management self-efficacy and improve HRQoL in patients with SSc. The SPIN-SELF feasibility trial will ensure that trial methodology is robust, feasible, and consistent with trial participant expectations. The results will guide adjustments that need to be implemented before undertaking a full-scale RCT of the SPIN-SELF program. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/16799.

18.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(10): 2931-2941, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elicit and compare preferences of patients and first-degree relatives and rheumatologists for preventive treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, understand the influence of shared decision-making, and predict the probability of uptake of the preventive treatments currently being studied. METHODS: An online discrete choice experiment was completed by patients and their first-degree relatives and rheumatologists. Results were analysed using mixed logit model to estimate preferences for the key features of treatments. Preferences for features of treatments were used to predict the probability of uptake of seven preventive treatment options. RESULTS: A total of 108 potential recipients (78 patients and 30 of their first-degree relatives) and 39 rheumatologists completed the survey. Preferences of patients/first-degree relatives and rheumatologists were similar (shared decision-making was most important, followed by the risk of side effects and potential benefit), but subtle differences existed; rheumatologists placed greater importance on certainty in evidence than patients/first-degree relatives, who felt that how a treatment was taken was more important. Predicted uptake suggested that 38% (95% CI 19%, 58%) of patients/first-degree relatives would not take a preventive treatment, compared with 12% (95% CI - 4%, 27%) of rheumatologists. A consistent finding across all groups was a preference for non-biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. CONCLUSION: Only relatively safe options for preventive treatment are likely to be acceptable to at-risk populations. This study of preventive treatments highlights that the preferences of physicians and recipients of treatment should take a central role in the design of clinical studies as well as in decisions to initiate treatments. Key Points • This paper is the first to compare preferences for preventive treatments between rheumatologists and patients and at-risk individuals. • The results of this study indicate that patients and at-risk individuals, as well as rheumatologists, are likely to prefer the safest options as preventive treatment, even if the potential benefit of these is lower. • Although preferences of patients and at-risk individuals are similar to those of rheumatologists, the choice of preventive treatment may differ between groups; this is important as shared decision-making was a critical factor in treatment decision-making. • Preferences of physicians and recipients of treatment should take a central role in the design of clinical studies as well as in decisions to initiate treatments.

19.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 17(8): 504-515, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246128

RESUMO

The enhancement of immune responses upon treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors can have the desired outcome of reinvigorating antitumour immune surveillance, but often at the expense of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). This novel disease entity often prompts comparisons with, and extrapolation of treatment approaches from, primary autoimmune disorders. Accordingly, current treatment guidelines for irAEs make generic recommendations adapted from the literature describing primary autoimmune diseases, without taking into consideration the substantial disparity of the immunohistopathological findings within each organ affected by an irAE. The treatment modalities themselves are complex and have many potential drawbacks, such as serious and rarely fatal infections, drug toxicities overlapping with irAEs and the risk of compromising cancer immune surveillance. Herein, we provide an overview of key cellular and soluble immunological factors mediating irAEs and propose a model integrating this knowledge with the immunohistopathological findings of the affected organs for a personalized decision-making process for each patient.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Vigilância Imunológica/imunologia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia
20.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-8, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191536

RESUMO

Purpose: People with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) face difficulties being physically active. This study identified physical activity barriers and facilitators experienced by people with scleroderma.Materials and methods: We conducted nominal group technique sessions with scleroderma patients who shared physical activity barriers, barrier-specific facilitators, and general facilitators. Participants rated importance of barriers and likelihood of using facilitators from 0 to 10, and indicated whether they had tried facilitators. Barriers and facilitators across sessions were merged to eliminate overlap; edited by investigators, patient advisors, and clinicians; and categorized using qualitative content analysis.Results: We conducted 9 sessions (n = 41 participants) and initially generated 181 barriers, 457 barrier-specific facilitators, and 20 general facilitators. The number of consolidated barriers (barrier-specific facilitators in parentheses) per category were: 14 (61) for health and medical; 4 (23) for social and personal; 1 (3) for time, work, and lifestyle; and 1 (4) for environmental. There were 12 consolidated general facilitators. The consolidated items with ≥1/3 of participants' ratings ≥8 were: 15 barriers, 69 barrier-specific facilitators, and 9 general facilitators.Conclusions: Scleroderma patients reported many barriers related to health and medical aspects of scleroderma and several barriers in other categories. They reported facilitators to remain physically active despite the barriers.Implications for RehabilitationPeople with scleroderma experience difficulty being physically active due to the diverse and often severe manifestations of the disease, including involvement of the skin, musculoskeletal system, and internal organs.In addition to regular care of scleroderma-related symptoms, patients overcome many exercise challenges by selecting physical activities that are comfortable for them, adjusting the intensity and duration of activities, adapting activities, and using adapted equipment or other materials to reduce discomfort.Rehabilitation professionals should help people with scleroderma to tailor activity options to their capacity and needs when providing care and advice to promote physical activity.

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