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2.
Blood ; 133(25): 2651-2663, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923040

RESUMO

Targeted sequencing of 103 leukemia-associated genes in leukemia cells from 841 treatment-naive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) identified 89 (11%) patients as having CLL cells with mutations in genes encoding proteins that putatively are involved in hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Consistent with this finding, there was a significant association between the presence of these mutations and the expression of GLI1 (χ2 test, P < .0001), reflecting activation of the Hh pathway. However, we discovered that 38% of cases without identified mutations also were GLI1+ Patients with GLI1+ CLL cells had a shorter median treatment-free survival than patients with CLL cells lacking expression of GLI1 independent of IGHV mutation status. We found that GANT61, a small molecule that can inhibit GLI1, was highly cytotoxic for GLI1+ CLL cells relative to that of CLL cells without GLI1. Collectively, this study shows that a large proportion of patients have CLL cells with activated Hh signaling, which is associated with early disease progression and enhanced sensitivity to inhibition of GLI1.

3.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 307-326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820706

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10- 4, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10- 4, replication P = 6.7 × 10- 4). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 48(1): 2, 2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to use high-resolution micro-CT images to create accurate three-dimensional (3D) models of several intratemporal structures, and to compare several surgically important dimensions within the temporal bone. The secondary objective was to create a statistical shape model (SSM) of a dominant and non-dominant sigmoid sinus (SS) to provide a template for automated segmentation algorithms. METHODS: A free image processing software, 3D Slicer, was utilized to create three-dimensional reconstructions of the SS, jugular bulb (JB), facial nerve (FN), and external auditory canal (EAC) from micro-CT scans. The models were used to compare several clinically important dimensions between the dominant and non-dominant SS. Anatomic variability of the SS was also analyzed using SSMs generated using the Statismo software framework. RESULTS: Three-dimensional models from 38 temporal bones were generated and analyzed. Right dominance was observed in 74% of the paired SSs. All distances were significantly shorter on the dominant side (p < 0.05), including: EAC - SS (dominant: 13.7 ± 3.4 mm; non-dominant: 15.3 ± 2.7 mm), FN - SS (dominant: 7.2 ± 1.8 mm; non-dominant: 8.1 ± 2.3 mm), 2nd genu FN - superior tip of JB (dominant: 8.7 ± 2.2 mm; non-dominant: 11.2 ± 2.6 mm), horizontal distance between the superior tip of JB - descending FN (dominant: 9.5 ± 2.3 mm; non-dominant: 13.2 ± 3.5 mm), and horizontal distance between the FN at the stylomastoid foramen - JB (dominant: 5.4 ± 2.2 mm; non-dominant: 7.7 ± 2.1). Analysis of the SSMs indicated that SS morphology is most variable at its junction with the transverse sinus, and least variable at the JB. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first known study to investigate the anatomical variation and relationships of the SS using high resolution scans, 3D  models and statistical shape analysis. This analysis seeks to guide neurotological surgical approaches and provide a template for automated segmentation and surgical simulation.


Assuntos
Cavidades Cranianas/anatomia & histologia , Osso Temporal/anatomia & histologia , Algoritmos , Cadáver , Cavidades Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Modelos Anatômicos , Neuro-Otologia , Osso Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X
5.
J Immunother Cancer ; 6(1): 50, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871670

RESUMO

Anti-cancer immunotherapy is encountering its own checkpoint. Responses are dramatic and long lasting but occur in a subset of tumors and are largely dependent upon the pre-existing immune contexture of individual cancers. Available data suggest that three landscapes best define the cancer microenvironment: immune-active, immune-deserted and immune-excluded. This trichotomy is observable across most solid tumors (although the frequency of each landscape varies depending on tumor tissue of origin) and is associated with cancer prognosis and response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy (CIT). Various gene signatures (e.g. Immunological Constant of Rejection - ICR and Tumor Inflammation Signature - TIS) that delineate these landscapes have been described by different groups. In an effort to explain the mechanisms of cancer immune responsiveness or resistance to CIT, several models have been proposed that are loosely associated with the three landscapes. Here, we propose a strategy to integrate compelling data from various paradigms into a "Theory of Everything". Founded upon this unified theory, we also propose the creation of a task force led by the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) aimed at systematically addressing salient questions relevant to cancer immune responsiveness and immune evasion. This multidisciplinary effort will encompass aspects of genetics, tumor cell biology, and immunology that are pertinent to the understanding of this multifaceted problem.

6.
Cancer Discov ; 8(6): 730-749, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510987

RESUMO

To understand the genetic drivers of immune recognition and evasion in colorectal cancer, we analyzed 1,211 colorectal cancer primary tumor samples, including 179 classified as microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high). This set includes The Cancer Genome Atlas colorectal cancer cohort of 592 samples, completed and analyzed here. MSI-high, a hypermutated, immunogenic subtype of colorectal cancer, had a high rate of significantly mutated genes in important immune-modulating pathways and in the antigen presentation machinery, including biallelic losses of B2M and HLA genes due to copy-number alterations and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. WNT/ß-catenin signaling genes were significantly mutated in all colorectal cancer subtypes, and activated WNT/ß-catenin signaling was correlated with the absence of T-cell infiltration. This large-scale genomic analysis of colorectal cancer demonstrates that MSI-high cases frequently undergo an immunoediting process that provides them with genetic events allowing immune escape despite high mutational load and frequent lymphocytic infiltration and, furthermore, that colorectal cancer tumors have genetic and methylation events associated with activated WNT signaling and T-cell exclusion.Significance: This multi-omic analysis of 1,211 colorectal cancer primary tumors reveals that it should be possible to better monitor resistance in the 15% of cases that respond to immune blockade therapy and also to use WNT signaling inhibitors to reverse immune exclusion in the 85% of cases that currently do not. Cancer Discov; 8(6); 730-49. ©2018 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 663.

7.
Med Phys ; 45(2): 506-519, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193144

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is emerging as a treatment alternative for osteoid osteoma and painful bone metastases. This study describes a new simulation platform that predicts the distribution of heat generated by MRgFUS when applied to bone tissue. METHODS: Calculation of the temperature distribution was performed using two mathematical models. The first determined the propagation and absorption of acoustic energy through each medium, and this was performed using a multilayered approximation of the Rayleigh integral method. The ultrasound energy distribution derived from these equations could then be converted to heat energy, and the second mathematical model would then use the heat generated to determine the final temperature distribution using a finite-difference time-domain application of Pennes' bio-heat transfer equation. Anatomical surface geometry was generated using a modified version of a mesh-based semiautomatic segmentation algorithm, and both the acoustic and thermodynamic models were calculated using a parallelized algorithm running on a graphics processing unit (GPU) to greatly accelerate computation time. A series of seven porcine experiments were performed to validate the model, comparing simulated temperatures to MR thermometry and assessing spatial, temporal, and maximum temperature accuracy in the soft tissue. RESULTS: The parallelized algorithm performed acoustic and thermodynamic calculations on grids of over 108 voxels in under 30 s for a simulated 20 s of heating and 40 s of cooling, with a maximum time per calculated voxel of less than 0.3 µs. Accuracy was assessed by comparing the soft tissue thermometry to the simulation in the soft tissue adjacent to bone using four metrics. The maximum temperature difference between the simulation and thermometry in a region of interest around the bone was measured to be 5.43 ± 3.51°C average absolute difference and a percentage difference of 16.7%. The difference in heating location resulted in a total root-mean-square error of 4.21 ± 1.43 mm. The total size of the ablated tissue calculated from the thermal dose approximation in the simulation was, on average, 67.6% smaller than measured from the thermometry. The cooldown was much faster in the simulation, where it decreased by 14.22 ± 4.10°C more than the thermometry in 40 s after sonication ended. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a Rayleigh-based acoustic model combined with a discretized bio-heat transfer model provided a rapid three-dimensional calculation of the temperature distribution through bone and soft tissue during MRgFUS application, and the parallelized GPU algorithm provided the computational speed that would be necessary for an intraoperative treatment planning software platform.


Assuntos
Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Biológicos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Temperatura Ambiente , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
8.
Nature ; 547(7661): 104-108, 2017 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28658204

RESUMO

In acute myeloid leukaemia, long-term survival is poor as most patients relapse despite achieving remission. Historically, the failure of therapy has been thought to be due to mutations that produce drug resistance, possibly arising as a consequence of the mutagenic properties of chemotherapy drugs. However, other lines of evidence have pointed to the pre-existence of drug-resistant cells. For example, deep sequencing of paired diagnosis and relapse acute myeloid leukaemia samples has provided direct evidence that relapse in some cases is generated from minor genetic subclones present at diagnosis that survive chemotherapy, suggesting that resistant cells are generated by evolutionary processes before treatment and are selected by therapy. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of therapy failure and capacity for leukaemic regeneration remain obscure, as sequence analysis alone does not provide insight into the cell types that are fated to drive relapse. Although leukaemia stem cells have been linked to relapse owing to their dormancy and self-renewal properties, and leukaemia stem cell gene expression signatures are highly predictive of therapy failure, experimental studies have been primarily correlative and a role for leukaemia stem cells in acute myeloid leukaemia relapse has not been directly proved. Here, through combined genetic and functional analysis of purified subpopulations and xenografts from paired diagnosis/relapse samples, we identify therapy-resistant cells already present at diagnosis and two major patterns of relapse. In some cases, relapse originated from rare leukaemia stem cells with a haematopoietic stem/progenitor cell phenotype, while in other instances relapse developed from larger subclones of immunophenotypically committed leukaemia cells that retained strong stemness transcriptional signatures. The identification of distinct patterns of relapse should lead to improved methods for disease management and monitoring in acute myeloid leukaemia. Moreover, the shared functional and transcriptional stemness properties that underlie both cellular origins of relapse emphasize the importance of developing new therapeutic approaches that target stemness to prevent relapse.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Animais , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Células Clonais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Camundongos , Mutação , Células Progenitoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Células Progenitoras Mieloides/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo
9.
Nat Genet ; 49(1): 131-138, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27918535

RESUMO

Most disease-associated genetic variants are noncoding, making it challenging to design experiments to understand their functional consequences. Identification of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) has been a powerful approach to infer the downstream effects of disease-associated variants, but most of these variants remain unexplained. The analysis of DNA methylation, a key component of the epigenome, offers highly complementary data on the regulatory potential of genomic regions. Here we show that disease-associated variants have widespread effects on DNA methylation in trans that likely reflect differential occupancy of trans binding sites by cis-regulated transcription factors. Using multiple omics data sets from 3,841 Dutch individuals, we identified 1,907 established trait-associated SNPs that affect the methylation levels of 10,141 different CpG sites in trans (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). These included SNPs that affect both the expression of a nearby transcription factor (such as NFKB1, CTCF and NKX2-3) and methylation of its respective binding site across the genome. Trans methylation QTLs effectively expose the downstream effects of disease-associated variants.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
11.
Hum Mutat ; 38(3): 265-268, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27957778

RESUMO

Germline polymorphic variants in cancer predisposition genes such as TP53 have been shown to impact the risk of premenopausal cancer. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to assess the spectrum of polymorphisms in TP53 and its negative regulatory gene, MDM2 (SNP309:T>G) in patients with premenopausal breast cancer. Our findings in a cohort of 40 female patients demonstrate no significant correlation between the studied polymorphisms and risk of premenopausal breast cancer. Although one polymorphism is found in high frequency in this cohort (rs1800372:A>G, 9.0%), it was not associated with the risk of developing cancer before the age of 35 years in an extended cohort of 1,420 breast cancer cases. Functional studies of the rs1800372:A>G polymorphic allele reveal that it does not affect p53 transactivation function. Further study of variants or mutations in other cancer susceptibility genes is warranted to refine our understanding of the germline contribution to premenopausal breast cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pré-Menopausa , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Idade de Início , Alelos , Feminino , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Risco
12.
PLoS Genet ; 12(10): e1006296, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27723779

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10-8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8) region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74-0.91]; P = 2.1×10-4) and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51-0.75]; P = 1.3×10-6) but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059). No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Fumar/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/patologia
13.
Nature ; 538(7625): 378-382, 2016 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27732578

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer, a highly aggressive tumour type with uniformly poor prognosis, exemplifies the classically held view of stepwise cancer development. The current model of tumorigenesis, based on analyses of precursor lesions, termed pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanINs) lesions, makes two predictions: first, that pancreatic cancer develops through a particular sequence of genetic alterations (KRAS, followed by CDKN2A, then TP53 and SMAD4); and second, that the evolutionary trajectory of pancreatic cancer progression is gradual because each alteration is acquired independently. A shortcoming of this model is that clonally expanded precursor lesions do not always belong to the tumour lineage, indicating that the evolutionary trajectory of the tumour lineage and precursor lesions can be divergent. This prevailing model of tumorigenesis has contributed to the clinical notion that pancreatic cancer evolves slowly and presents at a late stage. However, the propensity for this disease to rapidly metastasize and the inability to improve patient outcomes, despite efforts aimed at early detection, suggest that pancreatic cancer progression is not gradual. Here, using newly developed informatics tools, we tracked changes in DNA copy number and their associated rearrangements in tumour-enriched genomes and found that pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis is neither gradual nor follows the accepted mutation order. Two-thirds of tumours harbour complex rearrangement patterns associated with mitotic errors, consistent with punctuated equilibrium as the principal evolutionary trajectory. In a subset of cases, the consequence of such errors is the simultaneous, rather than sequential, knockout of canonical preneoplastic genetic drivers that are likely to set-off invasive cancer growth. These findings challenge the current progression model of pancreatic cancer and provide insights into the mutational processes that give rise to these aggressive tumours.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Mutagênese/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Carcinoma in Situ/genética , Cromotripsia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Progressão da Doença , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genes Neoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mitose/genética , Mutação/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Poliploidia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética
14.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(30): 3697-3704, 2016 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551116

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although the link between mutant TP53 and human cancer is unequivocal, a significant knowledge gap exists in clinically actionable molecular targets in Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a highly penetrant cancer predisposition syndrome associated with germline mutations in TP53. This study surveyed the epigenome to identify functionally and clinically relevant novel genes implicated in LFS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed genome-wide methylation analyses of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA in germline TP53 mutation carriers (n = 72) and individuals with TP53 wild type in whom histologically comparable malignancies developed (n = 111). Targeted bisulfite pyrosequencing was performed on a validation cohort of 30 TP53 mutation carriers and 46 patients with TP53 wild type, and candidate sites were evaluated in primary tumors from patients with LFS across multiple histologic tumor types. RESULTS: In 183 patients, distinct DNA methylation signatures were associated with deleterious TP53 mutations in peripheral blood leukocytes. TP53-associated DNA methylation marks occurred in genomic regions that harbored p53 binding sites and in genes encoding p53 pathway proteins. Moreover, loss-of-function TP53 mutations were significantly associated with differential methylation at the locus encoding microRNA miR-34A, a key component of the p53 regulatory network (adjusted P < .001), and validated in an independent patient cohort (n = 76, P < .001). Targeted bisulfite pyrosequencing demonstrated that miR-34A was inactivated by hypermethylation across many histologic types of primary tumors from patients with LFS. Moreover, miR-34A tumor hypermethylation was associated with decreased overall survival in a cohort of 29 patients with choroid plexus carcinomas, a characteristic LFS tumor (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Epigenetic dysregulation of miR-34A may comprise an important path in TP53-associated cancer predisposition and represents a therapeutically actionable target with potential clinical relevance.

15.
Oncotarget ; 7(31): 49611-49622, 2016 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27391063

RESUMO

microRNA-34A is a critical component of the p53 network and expression of miR- 34A is down-regulated by promoter hypermethylation or focal deletions in numerous human cancers. Although miR-34A deregulation may be an important driver in cancer, the endogenous role of this microRNA in cellular homeostasis is not well characterized. To address this knowledge gap, we aimed to determine the transcriptional landscape of the miR-34A-p53 axis in non-transformed cells. Using primary skin-derived fibroblast cell lines from patients who developed childhood cancers, and who harbor either germline TP53 mutations or are TP53 wild type, we sought to characterize the transcriptional response to miR-34A modulation. Through transcriptome-wide RNA-Sequencing, we show for the first time that in human non- transformed cells harboring TP53 mutations, miR-34A functions in a noncanonical manner to influence noncoding RNA networks, including RNA components of the minor (U12) spliceosome, as well as TP53-dependent and independent epigenetic pathways. miR- 34A-regulated transcripts include known cell cycle mediators and abrogation of miR-34A leads to a TP53-dependent increase in the fraction of cells in G2/M. Collectively, these results provide a framework for understanding the endogenous role of the miR-34A signaling axis and identify novel transcripts and pathways regulated by the essential miR-34A-p53 tumor suppressor network.


Assuntos
Genes Supressores de Tumor , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Apoptose , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Humanos , Lactente , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
16.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0157521, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27379672

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with colorectal cancer risk. These SNPs may tag correlated variants with biological importance. Fine-mapping around GWAS loci can facilitate detection of functional candidates and additional independent risk variants. We analyzed 11,900 cases and 14,311 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. To fine-map genomic regions containing all known common risk variants, we imputed high-density genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project. We tested single-variant associations with colorectal tumor risk for all variants spanning genomic regions 250-kb upstream or downstream of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs (index SNPs). We queried the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser to examine evidence for biological function. Index SNPs did not show the strongest association signals with colorectal tumor risk in their respective genomic regions. Bioinformatics analysis of SNPs showing smaller P-values in each region revealed 21 functional candidates in 12 loci (5q31.1, 8q24, 11q13.4, 11q23, 12p13.32, 12q24.21, 14q22.2, 15q13, 18q21, 19q13.1, 20p12.3, and 20q13.33). We did not observe evidence of additional independent association signals in GWAS-identified regions. Our results support the utility of integrating data from comprehensive fine-mapping with expanding publicly available genomic databases to help clarify GWAS associations and identify functional candidates that warrant more onerous laboratory follow-up. Such efforts may aid the eventual discovery of disease-causing variant(s).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Células A549 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Células CACO-2 , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Feminino , Genótipo , Células HCT116 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 44: 1-4, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27449576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a convincing risk factor for colorectal cancer. Genetic variants in or near FTO and MC4R are consistently associated with body mass index and other body size measures, but whether they are also associated with colorectal cancer risk is unclear. METHODS: In the discovery stage, we tested associations of 677 FTO and 323 MC4R single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 100kb upstream and 300kb downstream from each respective locus with risk of colorectal cancer in data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR: 1960 cases; 1777 controls). Next, all SNPs that were nominally statistically significant (p<0.05) in the discovery stage were included in replication analyses in data from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO: 9716 cases; 9844 controls). RESULTS: In the discovery stage, 43 FTO variants and 18 MC4R variants were associated with colorectal cancer risk (p<0.05). No SNPs remained statistically significant in the replication analysis after accounting for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that individual variants in or near the obesity-related genes FTO and MC4R are associated with risk of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Cancer Res ; 76(17): 5103-14, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27197191

RESUMO

Identifying genetic variants with pleiotropic associations can uncover common pathways influencing multiple cancers. We took a two-stage approach to conduct genome-wide association studies for lung, ovary, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer from the GAME-ON/GECCO Network (61,851 cases, 61,820 controls) to identify pleiotropic loci. Findings were replicated in independent association studies (55,789 cases, 330,490 controls). We identified a novel pleiotropic association at 1q22 involving breast and lung squamous cell carcinoma, with eQTL analysis showing an association with ADAM15/THBS3 gene expression in lung. We also identified a known breast cancer locus CASP8/ALS2CR12 associated with prostate cancer, a known cancer locus at CDKN2B-AS1 with different variants associated with lung adenocarcinoma and prostate cancer, and confirmed the associations of a breast BRCA2 locus with lung and serous ovarian cancer. This is the largest study to date examining pleiotropy across multiple cancer-associated loci, identifying common mechanisms of cancer development and progression. Cancer Res; 76(17); 5103-14. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Nat Biotechnol ; 34(5): 531-8, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27065010

RESUMO

Genetic studies of human disease have traditionally focused on the detection of disease-causing mutations in afflicted individuals. Here we describe a complementary approach that seeks to identify healthy individuals resilient to highly penetrant forms of genetic childhood disorders. A comprehensive screen of 874 genes in 589,306 genomes led to the identification of 13 adults harboring mutations for 8 severe Mendelian conditions, with no reported clinical manifestation of the indicated disease. Our findings demonstrate the promise of broadening genetic studies to systematically search for well individuals who are buffering the effects of rare, highly penetrant, deleterious mutations. They also indicate that incomplete penetrance for Mendelian diseases is likely more common than previously believed. The identification of resilient individuals may provide a first step toward uncovering protective genetic variants that could help elucidate the mechanisms of Mendelian diseases and new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mapeamento Cromossômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Br J Cancer ; 114(2): 221-9, 2016 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26766742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use has been consistently associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in women. Our aim was to use a genome-wide gene-environment interaction analysis to identify genetic modifiers of CRC risk associated with use of MHT. METHODS: We included 10 835 postmenopausal women (5419 cases and 5416 controls) from 10 studies. We evaluated use of any MHT, oestrogen-only (E-only) and combined oestrogen-progestogen (E+P) hormone preparations. To test for multiplicative interactions, we applied the empirical Bayes (EB) test as well as the Wald test in conventional case-control logistic regression as primary tests. The Cocktail test was used as secondary test. RESULTS: The EB test identified a significant interaction between rs964293 at 20q13.2/CYP24A1 and E+P (interaction OR (95% CIs)=0.61 (0.52-0.72), P=4.8 × 10(-9)). The secondary analysis also identified this interaction (Cocktail test OR=0.64 (0.52-0.78), P=1.2 × 10(-5) (alpha threshold=3.1 × 10(-4)). The ORs for association between E+P and CRC risk by rs964293 genotype were as follows: C/C, 0.96 (0.61-1.50); A/C, 0.61 (0.39-0.95) and A/A, 0.40 (0.22-0.73), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that rs964293 modifies the association between E+P and CRC risk. The variant is located near CYP24A1, which encodes an enzyme involved in vitamin D metabolism. This novel finding offers additional insight into downstream pathways of CRC etiopathogenesis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/métodos , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Progestinas/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
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