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1.
Am J Hypertens ; 2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular status following renal transplantation (RT) may improve while living kidney donation (LKD) is possibly associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We prospectively assessed glomerular filtration rate (mGFR, 51Chrome EDTA clearance) and intermediate vascular risk factors in terms of blood pressure (BP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), central augmentation index (AIx), excess pressure (Pexcess) and forearm vascular resistance in donors (n=58, 45±13 years) and recipients (n=51, 50±12 years) before and one year following LKD or RT. RESULTS: After kidney donation mGFR decreased by 33% to 65±11 ml/min/1.73m2 while recipients obtained a mGFR of 55±9 ml/min/1.73m2. Ambulatory 24-hour mean BP (MAP) remained unchanged in donors but decreased by 5 mmHg in recipients (P<0.05). Carotid-femoral PWV increased by 0.3 m/s in donors (P<0.05) but remained unchanged in recipients. AIx was unaltered after LKD but decreased following RT (P<0.01) while Pexcess did not change in either group. Resting forearm resistance (Rrest), measured by venous occlusion plethysmography, increased after LKD (P<0.05) but was unaffected by RT, while no changes were seen in minimum resistance (Rmin). ΔPWV showed a positive linear association to Δ24-hour MAP in both groups. Multiple linear regression analysis (adjusting for age, gender and the baseline value of the studied parameter) did not detect independent effects of graft function on 24-hour MAP, PWV, AIx, vascular resistance or Pexcess, whereas low post-donation GFR was related to higher AIx and Rrest. CONCLUSIONS: RT reduced BP and AIx without affecting PWV whereas LKD resulted in increased PVW and Rrest, despite unchanged BP.

2.
Am J Nephrol ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited on ethnic differences in associations between kidney function markers and mortality or cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: Baseline cross-sectional analysis and longitudinal follow-up study of a UK population-based cohort of 1,116 Europeans and 1,104 South Asians of predominantly Indian descent, age 52 ± 7 years at baseline (1988-1991). Kidney function was estimated using Cystatin C and creatinine-based chronic kidney disease (CKD) Epidemiology Collaboration estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) equations, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). Mortality was captured at 27 years, and incident CVD at 22 years, from death certification, medical records and participant report. Longitudinal associations between eGFR/ACR and mortality/incident CVD were examined using Cox models. RESULTS: eGFRcys was lower and ACR higher in South Asians than Europeans. eGFRcys and -eGFRcreat were more strongly associated with outcomes in Europeans than South Asians. Conversely, associations between ACR and outcomes were greater in South Asians than Europeans, for example, for CVD mortality: HRs (95% CI) adjusted for CVD risk factors and ACR/eGFRcys as appropriate, p for ethnicity interaction: eGFRcys: Europeans: 0.76 (0.62-0.92), South Asians: 0.92 (0.78-1.07), p = 0.05, eGFRcreat: Europeans 0.81 (0.67-0.99), South Asians 1.18 (0.97-1.41), p = 0.002, ACR: -Europeans: 1.24 (1.08-1.42), South Asians: 1.39 (1.25-1.57), p= 0.23. Addition of all CKD measures to a standard CVD risk factor model modestly improved prediction capability in -Europeans; in South Asians only ACR contributed to improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Strong associations between ACR and outcomes in South Asians of predominantly Indian origin, and null associations for eGFRcys and eGFRcreat, suggest that ACR may have greater utility in CVD risk prediction in South Asians. Further work is needed to validate these -findings.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study characterized the determinants of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in a large (n > 4,000) longitudinal cohort of healthy young people age 9 to 21 years. BACKGROUND: Greater cIMT is commonly used in the young as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, but its evolution at this age is still poorly understood. METHODS: Associations between cardiovascular risk factors and cIMT were investigated in both longitudinal (ages 9 to 17 years) and cross-sectional (ages 17 and 21 years) analyses, with the latter also related to other measures of carotid structure and stress. Additional use of ultra-high frequency ultrasound in the radial artery at age 21 years allowed investigation of the distinct layers (i.e., intima or media) that may underlie observed differences. RESULTS: Fat-free mass (FFM) and systolic blood pressure were the only modifiable risk factors positively associated with cIMT (e.g., mean difference in cIMT per 1-SD increase in FFM at age 17: 0.007 mm: 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.004 to 0.010; p < 0.001), whereas fat mass was negatively associated with cIMT (difference: -0.0032; 95% CI: 0.004 to -0.001; p = 0.001). Similar results were obtained when investigating cumulative exposure to these factors throughout adolescence. An increase in cIMT maintained circumferential wall stress in the face of increased mean arterial pressure when increases in body mass were attributable to increased FFM, but not fat mass. Risk factor-associated differences in the radial artery occurred in the media alone, and there was little evidence of a relationship between intimal thickness and any risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: Subtle changes in cIMT in the young may predominantly involve the media and represent physiological adaptations as opposed to subclinical atherosclerosis. Other vascular measures might be more appropriate for the identification of arterial disease before adulthood.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wave intensity analysis (WIA) in the aorta offers important clinical and mechanistic insight into ventriculo-arterial coupling, but is difficult to measure non-invasively. We performed WIA by combining standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) flow-velocity and non-invasive central blood pressure (cBP) waveforms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred and six healthy volunteers (age range 21-73 years, 47% male) underwent sequential phase contrast CMR (Siemens Aera 1.5 T, 1.97 × 1.77 mm2, 9.2 ms temporal resolution) and supra-systolic oscillometric cBP measurement (200 Hz). Velocity (U) and central pressure (P) waveforms were aligned using the waveform foot, and local wave speed was calculated both from the PU-loop (c) and the sum of squares method (cSS). These were compared with CMR transit time derived aortic arch pulse wave velocity (PWVtt). Associations were examined using multivariable regression. The peak intensity of the initial compression wave, backward compression wave, and forward decompression wave were 69.5 ± 28, -6.6 ± 4.2, and 6.2 ± 2.5 × 104 W/m2/cycle2, respectively; reflection index was 0.10 ± 0.06. PWVtt correlated with c or cSS (r = 0.60 and 0.68, respectively, P < 0.01 for both). Increasing age decade and female sex were independently associated with decreased forward compression wave (-8.6 and -20.7 W/m2/cycle2, respectively, P < 0.01) and greater wave reflection index (0.02 and 0.03, respectively, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This novel non-invasive technique permits straightforward measurement of wave intensity at scale. Local wave speed showed good agreement with PWVtt, and correlation was stronger using the cSS than the PU-loop. Ageing and female sex were associated with poorer ventriculo-arterial coupling in healthy individuals.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11037, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363129

RESUMO

Earlier age at menarche has been associated with higher risk of coronary heart disease, but the mechanisms underlying the association remain unclear. We assessed the relationship of pubertal timing, in both men (n = 672) and women (n = 713), with vascular (carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV)) and cardiac (left ventricular (LV) structure and function) measures recorded at age 60-64 yrs in a British birth cohort study. Regression models found that earlier menarche was associated with higher (more adverse) LV mass, LV end diastolic volume and left atrial volume, but not with other cardiac measures, cIMT or PWV. Associations were attenuated after adjustment for either adult or childhood BMI (e.g. mean difference in LV mass per year later menarche: -4.2 g (95% CI:-7.0,-1.4) reducing to -2.2 g (95% CI:-4.7,0.4) after adjustment for adult BMI). There were no associations among men, despite those fully mature at 15 yrs having higher blood pressure than the least mature group by 10.21 mmHg (95% CI:19.45,0.98). Any effect of pubertal timing on vascular and cardiac structure and function is likely to be small and primarily confounded by pre-pubertal BMI and/or mediated through adult adiposity.

7.
Med Eng Phys ; 73: 9-17, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402315

RESUMO

Acute ischaemic stroke can be treated by intravenous thrombolysis whereby tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is infused to dissolve clots that block blood supply to the brain. In this study, we aim to examine the influence of clot location and size on lysis pattern and recanalisation by using a recently developed computational modelling framework for thrombolysis under physiological flow conditions. An image-based patient-specific model is reconstructed which consists of the internal carotid bifurcation with the A1 segment of anterior cerebral arteries and M1 segment of middle cerebral arteries, and the M1 bifurcation containing the M2 segments. By varying the clot size and location, 7 scenarios are simulated mimicking thrombolysis of M1 and M2 occlusions. Our results show that initial breakthrough always occurs along the inner curvature of the occluded cerebral artery, due to prolonged tPA residence time in the recirculation zone. For a given occlusion site, lysis completion time appears to increase almost quadratically with the initial clot volume; whereas for a given clot volume, the simulated M2 occlusions take up to 30% longer for complete lysis compared to the corresponding M1 occlusions.

8.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435004

RESUMO

Interaction between arterial stiffness and hypertension plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, assessment of arterial stiffness may provide a tool for estimating cardiovascular risk and monitoring therapy in hypertensive patients. Radiofrequency-based vascular ultrasound allows accurate noninvasive assessment of local mechanical properties of large arteries, but for its use in clinical practice, reference values according to age and sex are mandatory for each vascular site. To provide reference values for common carotid artery stiffness as assessed by an echo-tracking imaging system Hitachi-Aloka, we pooled measurements collected in 1847 healthy subjects aged 3-74 years (1008 males and 839 females) recruited in 14 European centers in the E-tracking International Collaboration (ETIC). Statistical models were developed to describe relationships of different stiffness indices with age and to calculate median values and Z-scores corresponding to ± 1 and ± 2 standard deviations. In our apparently healthy population, age accounted for 53% of variability in the elastic modulus (epsilon), 39% in arterial compliance, 47% in stiffness index (ß), and 56% in local pulse wave velocity; on average, blood pressure accounted for a further 7.5% of variability. Dependence on age was not linear; changes in mean values increased at older ages, especially for epsilon and ß. There was an interaction between age and gender for arterial compliance, which was higher in males. We present nomograms and a software that can be used for the automated calculation of Z-scores for local carotid stiffness in individual patients. These tools can be used to establish prognostic indicators or surrogate targets for treatment monitoring.

9.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of family history in determining excess risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in South Asians compared with Europeans is unclear. We hypothesized that family history would be more strongly associated with CHD in South Asians. METHODS: We performed cross-sectional analyses of 20-year follow-up data from SABRE (Southall And Brent Revisited) population-based study. Initial recruitment (1988-1991) was by random selection from general practitioners' lists in north-west London. 974 Europeans and 734 South Asians completed follow-up questionnaire (2008-2011) and had complete CHD and family history data. 831 participants without cardiovascular disease had complete coronary artery calcium (CAC) data. RESULTS: South Asians with family history of CHD were more likely to have diagnosed CHD (odds ratio 1.71 [95% CI 1.21, 2.42]; p = 0.002) and more previous CHD events (regression coefficient 0.44 [0.16, 0.72]; p = 0.002) than those without family history, independent of biological and sociodemographic risk factors. Family history associations with diagnosed CHD/number of events were weaker in Europeans (odds ratio 1.11 [0.78, 1.57]; p = 0.562/regression coefficient 0.02 [-0.25, 0.30]; p = 0.878), largely explained by biological risk factors. South Asians with family history had modestly increased CAC burden compared with Europeans. CONCLUSIONS: There were markedly stronger associations between family history and clinical CHD in South Asians, and a similar trend for subclinical CHD. Early preventive and therapeutic interventions are particularly important in South Asians with a family history of CHD.

10.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 921-928, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446803

RESUMO

Clustering of arterial blood pressure (BP) waveform parameters could summarize complex information into distinct elements, which could be used to investigate cumulative (nonredundant) associations. We investigated this hypothesis in a large, adult population-based study (ViDA trial [Vitamin D Assessment] trial). To interpret the clusters and evaluate their usefulness, we examined their predictors and associations with cardiovascular events. In 4253 adults (mean age 65 years; 55% male) without a prior cardiovascular event, suprasystolic oscillometry was performed, yielding aortic pressure waveforms and several hemodynamic parameters. Participants were followed up for 4.6 years (median), accruing 300 cardiovascular events. Principal component analysis reduced 14 arterial waveform parameters to 3 uncorrelated factors that together explained 90% of the variability of the original data. Factors 1, 2, and 3 appeared to represent BP pulsatility, mean BP, and wave reflection, respectively. Across 6 antihypertensive drug classes, there were no differences in brachial systolic (P=0.23) and diastolic (P=0.13) BP; but there were significant variations in factor 3 (P<0.0001), especially for ß-blocker use. The first and third factors were positively associated with cardiovascular events (multivariable-adjusted standardized hazard ratio [95% CI]=1.33 [1.18-1.50] and 1.15 [1.02-1.30], respectively), whereas the second factor had a J-shaped relationship, with a nadir corresponding to a brachial diastolic BP of ≈75 mm Hg. In conclusion, BP pulsatility, mean BP, and wave reflection are prognostically meaningful, distinct aspects of arterial function that can be used to summarize physiological variations in multiple arterial waveform parameters and identify truly cumulative associations when used as cardiovascular risk outcomes.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353626

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Masked hypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular risk but is undetectable by clinic blood pressure (BP). Elevated systolic BP responses to submaximal exercise reveal the presence of masked hypertension in adults, but it is unknown whether this is the case during adolescence. We aimed to determine if exercise BP was raised in adolescents with masked hypertension, and its association with cardiovascular risk markers. METHODS: A total of 657 adolescents (aged 17.7 ± 0.3 years; 41.9% male) from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children (ALSPAC) completed a step-exercise test with pre-, post-, and recovery-exercise BP, clinic BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP. Masked hypertension was defined as clinic BP <140/90 mm Hg and 24-hour ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg. Assessment of left-ventricular (LV) mass index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (aortic PWV) was also undertaken. Thresholds of clinic, pre-, post-, and recovery-exercise systolic BP were explored from ROC analysis to identify masked hypertension. RESULTS: Fifty participants (7.8%) were classified with masked hypertension. Clinic, pre-, post-, and recovery-exercise systolic BP were associated with masked hypertension (AUC ≥ 0.69 for all, respectively), with the clinic systolic BP threshold of 115 mm Hg having high sensitivity and specificity and exercise BP thresholds of 126, 150, and 130 mm Hg, respectively, having high specificity and negative predictive value (individually or when combined) for ruling out the presence of masked hypertension. Additionally, this exercise systolic BP above the thresholds was associated with greater left-ventricular mass index and aortic PWV. CONCLUSIONS: Submaximal exercise systolic BP is associated with masked hypertension and adverse cardiovascular structure in adolescents. Exercise BP may be useful in addition to clinic BP for screening of high BP and cardiovascular risk in adolescents.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280289

RESUMO

AIMS: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in aortic stenosis (AS) varies widely before and after aortic valve replacement (AVR), and deeper phenotyping beyond traditional global measures may improve risk stratification. We hypothesized that machine learning derived 3D LV models may provide a more sensitive assessment of remodelling and sex-related differences in AS than conventional measurements. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen patients with severe, symptomatic AS (54% male, 70 ± 10 years) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance pre-AVR and 1 year post-AVR. Computational analysis produced co-registered 3D models of wall thickness, which were compared with 40 propensity-matched healthy controls. Preoperative regional wall thickness and post-operative percentage wall thickness regression were analysed, stratified by sex. AS hypertrophy and regression post-AVR was non-uniform-greatest in the septum with more pronounced changes in males than females (wall thickness regression: -13 ± 3.6 vs. -6 ± 1.9%, respectively, P < 0.05). Even patients without LVH (16% with normal indexed LV mass, 79% female) had greater septal and inferior wall thickness compared with controls (8.8 ± 1.6 vs. 6.6 ± 1.2 mm, P < 0.05), which regressed post-AVR. These differences were not detectable by global measures of remodelling. Changes to clinical parameters post-AVR were also greater in males: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [-37 (interquartile range -88 to -2) vs. -1 (-24 to 11) ng/L, P = 0.008], and systolic blood pressure (12.9 ± 23 vs. 2.1 ± 17 mmHg, P = 0.009), with changes in NT-proBNP correlating with percentage LV mass regression in males only (ß 0.32, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: In patients with severe AS, including those without overt LVH, LV remodelling is most plastic in the septum, and greater in males, both pre-AVR and post-AVR. Three-dimensional machine learning is more sensitive than conventional analysis to these changes, potentially enhancing risk stratification. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Regression of myocardial fibrosis after aortic valve replacement (RELIEF-AS); NCT02174471. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02174471.

13.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 317(3): H505-H516, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225986

RESUMO

High wave speed and large wave reflection in the pulmonary artery have previously been reported in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We assessed the impact of pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) on pulmonary arterial wave propagation and reservoir function in patients with CTEPH. Right heart catheterization was performed using a combined pressure and Doppler flow sensor-tipped guidewire to obtain simultaneous pressure and flow velocity measurements in the pulmonary artery in eight patients with CTEPH before and 3 mo after PEA. Wave intensity and reservoir-excess pressure analyses were then performed. Following PEA, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAPm; ∼49 vs. ∼32 mmHg), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR; ∼11.1 vs. ∼5.1 Wood units), and wave speed (∼16.5 vs. ∼8.1 m/s), i.e., local arterial stiffness, markedly decreased. The changes in the intensity of the reflected arterial wave and wave reflection index (pre: ∼28%; post: ∼22%) were small, and patients post-PEA with and without residual pulmonary hypertension (i.e., PAPm ≥ 25 mmHg) had similar wave reflection index (∼20 vs. ∼23%). The reservoir and excess pressure decreased post-PEA, and the changes were associated with improved right ventricular afterload, function, and size. In conclusion, although PVR and arterial stiffness decreased substantially following PEA, large wave reflection persisted, even in patients without residual pulmonary hypertension, indicating lack of improvement in vascular impedance mismatch. This may continue to affect the optimal ventriculoarterial interaction, and further studies are warranted to determine whether this contributes to persistent symptoms in some patients.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We performed wave intensity analysis in the pulmonary artery in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension before and 3 mo after pulmonary endarterectomy. Despite substantial reduction in pulmonary arterial pressures, vascular resistance, and arterial stiffness, large pulmonary arterial wave reflection persisted 3 mo postsurgery, even in patients without residual pulmonary hypertension, suggestive of lack of improvement in vascular impedance mismatch.

14.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 127(2): 491-500, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161882

RESUMO

The augmentation index (AIx) is deemed to capture the deleterious effect on left ventricular (LV) work of increased wave reflection associated with stiffer arteries. However, its validity as a proxy for wave reflection magnitude has been questioned. We hypothesized that, in addition to increased wave reflection due to increased pulse wave velocity, LV myocardial shortening velocity influences AIx. Using a computational model of the circulation, we investigated the isolated and combined influences of myocardial shortening velocity vs,LV and arterial stiffness on AIx. Aortic blood pressure waveforms were characterized using AIx and the reflected wave pressure amplitude (p̂bw, obtained using wave separation analysis). Our reference simulation (normal vs,LV and arterial stiffness) was characterized by an AIx of 21%. A realistic reduction in vs,LV caused AIx to increase from 21 to 42%. An arterial stiffness increase, characterized by a relevant 1.0 m/s increase in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, caused AIx to increase from 21 to 41%. Combining the reduced vs,LV and increased arterial stiffness resulted in an AIx of 54%. In a multistep parametric analysis, both vs,LV and arterial stiffness were about equal determinants of AIx, whereas p̂bw was only determined by arterial stiffness. Furthermore, the relation between increased AIx and LV stroke work was only ≈50% explained by an increase in arterial stiffness, the other factor being vs,LV. The p̂bw, on the other hand, related less ambiguously to LV stroke work. We conclude that the AIx reflects both cardiac and vascular properties and should not be considered an exclusively vascular parameter.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We used a state-of-the-art computational model to mechanistically investigate the validity of the augmentation index (AIx) as a proxy for (changes in) wave reflection. In contrary to current belief, we found that LV contraction velocity influences AIx as much as increased arterial stiffness, and increased AIx does not necessarily relate to an increase in LV stroke work. Wave reflection magnitude derived from considering pressure, as well as flow, does qualify as a determinant of LV stroke work.

15.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(7): 474-481, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between adiposity, metabolic abnormalities, and arterial disease progression in children and adolescents remains poorly defined. We aimed to assess whether persistent high adiposity levels are associated with increased arterial stiffness in adolescence and any mediation effects by common metabolic risk factors. METHODS: We included participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) who had detailed adiposity measurements between the ages 9-17 years and arterial stiffness (carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity [PWV]) measured at age 17 years. Body-mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio were calculated from weight, height, and waist circumference measurements whereas fat mass was assessed using repeated dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans. We used total and trunk fat mass indices (FMIs) to classify participants as normal (<75th percentile) or high (>75th percentile) FMI. We classified participants as being metabolically unhealthy if they had three or more of the following risk factors: high levels of systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, or glucose (all >75th percentile) or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (<25th percentile). We used multivariable linear regression analysis to assess the relationship between PWV and exposure to adiposity, and tested for linear trend of PVW levels across ordinal groups. We used latent class growth mixture modelling analysis to assess the effect of longitudinal changes in adiposity indices through adolescence on arterial stiffness. FINDINGS: We studied 3423 participants (1866 [54·5%] female and 1557 [45·5%] male). Total fat mass was positively associated with PWV at age 17 years (0·004 m/s per kg, 95% CI 0·001-0·006; p=0·0081). Persistently high total FMI and trunk FMI between ages 9 and 17 years were related to greater PWV (0·15 m/s per kg/m2, 0·05-0·24; p=0·0044 and 0·15 m/s per kg/m2, 0·06-0·25; p=0·0021) compared with lower FMI. Metabolic abnormalities amplified the adverse effect of high total FMI on arterial stiffness (PWV 6·0 m/s [95% CI 5·9-6·0] for metabolically healthy participants and 6·2 m/s [5·9-6·4] for metabolically unhealthy participants). Participants who restored normal total FMI in adolescence (PWV 5·8 m/s [5·7-5·9] for metabolically healthy and 5·9 m/s [5·6-6·1] for metabolically unhealthy) had comparable PWV to those who had normal FMI throughout (5·7 m/s [5·7-5·8] for metabolically healthy and 5·9 m/s [5·8-5·9] for metabolically unhealthy). INTERPRETATION: Persistently high fat mass during adolescence was associated with greater arterial stiffness and was further aggravated by an unfavourable metabolic profile. Reverting to normal FMI in adolescence was associated with normal PWV, suggesting adolescence as an important period for interventions to tackle obesity in the young to maximise long-term vascular health. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, British Heart Foundation, and AFA Insurances.

16.
Physiol Meas ; 40(4): 04NT01, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy using non-invasive haemodynamic parameters produces reliable optima when performed at high atrial paced heart rates. Here we investigate whether this is a result of increased heart rate or atrial pacing itself. APPROACH: Forty-three patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy underwent haemodynamic optimization of atrioventricular (AV) delay using non-invasive beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure in three states: rest (atrial-sensing, 66 ± 11 bpm), slow atrial pacing (73 ± 12 bpm), and fast atrial pacing (94 ± 10 bpm). A 20-patient subset underwent a fourth optimization, during exercise (80 ± 11 bpm). MAIN RESULTS: Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, quantifying information content mean ±SE) was 0.20 ± 0.02 for resting sensed optimization, 0.45 ± 0.03 for slow atrial pacing (p  < 0.0001 versus rest-sensed), and 0.52 ± 0.03 for fast atrial pacing (p  = 0.12 versus slow-paced). 78% of the increase in ICC, from sinus rhythm to fast atrial pacing, is achieved by simply atrially pacing just above sinus rate. Atrial pacing increased signal (blood pressure difference between best and worst AV delay) from 6.5 ± 0.6 mmHg at rest to 13.3 ± 1.1 mmHg during slow atrial pacing (p  < 0.0001) and 17.2 ± 1.3 mmHg during fast atrial pacing (p  = 0.003 versus slow atrial pacing). Atrial pacing reduced noise (average SD of systolic blood pressure measurements) from 4.9 ± 0.4 mmHg at rest to 4.1 ± 0.3 mmHg during slow atrial pacing (p  = 0.28). At faster atrial pacing the noise was 4.6 ± 0.3 mmHg (p  = 0.69 versus slow-paced, p  = 0.90 versus rest-sensed). In the exercise subgroup ICC was 0.14 ± 0.02 (p  = 0.97 versus rest-sensed). SIGNIFICANCE: Atrial pacing, rather than the increase in heart rate, contributes to ~80% of the observed information content improvement from sinus rhythm to fast atrial pacing. This is predominantly through increase in measured signal.

17.
Eur Heart J ; 40(28): 2300-2309, 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957863

RESUMO

AIMS: Excessive arterial pulsatility may contribute to cognitive decline and risk of dementia via damage to the fragile cerebral microcirculation. We hypothesized that the intensity of downstream-travelling pulsatile waves measured by wave intensity analysis in the common carotid artery during mid- to late-life would be associated with subsequent cognitive decline. METHODS AND RESULTS: Duplex Doppler ultrasound was used to calculate peak forward-travelling compression wave intensity (FCWI) within the common carotid artery in 3191 individuals [mean ± standard deviation (SD), age = 61 ± 6 years; 75% male] assessed as part of the Whitehall II study in 2003-05. Serial measures of cognitive function were taken between 2002-04 and 2015-16. The relationship between FCWI and cognitive decline was adjusted for sociodemographic variables, genetic and health-related risk factors, and health behaviours. Mean (SD) 10-year change in standardized global cognitive score was -0.39 (0.18). Higher FCWI at baseline was associated with accelerated cognitive decline during follow-up [difference in 10-year change of global cognitive score per 1 SD higher FCWI = -0.02 (95% confidence interval -0.04 to -0.00); P = 0.03]. This association was largely driven by cognitive changes in individuals with the highest FCWI [Q4 vs. Q1-Q3 = -0.05 (-0.09 to -0.01), P = 0.01], equivalent to an age effect of 1.9 years. Compared to other participants, this group was ∼50% more likely to exhibit cognitive decline (defined as the top 15% most rapid reductions in cognitive function during follow-up) even after adjustments for multiple potential confounding factors [odds ratio 1.49 (1.17-1.88)]. CONCLUSION: Elevated carotid artery wave intensity in mid- to late-life predicts faster cognitive decline in long-term follow-up independent of other cardiovascular risk factors.

18.
Eur Radiol ; 29(10): 5549-5558, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) estimates from arterial spin labelling (ASL) show unexplained variability in older populations. We studied the impact of variation of haematocrit (Hct) on CBF estimates in a tri-ethnic elderly population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Approval for the study was obtained from the Fulham Research Ethics Committee and participants gave written informed consent. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling was performed on 493 subjects (age 55-90) from a tri-ethnic community-based cohort recruited in London. CBF was estimated using a simplified Buxton equation, with and without correction for Hct measured from blood samples. Differences in perfusion were compared, stratified by sex, ethnicity and diabetes. Results of Student's t tests were reported with effect size. RESULTS: Hct adjustment decreased CBF estimates in all categories except white European men. The decrease for women was 2.7 (3.0, 2.4) mL/100 g/min) (mean (95% confidence interval (CI)), p < 0.001 d = 0.38. The effect size differed by ethnicity with estimated mean perfusion in South Asian and African Caribbean women found to be lower by 3.0 (3.6, 2.5) mL/100 g/min, p < 0.001 d = 0.56 and 3.1 (3.6, 2.5) mL/100 g/min), p < 0.001 d = 0.48, respectively. Estimates of perfusion in subjects with diabetes decreased by 1.8 (2.3, 1.4) mL/100 g/min, p < 0.001 d = 0.23) following Hct correction. Correction for individual Hct altered sample frequency distributions of CBF values, especially in women of non-European ethnicity. CONCLUSION: ASL-derived CBF values in women, non-European ethnicities and individuals with diabetes are overestimated if calculations are not appropriately adjusted for individual Hct. KEY POINTS: • CBF quantification from ASL using a fixed Hct of 43.5%, as recommended in the ISMRM white paper, may lead to erroneous CBF estimations particularly in non-European and female subjects. • Individually measured Hct values improve the accuracy of CBF estimation and, if these are not available, an adjusted value according to gender, ethnicity or diabetes status should be considered. • Hct-corrected ASL could be potentially important for CBF threshold decision making in the fields of neurodegenerative disease and neuro-oncology.

20.
J Control Release ; 300: 1-12, 2019 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807804

RESUMO

It remains a major challenge to develop a selective and effective fibrinolytic system for thrombolysis with minimal undesirable side effects. Herein, we report a multifunctional liposomal system (164.6 ±â€¯5.3 nm in diameter) which can address this challenge through targeted delivery and controlled release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) at the thrombus site. The tPA-loaded liposomes were PEGylated to improve their stability, and surface coated with a conformationally-constrained, cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) to enable highly selective binding to activated platelets. The in vitro drug release profiles at 37 °C showed that over 90% of tPA was released through liposomal membrane destabilization involving membrane fusion upon incubation with activated platelets within 1 h, whereas passive release of the encapsulated tPA in pH 7.4 PBS buffer was 10% after 6 h. The release of tPA could be readily manipulated by changing the concentration of activated platelets. The presence of activated platelets enabled the tPA-loaded, cRGD-coated, PEGylated liposomes to induce efficient fibrin clot lysis in a fibrin-agar plate model and the encapsulated tPA retained 97.4 ±â€¯1.7% of fibrinolytic activity as compared with that of native tPA. Furthermore, almost complete blood clot lysis was achieved in 75 min, showing considerably higher and quicker thrombolytic activity compared to the tPA-loaded liposomes without cRGD labelling. These results suggest that the nano-sized, activated-platelet-sensitive, multifunctional liposomes could facilitate selective delivery and effective release of tPA at the site of thrombus, thus achieving efficient clot dissolution whilst minimising undesirable side effects.

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