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1.
J Biomed Semantics ; 12(1): 18, 2021 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With COVID-19 still in its pandemic stage, extensive research has generated increasing amounts of data and knowledge. As many studies are published within a short span of time, we often lose an integrative and comprehensive picture of host-coronavirus interaction (HCI) mechanisms. As of early April 2021, the ImmPort database has stored 7 studies (with 6 having details) that cover topics including molecular immune signatures, epitopes, and sex differences in terms of mortality in COVID-19 patients. The Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO) represents basic HCI information. We hypothesize that the CIDO can be used as the platform to represent newly recorded information from ImmPort leading the reinforcement of CIDO. METHODS: The CIDO was used as the semantic platform for logically modeling and representing newly identified knowledge reported in the 6 ImmPort studies. A recursive eXtensible Ontology Development (XOD) strategy was established to support the CIDO representation and enhancement. Secondary data analysis was also performed to analyze different aspects of the HCI from these ImmPort studies and other related literature reports. RESULTS: The topics covered by the 6 ImmPort papers were identified to overlap with existing CIDO representation. SARS-CoV-2 viral S protein related HCI knowledge was emphasized for CIDO modeling, including its binding with ACE2, mutations causing different variants, and epitope homology by comparison with other coronavirus S proteins. Different types of cytokine signatures were also identified and added to CIDO. Our secondary analysis of two cohort COVID-19 studies with cytokine panel detection found that a total of 11 cytokines were up-regulated in female patients after infection and 8 cytokines in male patients. These sex-specific gene responses were newly modeled and represented in CIDO. A new DL query was generated to demonstrate the benefits of such integrative ontology representation. Furthermore, IL-10 signaling pathway was found to be statistically significant for both male patients and female patients. CONCLUSION: Using the recursive XOD strategy, six new ImmPort COVID-19 studies were systematically reviewed, the results were modeled and represented in CIDO, leading to the enhancement of CIDO. The enhanced ontology and further seconary analysis supported more comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism of host responses to COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Ontologias Biológicas , COVID-19 , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Semântica , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
2.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(W1): W671-W678, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009334

RESUMO

Vaccination is one of the most significant inventions in medicine. Reverse vaccinology (RV) is a state-of-the-art technique to predict vaccine candidates from pathogen's genome(s). To promote vaccine development, we updated Vaxign2, the first web-based vaccine design program using reverse vaccinology with machine learning. Vaxign2 is a comprehensive web server for rational vaccine design, consisting of predictive and computational workflow components. The predictive part includes the original Vaxign filtering-based method and a new machine learning-based method, Vaxign-ML. The benchmarking results using a validation dataset showed that Vaxign-ML had superior prediction performance compared to other RV tools. Besides the prediction component, Vaxign2 implemented various post-prediction analyses to significantly enhance users' capability to refine the prediction results based on different vaccine design rationales and considerably reduce user time to analyze the Vaxign/Vaxign-ML prediction results. Users provide proteome sequences as input data, select candidates based on Vaxign outputs and Vaxign-ML scores, and perform post-prediction analysis. Vaxign2 also includes precomputed results from approximately 1 million proteins in 398 proteomes of 36 pathogens. As a demonstration, Vaxign2 was used to effectively analyse SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus causing COVID-19. The comprehensive framework of Vaxign2 can support better and more rational vaccine design. Vaxign2 is publicly accessible at http://www.violinet.org/vaxign2.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Internet , Aprendizado de Máquina , Software , Vacinas , Vacinologia/métodos , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/química , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Proteoma , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas/química , Vacinas/imunologia , Fluxo de Trabalho
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 639491, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777032

RESUMO

Vaccines stimulate various immune factors critical to protective immune responses. However, a comprehensive picture of vaccine-induced immune factors and pathways have not been systematically collected and analyzed. To address this issue, we developed VaximmutorDB, a web-based database system of vaccine immune factors (abbreviated as "vaximmutors") manually curated from peer-reviewed articles. VaximmutorDB currently stores 1,740 vaccine immune factors from 13 host species (e.g., human, mouse, and pig). These vaximmutors were induced by 154 vaccines for 46 pathogens. Top 10 vaximmutors include three antibodies (IgG, IgG2a and IgG1), Th1 immune factors (IFN-γ and IL-2), Th2 immune factors (IL-4 and IL-6), TNF-α, CASP-1, and TLR8. Many enriched host processes (e.g., stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway, SRP-dependent cotranslational protein targeting to membrane) and cellular components (e.g., extracellular exosome, nucleoplasm) by all the vaximmutors were identified. Using influenza as a model, live attenuated and killed inactivated influenza vaccines stimulate many shared pathways such as signaling of many interleukins (including IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-13, IL-20, and IL-27), interferon signaling, MARK1 activation, and neutrophil degranulation. However, they also present their unique response patterns. While live attenuated influenza vaccine FluMist induced significant signal transduction responses, killed inactivated influenza vaccine Fluarix induced significant metabolism of protein responses. Two different Yellow Fever vaccine (YF-Vax) studies resulted in overlapping gene lists; however, they shared more portions of pathways than gene lists. Interestingly, live attenuated YF-Vax simulates significant metabolism of protein responses, which was similar to the pattern induced by killed inactivated Fluarix. A user-friendly web interface was generated to access, browse and search the VaximmutorDB database information. As the first web-based database of vaccine immune factors, VaximmutorDB provides systematical collection, standardization, storage, and analysis of experimentally verified vaccine immune factors, supporting better understanding of protective vaccine immunity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Internet , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1581, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719684

RESUMO

To ultimately combat the emerging COVID-19 pandemic, it is desired to develop an effective and safe vaccine against this highly contagious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Our literature and clinical trial survey showed that the whole virus, as well as the spike (S) protein, nucleocapsid (N) protein, and membrane (M) protein, have been tested for vaccine development against SARS and MERS. However, these vaccine candidates might lack the induction of complete protection and have safety concerns. We then applied the Vaxign and the newly developed machine learning-based Vaxign-ML reverse vaccinology tools to predict COVID-19 vaccine candidates. Our Vaxign analysis found that the SARS-CoV-2 N protein sequence is conserved with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV but not from the other four human coronaviruses causing mild symptoms. By investigating the entire proteome of SARS-CoV-2, six proteins, including the S protein and five non-structural proteins (nsp3, 3CL-pro, and nsp8-10), were predicted to be adhesins, which are crucial to the viral adhering and host invasion. The S, nsp3, and nsp8 proteins were also predicted by Vaxign-ML to induce high protective antigenicity. Besides the commonly used S protein, the nsp3 protein has not been tested in any coronavirus vaccine studies and was selected for further investigation. The nsp3 was found to be more conserved among SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV than among 15 coronaviruses infecting human and other animals. The protein was also predicted to contain promiscuous MHC-I and MHC-II T-cell epitopes, and the predicted linear B-cell epitopes were found to be localized on the surface of the protein. Our predicted vaccine targets have the potential for effective and safe COVID-19 vaccine development. We also propose that an "Sp/Nsp cocktail vaccine" containing a structural protein(s) (Sp) and a non-structural protein(s) (Nsp) would stimulate effective complementary immune responses.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
6.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511333

RESUMO

To ultimately combat the emerging COVID-19 pandemic, it is desired to develop an effective and safe vaccine against this highly contagious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Our literature and clinical trial survey showed that the whole virus, as well as the spike (S) protein, nucleocapsid (N) protein, and membrane protein, have been tested for vaccine development against SARS and MERS. We further used the Vaxign reverse vaccinology tool and the newly developed Vaxign-ML machine learning tool to predict COVID-19 vaccine candidates. The N protein was found to be conserved in the more pathogenic strains (SARS/MERS/COVID-19), but not in the other human coronaviruses that mostly cause mild symptoms. By investigating the entire proteome of SARS-CoV-2, six proteins, including the S protein and five non-structural proteins (nsp3, 3CL-pro, and nsp8-10) were predicted to be adhesins, which are crucial to the viral adhering and host invasion. The S, nsp3, and nsp8 proteins were also predicted by Vaxign-ML to induce high protective antigenicity. Besides the commonly used S protein, the nsp3 protein has not been tested in any coronavirus vaccine studies and was selected for further investigation. The nsp3 was found to be more conserved among SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV than among 15 coronaviruses infecting human and other animals. The protein was also predicted to contain promiscuous MHC-I and MHC-II T-cell epitopes, and linear B-cell epitopes localized in specific locations and functional domains of the protein. Our predicted vaccine targets provide new strategies for effective and safe COVID-19 vaccine development.

9.
Genome Announc ; 5(43)2017 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074662

RESUMO

Seven mycobacteriophages from distinct geographical locations were isolated, using Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 as the host, and then purified and sequenced. All of the genomes are related to cluster A mycobacteriophages, BobSwaget and Lokk in subcluster A2; Fred313, KADY, Stagni, and StepMih in subcluster A3; and MyraDee in subcluster A18, the first phage to be assigned to that subcluster.

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