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Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 575-592, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590903


Vaccination is a critical component of cattle health management. Effective cattle vaccine programs should consider the timing of vaccination in relation to expected disease challenge, risk for wild-type exposure of various bovine pathogens, and host factors during vaccination. Nearly all consulting veterinarians recommend vaccination of stressed, high-risk calves on feedlot arrival. However, this recommendation fails to consider several factors associated with vaccine efficiency. Further research evaluating vaccine interactions in stressed cattle and potential additive effects of endotoxin from multiple bacterin administration may reveal new evidence-based vaccination guidelines for cattle in the various segments of beef and dairy production systems.

Bovinos/imunologia , Carne Vermelha , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
Innate Immun ; 20(8): 888-96, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24217218


Activation of the innate immune system and acute phase response (APR) results in several responses that include fever, metabolic adaptations and changes in behavior. The APR can be modulated by many factors, with stress being the most common. An elevation of stress hormones for a short duration of time can be beneficial. However, elevation of stress hormones repeatedly or for an extended duration of time can be detrimental to the overall health and well-being of animals. The stress and APR responses can also be modulated by naturally-occurring variations, such as breed, gender, and temperament. These three natural variations modulate both of these responses, and can therefore modulate the ability of an animal to recover from a stressor or infection. Understanding that cattle have different immunological responses, based on naturally occurring variations such as these, may be the foundation of new studies on how to effectively manage cattle so that health is optimized and production is benefited.

Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/fisiopatologia , Bovinos/imunologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/genética , Reação de Fase Aguda/psicologia , Animais , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Temperamento
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 190(4): 943-51, 2004 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15118618


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare follicular suppression that was produced by 3 different oral contraceptive regimens that differ by treatment in the pill-free interval. STUDY DESIGN: In a university setting, 54 women were assigned randomly to receive either 20 microg ethinyl estradiol+100 microg levonorgestrel followed by 7 pill-free days, 20 microg ethinyl estradiol+150 microg desogestrel followed by 2 days of placebo then 10 microg ethinyl estradiol for 5 days, or 28 days of 20 microg ethinyl estradiol plus 150 microg desogestrel. Follicular suppression was evaluated by serial ultrasound scans and by serum and urinary hormone levels during a 2-month study period. Data were analyzed by nonparametric statistical tests. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in follicle count among the 3 groups (P=.005). Women who were treated with a 7-day pill-free interval experienced the least suppression. Estrogen levels were more variable and led to an observation that overweight (body mass index, >25 kg/m(2)) was associated with reduced follicle suppression (relative risk, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0, 2.7) and higher estrogen levels (relative risk, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.3, 21). CONCLUSION: Contraceptive pill users who were treated with a 7-day pill-free interval demonstrated less follicular suppression than women who were supplemented with either estrogen alone or estrogen plus progestin. Overweight women were less suppressed than women of normal weight.

Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/administração & dosagem , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Desogestrel/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Etinilestradiol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Levanogestrel/administração & dosagem , Ciclo Menstrual/efeitos dos fármacos