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1.
J Arthroplasty ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains surrounding the use of aspirin as a sole chemoprophylactic agent to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) and bleeding after primary total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: We performed a non-inferiority analysis of a retrospective cohort of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty from April 1, 2013 to December 31, 2018. Cases were retrieved from the Michigan Arthroplasty Registry Collaborative Quality Initiative database and performed by 355 surgeons at 61 hospitals throughout Michigan. Surgical setting ranged from small community hospitals to large academic and non-academic centers. The primary outcomes were post-operative venous thromboembolism event or death and bleeding event. RESULTS: Of the 59,747 patients included, 32,878 (55.03%) were female, and the mean age was 64.5. A total of 462 (0.77%) composite venous thromboembolism events occurred. There were 221 (0.71%) and 129 (0.80%) venous thromboembolism events in patients receiving aspirin only and anticoagulants only, respectively. Aspirin was non-inferior to anticoagulants for composite venous thromboembolism events (odds ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.79-1.26, P < .001). Bleeding events occurred in 767 (1.28%) patients, with 304 (0.97%) and 281 (1.74%) bleeding events in patients receiving aspirin only and anticoagulants only, respectively. Aspirin was non-inferior to anticoagulants for bleeding events (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.52-0.74, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Aspirin is not inferior to other anticoagulants as pharmacologic venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with regards to post-operative risk of venous thromboembolism or bleeding. Sole use of aspirin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty should be considered in the appropriate patient.

3.
Bone Jt Open ; 1(9): 605-611, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215158

RESUMO

Aims: To describe the incidence of adverse clinical outcomes related to COVID-19 infection following corticosteroid injections (CSI) during the COVID-19 pandemic. To describe the incidence of positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing, positive SARS-COV2 IgG antibody testing or positive imaging findings following CSI at our institution during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A retrospective observational study was undertaken of consecutive patients who had CSI in our local hospitals between 1 February and 30June 2020. Electronic patient medical records (EPR) and radiology information system (RIS) database were reviewed. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing, SARS-COV2 IgG antibody testing, radiological investigations, patient management, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Lung findings were categorized according to the British Society of Thoracic Imaging (BSTI) guidelines. Reference was made to the incidence of lab-confirmed COVID-19 cases in our region. Results: Overall, 1,656 lab-confirmed COVID-19 cases were identified in our upper tier local authority (UTLA), a rate of 306.6 per 100,000, as of 30June 2020. A total of 504 CSI injections were performed on 443 patients between 1 February and 30June 2020. A total of 11 RT-PCR tests were performed on nine patients (2% of those who had CSI), all of which were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and five patients (1.1%) received an SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody test, of which 2 (0.5%) were positive consistent with prior COVID-19 infection, however both patients were asymptomatic. Seven patients (1.6%) had radiological investigations for respiratory symptoms. One patient with indeterminate ground glass change was identified. Conclusion: The incidence of positive COVID-19 infection following corticosteroid injections was very low in our cohort and no adverse clinical outcomes related to COVID-19 infection following CSI were identified. Our findings are consistent with CSI likely being low risk during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this small observational study are supportive of the current multi-society guidelines regarding the judicious use of CSI.Cite this article: Bone Joint Open 2020;1-9:605-611.

6.
Spinal Cord ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873893

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pelvic MRI muscle signal changes and their association with early heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients with spinal cord injuries. SETTING: National Spinal Injuries Unit, Stoke Mandeville, UK. METHODS: Forty patients were imaged with at least two interval magnetic resonance (MR) studies of the pelvis in the first 6 months following a spinal cord injury. Scans were reviewed and scored for heterotopic ossification, muscle signal change and extent of muscle involvement. RESULTS: Muscle signal change was present in 28 (70%) on the initial MRI and 31 (77%) by the second study. Six patients developed MR changes of prodromal or immature heterotopic ossification (15%). No restricted diffusion was demonstrated and no patient developed mature HO. Patients developing MR changes of early HO were more likely to have grade 3 muscle changes. CONCLUSION: Increased T2 muscle signal is common following cord injury, is frequently progressive in the subacute period and is associated with complete injury and early MR signs of heterotopic ossification.

7.
J Biol Chem ; 295(44): 14916-14935, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816993

RESUMO

Plant diseases caused by pathogens and pests are a constant threat to global food security. Direct crop losses and the measures used to control disease (e.g. application of pesticides) have significant agricultural, economic, and societal impacts. Therefore, it is essential that we understand the molecular mechanisms of the plant immune system, a system that allows plants to resist attack from a wide variety of organisms ranging from viruses to insects. Here, we provide a roadmap to plant immunity, with a focus on cell-surface and intracellular immune receptors. We describe how these receptors perceive signatures of pathogens and pests and initiate immune pathways. We merge existing concepts with new insights gained from recent breakthroughs on the structure and function of plant immune receptors, which have generated a shift in our understanding of cell-surface and intracellular immunity and the interplay between the two. Finally, we use our current understanding of plant immunity as context to discuss the potential of engineering the plant immune system with the aim of bolstering plant defenses against disease.

8.
EFORT Open Rev ; 5(5): 268-272, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509331

RESUMO

Optimal implant selection is a major component of high-quality arthroplasty care, and revision risk is an important parameter characterizing knee arthroplasty implant clinical performance.National and regional arthroplasty registries are essential sources of revision risk data, but these data are often difficult to find because they are buried within extensive annual reports. Summarizing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) implant revision risks as presented in registry reports can maximize the usefulness of registry data for orthopaedic surgeons.The findings summarize the revision risk data found in national arthroplasty reports from the Australian, Danish, Finnish, and the England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man registries, and in regional arthroplasty reports from the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italty), and the Michigan Arthroplasty Registry Collaborative Quality Initiative (MARCQI) registries.The six supplemental summary tables present revision risk data for TKA implants by cemented, uncemented, hybrid, and unreported fixation types. Additional summary tables are presented for revision risk of unicondylar (UKA) and patellofemoral joint (PFJ) revisions. Within TKA fixation categories, revision risks at 10 years ranged from 2.4% to 35.7% (cemented), 2.8% to 25.0% (uncemented), 2.0% to 9.2% (hybrid), and 0.0% to 39.7% (unreported). Unicondylar 10-year revision risk ranged from 4.9% to 17.2%. Patellofemoral joint 10-year revision risk ranged from 15.2% to 21.7%.There is substantial variation in one, three, five, and 10-year revision risk across implants, which suggests surgeons should choose implants carefully. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:268-272. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.190053.

10.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(4): 501-505, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228086

RESUMO

AIMS: Early cases of cauda equina syndrome (CES) often present with nonspecific symptoms and signs, and it is recommended that patients undergo emergency MRI regardless of the time since presentation. This creates substantial pressure on resources, with many scans performed to rule out cauda equina rather than confirm it. We propose that compression of the cauda equina should be apparent with a limited sequence (LS) scan that takes significantly less time to perform. METHODS: In all, 188 patients with suspected CES underwent a LS lumbosacral MRI between the beginning of September 2017 and the end of July 2018. These images were read by a consultant musculoskeletal radiologist. All images took place on a 3T or 1.5T MRI scanner at Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Aylesbury, UK, and Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, UK. RESULTS: The 188 patients, all under the age of 55 years, underwent 196 LS lumbosacral MRI scans for suspected CES. Of these patients, 14 had cauda equina compression and underwent emergency decompression. No cases of CES were missed. Patients spent a mean 9.9 minutes (8 to 10) in the MRI scanner. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a LS lumbosacral MRI could be used to diagnose CES safely in patients under the age of 55 years, but that further research is needed to assess safety and efficacy of this technique before changes to existing protocols can be recommended. In addition, work is needed to assess if LS MRIs can be used throughout the spine and if alternative pathology is being considered. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(4):501-505.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Cauda Equina/diagnóstico por imagem , Região Lombossacral/diagnóstico por imagem , Padrão de Cuidado , Adolescente , Adulto , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
ACS Omega ; 5(4): 1840-1850, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039320

RESUMO

The chemical synthesis of cyclic peptides is a well-established area of research. This has been further expanded by development of bio-orthogonal reactions that enable access to peptides of greater structural complexity. One approach utilizes 1,3-dichloroacetone to selectively link free cysteine side-chains with an acetone-like bridge via an SN2 reaction. Here, we have used this reaction to dimerize cyclic peptide monomers to create novel bicyclic dimeric peptides. We investigated a range of reaction parameters to identify the optimal dimerization conditions for our model systems. One of the acetone-linked dimeric peptides was analyzed for proteolytic stability in human serum and was observed to still be fully intact after 48 h. This study provides valuable insights into the application of 1,3-dichloroacetone as a tool in the synthesis of complex, multicyclic peptides.

13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD008630, 2020 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin, but not corticosteroids, are beneficial in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The efficacy of other pharmacological agents is unknown. This review was first published in 2011 and previously updated in 2013, and 2016. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacological agents other than plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids for GBS. SEARCH METHODS: On 28 October 2019, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase for treatments for GBS. We also searched clinical trials registries. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of acute GBS (within four weeks from onset) of all types and degrees of severity, and in individuals of all ages. We discarded trials that investigated only corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange. We included other pharmacological treatments or combinations of treatments compared with no treatment, placebo or another treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS: We found six trials of five different interventions eligible for inclusion in this review. The trials were conducted in hospitals in Canada, China, Germany, Japan and the UK, and included 151 participants in total. All trials randomised participants aged 16 years and older (mean or median age in the trials ranged from 36 to 57 years in the intervention groups and 34 to 60 years in the control groups) with severe GBS, defined by the inability to walk unaided. One trial also randomised patients with mild GBS who were still able to walk unaided. We identified two new trials at this update.The primary outcome measure for this review was improvement in disability grade four weeks after randomisation. Four of six trials had a high risk of bias in at least one respect. We assessed all evidence for the outcome mean improvement in disability grade as very low certainty, which means that we were unable to draw any conclusions from the data. One RCT with 19 participants compared interferon beta-1a (IFNb-1a) and placebo. It is uncertain whether IFNb-1a improves disability after four weeks (mean difference (MD) -0.1; 95% CI -1.58 to 1.38; very low-certainty evidence). A trial with 10 participants compared brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) and placebo. It is uncertain whether BDNF improves disability after four weeks (MD 0.75; 95% CI -1.14 to 2.64; very low-certainty evidence). A trial with 37 participants compared cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filtration and plasma exchange. It is uncertain whether CSF filtration improves disability after four weeks (MD 0.02; 95% CI -0.62 to 0.66; very low-certainty evidence). One trial that compared the Chinese herbal medicine tripterygium polyglycoside with corticosteroids with 43 participants did not report the risk ratio (RR) for an improvement by one or more disability grade after four weeks, but did report improvement after eight weeks. It is uncertain whether tripterygium polyglycoside improves disability after eight weeks (RR 1.47; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.11; very low-certainty evidence). We performed a meta-analysis of two trials comparing eculizumab and placebo with 41 participants. It is uncertain whether eculizumab improves disability after four weeks (MD -0.23; 95% CI -1.79 to 1.34; very low-certainty evidence). Serious adverse events were uncommon in each of the trials and evidence was graded as either low or very low. It is uncertain whether serious adverse events were more common with IFNb-1a versus placebo (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.23 to 3.72; 19 participants), BNDF versus placebo (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.28 to 3.54; 10 participants) or CSF filtration versus plasma exchange (RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.25; 37 participants). The trial of tripterygium polyglycoside did not report serious adverse events. There may be no clear difference in the number of serious adverse events after eculizumab compared to placebo (RR 1.90, 0.34 to 10.50; 41 participants). We found no clinically important differences in any of the outcome measures selected for this review in any of the six trials. However, sample sizes were small and therefore clinically important benefit or harm cannot be excluded. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: All six RCTs were too small to exclude clinically important benefit or harm from the assessed interventions. The certainty of the evidence was low or very low for all interventions and outcomes.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/uso terapêutico , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/terapia , Interferon beta-1a/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Transpl Int ; 33(3): 310-320, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729770

RESUMO

Ganciclovir (GCV) inhibits spermatogenesis in preclinical studies but long-term effects on fertility in renal transplant patients are unknown. In a prospective, multicenter, open-label, nonrandomized study, male patients were assigned to Cohort A [valganciclovir (VGCV), a prodrug of GCV] (n = 38) or B (no VGCV) (n = 21) by cytomegalovirus prophylaxis requirement. Changes in semen parameters and DNA fragmentation were assessed via a mixed-effects linear regression model accounting for baseline differences. Sperm concentration increased post-transplant, but between baseline and treatment end (mean 164 days Cohort A, 211 days Cohort B), the model-based change was lower in Cohort A (difference: 43.82 × 106 /ml; P = 0.0038). Post-treatment, sperm concentration increased in Cohort A so that by end of follow-up (6 months post-treatment) changes were comparable between cohorts (difference: 2.09 × 106 /ml; P = 0.92). Most patients' sperm concentration improved by end of follow-up; none with normal baseline concentrations (≥20 × 106 /ml) were abnormal at end of follow-up. Changes in seminal volume, sperm motility/morphology, DNA fragmentation, and hormone levels were comparable between cohorts at end of follow-up. Improvement in semen parameters after renal transplant was delayed in men receiving VCGV, but 6 months post-treatment parameters were comparable between cohorts.

16.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(2): 113-121, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare disease course in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with a poor prognosis who were treated with one or with two intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) courses. METHODS: From the International GBS Outcome Study, we selected patients whose modified Erasmus GBS Outcome Score at week 1 predicted a poor prognosis. We compared those treated with one IVIg course to those treated with two IVIg courses. The primary endpoint, the GBS disability scale at 4 weeks, was assessed with multivariable ordinal regression. RESULTS: Of 237 eligible patients, 199 patients received a single IVIg course. Twenty patients received an 'early' second IVIg course (1-2 weeks after start of the first IVIg course) and 18 patients a 'late' second IVIg course (2-4 weeks after start of IVIg). At baseline and 1 week, those receiving two IVIg courses were more disabled than those receiving one course. Compared with the one course group, the adjusted OR for a better GBS disability score at 4 weeks was 0.70 (95%CI 0.16 to 3.04) for the early group and 0.66 (95%CI 0.18 to 2.50) for the late group. The secondary endpoints were not in favour of a second IVIg course. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study did not show better outcomes after a second IVIg course in GBS with poor prognosis. The study was limited by small numbers and baseline imbalances. Lack of improvement was likely an incentive to start a second IVIg course. A prospective randomised trial is needed to evaluate whether a second IVIg course improves outcome in GBS.


Assuntos
Esquema de Medicação , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 49: 102725, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on people with multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To better understand SARS-CoV-2 infection in ocrelizumab-treated people with MS. METHODS: Internal Roche/Genentech data sources: Cases of COVID-19 from ongoing Roche/Genentech clinical trials and from post-marketing use of ocrelizumab until July 31, 2020 were identified and assessed using descriptive statistics. External real-world data (RWD) source: An MS COVID-19 cohort and an ocrelizumab-treated MS COVID-19 cohort were identified and assessed from the OPTUMⓇ de-identified COVID-19 electronic health record (EHR) database. RESULTS: Roche/Genentech clinical trial data: There were 51 (1.3%) suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 identified from 4,000 patients ongoing in 10 Roche/Genentech clinical trials. Of these, 26 (51%) were confirmed COVID-19 and 25 (49%) were suspected COVID-19. Sixteen (31.4%) patients were hospitalized. COVID-19 severity was mild to moderate in most patients (35, 68.6%). Ten (19.6%) patients had severe disease and there were three (5.9%) fatal cases. Most patients (43, 84.3%) recovered or were recovering. There was no association apparent between duration of exposure to ocrelizumab and COVID-19. Among COVID-19 patients with previous serum immunoglobulin status (27/51, 52.9%), all (27/27, 100%) had IgG levels within the normal range. Roche/Genentech post-marketing safety database data: There were 307 post-marketing cases of COVID-19 in the Roche/Genentech global safety database. Of these, 263 (85.7%) were confirmed and 44 (14.3%) were suspected COVID-19. 100 (32.6%) patients were hospitalized. COVID-19 was asymptomatic, mild or moderate in 143 (46.6%) patients, severe in 52 (16.9%) patients, and critical in 15 (4.9%) patients. There were 17 (5.5%) fatal cases. Information on severity was not reported in 80 (26.1%) cases. Most patients (211, 68.7%) recovered or were recovering at the time of the report. External RWD data source: As of July 13, 2020, the OPTUMⓇ database included EHRs for almost 1.2 million patients with suspected COVID-19, 130,500 of whom met the criteria for confirmed/clinically diagnosed COVID-19. A total of 357 patients with MS with confirmed COVID-19 were identified. Forty-eight (13.4%) were treated with ocrelizumab, of whom 12 (25.0%) were hospitalized and one died (2.1%). Similar rates of hospitalization, invasive ventilation, and death were observed in the ocrelizumab-treated and non-ocrelizumab-treated MS cohorts. Across the Roche/Genentech and RWD sources assessed, age, male sex, and the presence of comorbidities such as hypertension were associated with a more severe disease course of COVID-19. There was a higher number of comorbidities present in hospitalized versus non-hospitalized patients. CONCLUSIONS: This assessment provides evidence that COVID-19 in ocrelizumab-treated people with MS is predominantly mild to moderate in severity with most patients not requiring hospitalization; in line with data reported from the general population and MS datasets. Risk factors known to be associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes in the general population also appear to influence COVID-19 severity in ocrelizumab-treated people with MS. Case fatality rates for ocrelizumab-treated people with MS were within published ranges for the general population and other MS cohorts.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700690

RESUMO

Introduction: Ganglion impar block (GIB) is a well-recognised treatment for chronic coccydynia. Several side effects have previously been described with this procedure, including transient motor dysfunction, bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction, neuritis, rectal perforation, impingement of the sciatic nerve, cauda equina syndrome, and infection. Case presentation: We describe the first report of imaging-documented conus infarction after an unguided-GIB performed in theatre using particulate steroids for a 17-year-old patient with coccydynia. Immediately post-GIB, patient developed transient neurological deficits in her lower limbs of inability to mobilise her legs that lasted for 24 h. These include back and leg pain, decreased power and movement, increased tone, brisk reflexes, reduced light touch sensation and proprioception of legs up to the T10 level. Urgent MRI spine showed intramedullary hyperintense signal within the conus and mild restricted diffusion on the distal cord and conus, suggestive of an acute conus infarction. On follow-up, the GIB did not result in symptom improvement of coccydynia and there was persistent altered sensation of her legs. Discussion: Various approaches of ganglion impar block have been described and performed in the past with different imaging techniques and injectants. A few cases of unusual neurological complications have been reported with the use of epidural steroid injections and ganglion impar block. Clinicians should be aware of the possible neurological complications following ganglion impar blocks and the risk of inadvertent intravascular injection of particulate steroids can potentially to be minimised by using imaging guidance.


Assuntos
Cóccix/irrigação sanguínea , Cóccix/diagnóstico por imagem , Gânglios Espinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Infarto/diagnóstico por imagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Doença Crônica , Cóccix/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Infarto/etiologia , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Triancinolona Acetonida/administração & dosagem , Triancinolona Acetonida/efeitos adversos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632723

RESUMO

Introduction: Chiari malformation is characterized by caudal descent of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Acquired Chiari malformations (ACM) have previously been described after a variety of pathologies including lumbar puncture, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, lumboperitoneal shunts, and conditions causing craniocephalic disproportion. Case presentation: We present four cases of ACM following spinal cord injury (SCI), which has not previously been described in the literature. Discussion: ACM is rare and typically associated with abnormalities in CSF pressure or space-occupying lesions. This case series describes the potential association of SCI with ACM. We discuss the imaging findings and clinical management of these patients. Early recognition and intervention may be important to prevent progressive neurology in this vulnerable patient group.


Assuntos
Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/etiologia , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/patologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 15(11): 671-683, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541214

RESUMO

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare, but potentially fatal, immune-mediated disease of the peripheral nerves and nerve roots that is usually triggered by infections. The incidence of GBS can therefore increase during outbreaks of infectious diseases, as was seen during the Zika virus epidemics in 2013 in French Polynesia and 2015 in Latin America. Diagnosis and management of GBS can be complicated as its clinical presentation and disease course are heterogeneous, and no international clinical guidelines are currently available. To support clinicians, especially in the context of an outbreak, we have developed a globally applicable guideline for the diagnosis and management of GBS. The guideline is based on current literature and expert consensus, and has a ten-step structure to facilitate its use in clinical practice. We first provide an introduction to the diagnostic criteria, clinical variants and differential diagnoses of GBS. The ten steps then cover early recognition and diagnosis of GBS, admission to the intensive care unit, treatment indication and selection, monitoring and treatment of disease progression, prediction of clinical course and outcome, and management of complications and sequelae.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/terapia , Variação Genética/genética , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/terapia
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