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1.
Chest ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While there is ongoing debate about the impact of early postnatal exposure to antibiotics on the development of asthma, the possibility that antibiotic exposure may impair lung function has not previously been examined. Furthermore, it is not clear if specific types of antibiotics may have a greater effect, or if children with genetic mutations in the oxidative stress response glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily may be at greater risk. METHODS: We collected parent-report of childhood antibiotic use from birth to 2 years, including type and indication, from a birth-cohort of 620 infants with a family history of allergy. Spirometry was performed at 12 and 18 years and results are presented as z-scores. Participants were genotyped for GST-P, GST-M and GST-T polymorphisms. Linear regression models were used to investigate the associations, while adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: Neither increasing days of exposure nor earlier exposure to antibiotics was associated with reduced FEV1 (at 18 years, per doubling of days of exposure = -0.03 z-score units, 95%CI=-0.11, 0.04) or FVC (<0.01, -0.08, 0.07). There was no evidence that GST-risk polymorphisms (M1, P1, T1) increased susceptibility, and specific types of antibiotics also did not increase risk of lung function deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing exposure to oral antibiotics in early postnatal life was not associated with reduced lung function in children with a family history of allergic diseases. Whilst unwarranted use of antibiotics in children should be minimized, concerns for long term lung health should not be a driving influence for this rationalization of use.

2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670764

RESUMO

The Wittenoom crocidolite (blue asbestos) mine and mill ceased operating in 1966. The impact of this industry on asbestos-related disease in Western Australia has been immense. Use of the employment records of the Australian Blue Asbestos Company and records of the Wittenoom township residents has permitted two cohorts of people with virtually exclusive exposure to crocidolite to be assembled and studied. Follow-up of these two cohorts has been conducted through data linkage with available hospital, mortality and cancer records. The evolution of asbestos-related disease has been recorded and, with the establishment of exposure measurements, quantitative exposure-response relationships have been estimated. There has been an ongoing epidemic of mortality from lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma and, less so, from asbestosis. Wittenoom crocidolite was used extensively in asbestos-cement products in Western Australia. As a result, the state has recorded a higher malignant-mesothelioma mortality rate than in any other Australian state and in any defined general population in the world. Thus, the legacy of Wittenoom has extended beyond the mine and the town, and is still evident more than 50 years after the closure of the mine.

4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and its binding proteins (IGFBPs) on ageing, and their interaction with sex hormones, remain uncertain. We examined associations of plasma IGF1, IGFBP1, IGFBP3, estradiol and testosterone, with leucocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of biological age, in 2999 community-dwelling men aged 70-84 years. METHODS: Plasma IGF1, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 measured using immunoassay, sex hormones using mass spectrometry. LTL measured by PCR, expressed as ratio of telomeric to single-copy control gene DNA (T/S ratio). Linear regression models adjusted for age and cardiometabolic risk factors, median splits defined low/high groups. RESULTS: Mean age was 76.7±3.2 years. IGF1 and IGFBP3 showed age-adjusted correlations with LTL (coefficient 0.59, p=0.001 and 0.45, p=0.013 respectively), IGFBP1 did not. In multivariable-adjusted models IGF1 and IGFBP3 (but not IGFBP1) were associated with LTL (T/S ratio 0.015 higher per 1SD increase in IGF1, p=0.007, and 0.011 per 1SD IGFBP3, p=0.049). IGF1 and estradiol were independently associated with longer telomeres (T/S ratio 0.012 higher per 1SD increase in estradiol, p=0.027, when included in model with IGF1). Testosterone was not associated with LTL. Men with both high IGF1 (>133 ug/L) and high estradiol (>70 pmol/L) had longer LTL compared to men with lower values (multivariable-adjusted T/S ratio 1.20 vs 1.16, p=0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Higher IGF1 and IGFBP3 are independently associated with longer telomeres in older men. Additive associations of higher IGF1 and higher estradiol with telomere length are present. Further studies are needed to determine whether these hormonal exposures cooperate to slow biological ageing.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9439, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263163

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects the health of millions of people worldwide. The identification of genetic determinants associated with changes in glycemia over time might illuminate biological features that precede the development of T2D. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study of longitudinal fasting glucose changes in up to 13,807 non-diabetic individuals of European descent from nine cohorts. Fasting glucose change over time was defined as the slope of the line defined by multiple fasting glucose measurements obtained over up to 14 years of observation. We tested for associations of genetic variants with inverse-normal transformed fasting glucose change over time adjusting for age at baseline, sex, and principal components of genetic variation. We found no genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with fasting glucose change over time. Seven loci previously associated with T2D, fasting glucose or HbA1c were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with fasting glucose change over time. Limited power influences unambiguous interpretation, but these data suggest that genetic effects on fasting glucose change over time are likely to be small. A public version of the data provides a genomic resource to combine with future studies to evaluate shared genetic links with T2D and other metabolic risk traits.

7.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e024594, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867201

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The skin is an important barrier against environmental allergens, but infants have relatively impaired skin barrier function. There is evidence that impaired skin barrier function increases the risk of allergic sensitisation, atopic dermatitis (AD) and food allergy. We hypothesise that regular prophylactic use of emollients, particularly those that are designed to improve skin barrier structure and function, will help prevent these conditions. With the aim of determining if application of a ceramide-dominant emollient two times per day reduces the risk of AD and food allergy, we have commenced a multicentre phase III, outcome assessor blinded, randomised controlled trial of this emollient applied from birth to 6 months. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Infants (n=760) with a family history of allergic disease will be recruited from maternity hospitals in Melbourne. The primary outcomes are as follows: the presence of AD, assessed using the UK Working Party criteria, and food allergy using food challenge, in the first 12 months of life as assessed by a blinded study outcome assessor. Secondary outcomes are as follows: food sensitisation (skin prick test), skin barrier function, AD severity, the presence of new onset AD after treatment cessation (between 6 and 12 months) and the presence of parent reported AD/eczema. Recruitment commenced in March 2018. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The PEBBLES Study is approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) (#37090A) and the Mercy Hospital for Women (2018-008). Parents or guardians will provide written informed consent. Outcomes will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and presented at scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: ACTRN12617001380381 and NCT03667651.

8.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
9.
Chest ; 155(1): 94-102, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes are involved in the management of oxidative stress in the lungs. We aimed to determine whether they modify the associations between early life smoke exposure and adverse lung health outcomes. METHODS: The Melbourne Atopy Cohort study (a high-risk birth cohort) enrolled 620 children and followed them prospectively from birth. We recorded perinatal tobacco smoke exposure, asthma, and lung function at 12 (59%) and 18 years (66%) and genotyped for GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 (69%). RESULTS: GST genotypes were found to interact with tobacco smoke exposure on lung function outcomes (P interaction ≤ .05). Only among children with GSTT1 null genotypes was exposure to mother's, father's, or parental tobacco smoke in early life associated with an increased risk of reductions in prebronchodilator (BD) FEV1 and FVC at both 12 and 18 years. These associations were not seen in children with GSTT1 present. Similarly, only among children with GSTM1 null genotypes was exposure to father's or parental smoking associated with reductions in pre- and post-BD FEV1 and FVC at 18 years. Only among children with Ile/Ile genotypes of GSTP1 was exposure to mother's smoking associated with increased risk of reduced FEV1 at 18 years, but this was not the case among children with Val/Val or Ile/Val genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence of interaction between early tobacco smoke exposure and GST genotypes on lung function. Carriers of GST null mutations and GSTP1 Ile/Ile alleles may be more susceptible when exposed to tobacco smoke in early life. These findings support stronger recommendations to protect all infants from tobacco smoke exposure. TRIAL REGISTRY: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry; No.: ACTRN12609000734268; URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au/.


Assuntos
Asma/fisiopatologia , Previsões , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Criança , DNA/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fluxo Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 90(4): 562-569, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561819

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Telomeres protect chromosomes from damage, and shorter leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a marker of advancing biological age. The association between testosterone (T) and its bioactive metabolites, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and oestradiol (E2) with telomere length, particularly in older men, is uncertain. The study aimed to clarify associations of sex hormones with LTL in older men. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 2913 men aged 76.7 ± 3.2 years with morning blood samples assayed for T, DHT, E2 (mass spectrometry), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, immunoassay), to correlate sex hormones with LTL measured using PCR and expressed as T/S ratio in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease history. RESULTS: Average difference per decade of age was T -0.46 nmol/L, DHT -0.11 nmol/L, E2 -7.5 pmol/L, SHBG +10.2 nmol/L and LTL (T/S ratio) -0.065. E2 correlated with T/S ratio (r = 0.038, P = 0.039) and SHBG was inversely correlated (r = -0.053, P = 0.004). After multivariable adjustment, E2 was associated with T/S ratio (per 1 SD increase E2: coefficient 0.011, P = 0.043), T and DHT were not associated. When E2 and SHBG were simultaneously included, E2 remained positively (coefficient 0.014, P = 0.014) and SHBG inversely (coefficient -0.013, P = 0.037) associated with T/S ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In older men, neither T nor DHT is associated with LTL while E2 is independently associated with LTL and SHBG is inversely associated, thus relating sex hormone exposure to lower biological age. Further research is needed to determine causality and clarify the role of sex hormones in male ageing.

11.
Immunobiology ; 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased body fat may be associated with an increased risk of developing an underlying pro-inflammatory state, thus leading to greater risk of developing certain chronic conditions. Immunoglobulin G has the ability to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects, and the N-glycosylation of the fragment crystallisable portion is involved in mediating this process. Body mass index, a rudimentary yet gold standard indication for body fat, has been shown to be associated with agalactosylated immunoglobulin G N-glycans. AIM: We aimed to determine the association between increased body fat and the immunoglobulin G glycosylation features, comparing body mass index to other measures of body fat distribution. METHODS: We investigated a sample of 637 community-based 45-69 year olds, with mixed phenotypes, residing in Busselton, Western Australia. Body mass index and the waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios were calculated using anthropometry, while dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was performed to gain an accurate measure of total and area specific body fat. Serum immunoglobulin GN-glycans were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Twenty-two N-glycan peaks were found to be associated with at least one of the fat measures. While the previous association of body mass index to agalactosylated immunoglobulin G was replicated, measures of central adiposity explained the most variation in the immunoglobulin G glycome. CONCLUSION: Central adiposity is associated with an increased pro-inflammatory fraction of immunoglobulin G, suggesting that the android/gynoid ratio or waist-to-height ratio instead be considered when controlling for adiposity in immunoglobulin G glycome biomarker studies.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4455, 2018 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367059

RESUMO

Thyroid dysfunction is an important public health problem, which affects 10% of the general population and increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many aspects of thyroid hormone regulation have only partly been elucidated, including its transport, metabolism, and genetic determinants. Here we report a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for thyroid function and dysfunction, testing 8 million genetic variants in up to 72,167 individuals. One-hundred-and-nine independent genetic variants are associated with these traits. A genetic risk score, calculated to assess their combined effects on clinical end points, shows significant associations with increased risk of both overt (Graves' disease) and subclinical thyroid disease, as well as clinical complications. By functional follow-up on selected signals, we identify a novel thyroid hormone transporter (SLC17A4) and a metabolizing enzyme (AADAT). Together, these results provide new knowledge about thyroid hormone physiology and disease, opening new possibilities for therapeutic targets.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353958

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates testicular production of testosterone (T) which is metabolized to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5α-reductase and to oestradiol (E2) by aromatase. How the activity of population variants in these enzymes impacts on gonadal function is unclear. We examined whether polymorphisms in 5α-reductase (SRD5A2) and aromatase (CYP19A1) genes predict circulating sex hormone concentrations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of 1865 community-dwelling men aged 50.4 ± 16.8 years. MEASUREMENTS: Early morning sera assayed for T, DHT and E2 (mass spectrometry), and SHBG and LH (immunoassay). Two SRD5A2 and eleven CYP19A1 polymorphisms were analysed by PCR. Regression models were adjusted for age and cardiometabolic risk factors. RESULTS: SRD5A2 polymorphism rs9282858 GA vs. GG was associated with higher serum T (+1.5 nmol/L, P < 0.001) and higher SHBG (+3.3 nmol/L, P = 0.001). CYP19A1 polymorphisms were associated with higher serum E2 and lower LH in reciprocal fashion, from which the two-copy haplotype rs10046 = T/rs2899470 = G/rs11575899 = I/rs700518 = G/rs17703883 = T was associated with higher E2 (63.4 vs. 56.5 pmol/L, P = 0.001) and lower LH (3.9 vs. 4.5 IU/L, P = 0.001) compared to null copies. Conversely, rs10046 = C/rs2899470 = T/rs11575899 = D/rs700518 = A/rs17703883 = C was associated with lower E2 (51.8 vs. 62.0 pmol/L, P = 0.001) and higher LH (5.7 vs. 3.9 IU/L, P < 0.001). These haplotypes were associated primarily with differences in E2 in men <65 years and LH in men ≥65 years. CONCLUSIONS: A 5α-reductase polymorphism predicts circulating T and SHBG, while aromatase polymorphisms predict E2 and LH in reciprocal fashion. Age and aromatase polymorphisms interact to affect E2 and LH. How these functional polymorphisms impact on male reproductive and general health outcomes requires further study.

14.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Markers of microbial exposure are thought to be associated with risk of allergic sensitization; however, the associations are inconsistent and may be related to gene-environment interactions. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between polymorphisms in the CD14 gene and allergic sensitization and whether sibling exposure, as a marker of microbial exposure, modified this relationship. METHODS: We used data from the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study and the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. Two CD14 polymorphisms were genotyped. Allergic sensitization was defined by a positive response to a skin prick test. Sibling exposure was measured as cumulative exposure to siblings before age 6 months, 2 and 4 years. Logistic regression and multi-level mixed-effects logistic regression were used to examine the associations. Effect estimates across the cohorts were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: CD14 SNPs were not individually associated with allergic sensitization in either cohort. In TAHS, cumulative sibling exposure before age 6 months, 2 and 4 years was each associated with a reduced risk of allergic sensitization at age 45 years. A similar effect was observed in MACS. Meta-analysis across the two cohorts showed consistent evidence of an interaction between cumulative sibling exposure before 6 months and the rs5744455-SNP (P = 0.001) but not with the rs2569190-SNP (P = 0.60). The pooled meta-analysis showed that the odds of sensitization with increasing cumulative exposure to sibling before 6 months of age was 20.9% smaller in those with the rs5744455-C-allele than the T-allele (OR = 0.83 vs 1.05, respectively). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Cumulative sibling exposure reduced the risk of sensitization from childhood to middle age in genetically susceptible individuals.

15.
Med J Aust ; 208(5): 209-213, 2018 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document the changing levels of tobacco smoking, respiratory symptoms, doctor-diagnosed asthma, and lung function in Busselton adults aged 46-65 years over the past 50 years. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Repeated cross-sectional population surveys (1966 to 2010-2015) of adults registered to vote in the Busselton shire, Western Australia, including a modified version of the British Medical Research Council questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: History of doctor-diagnosed asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking history, respiratory medications used, spirometry parameters (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC]). RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among men declined from 53% in 1966 to 12% in 2010-2015, and from 26% to 9% among women. The prevalence of ever-smoking (ie, smokers and ex-smokers) decreased from 80% to 57% for men but increased from 33% to 50% for women. The prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma increased, as did the use of long-acting bronchodilator aerosol medications by people with asthma and COPD. There have been no consistent changes in the prevalence of specific respiratory symptoms, but measures of lung function have significantly improved. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking rates declined as a result of changes in pricing, prohibitions on smoking and the feedback of survey results to Busselton participants. Significant improvements in lung function were measured, and it can be anticipated that the prevalence of other smoking-related diseases will also decline.

16.
Respirology ; 23(6): 576-582, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29365367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The relationship between vitamin D and respiratory disease was examined by cross-sectional analysis of a large community-based sample. METHODS: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and history of respiratory disease, symptoms (recorded by questionnaire) and spirometry were measured in 5011 adults aged 45-69 years. Adjustments were made for age, sex, season and smoking (Model A), plus body mass index (BMI) and physical activity level (Model B), plus history of chronic diseases (Model C). RESULTS: Mean (SD) age was 58 (SD 6) years with 45% males, 10% current smokers and 12% taking vitamin D supplements. The prevalence of 25OHD level <50 nmol/L was 8.0%. In all the three models, 25OHD <50 nmol/L was significantly associated with asthma (Model C: odds ratio (OR): 1.32; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.73), bronchitis (1.54; 1.17, 2.01), wheeze (1.37; 1.10, 1.71) and chest tightness (1.42; 1.10, 1.83). Participants with vitamin D level > 100 nmol/L had higher forced vital capacity (FVC) in all the three models (1.17% higher, compared with the 50-100 nmol/L group in Model C). CONCLUSION: Low levels of serum 25OHD were independently associated with asthma, bronchitis, wheeze and chest tightness after three levels of adjustment for potential confounders. Higher vitamin D levels were associated with higher levels of lung function.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Asma/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bronquite/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Envelhecimento Saudável , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Estações do Ano , Fumar/epidemiologia , Espirometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Capacidade Vital , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
18.
Hum Genet ; 137(1): 45-53, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181734

RESUMO

Over two billion adults are overweight or obese and therefore at an increased risk of cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). Obesity-related anthropometric traits genetically correlated with CMS may provide insight into CMS aetiology. The aim of this study was to utilise an empirically derived genetic relatedness matrix to calculate heritabilities and genetic correlations between CMS and anthropometric traits to determine whether they share genetic risk factors (pleiotropy). We used genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data on 4671 Busselton Health Study participants. Exploiting both known and unknown relatedness, empirical kinship probabilities were estimated using these SNP data. General linear mixed models implemented in SOLAR were used to estimate narrow-sense heritabilities (h 2) and genetic correlations (r g) between 15 anthropometric and 9 CMS traits. Anthropometric traits were adjusted by body mass index (BMI) to determine whether the observed genetic correlation was independent of obesity. After adjustment for multiple testing, all CMS and anthropometric traits were significantly heritable (h 2 range 0.18-0.57). We identified 50 significant genetic correlations (r g range: - 0.37 to 0.75) between CMS and anthropometric traits. Five genetic correlations remained significant after adjustment for BMI [high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and waist-hip ratio; triglycerides and waist-hip ratio; triglycerides and waist-height ratio; non-HDL-C and waist-height ratio; insulin and iliac skinfold thickness]. This study provides evidence for the presence of potentially pleiotropic genes that affect both anthropometric and CMS traits, independently of obesity.

19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(3): 991-1001, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy (PA) is a complex disease with both environmental and genetic risk factors. Previously, PA loci were identified in filaggrin (FLG) and HLA in candidate gene studies, and loci in HLA were identified in a genome-wide association study and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate genetic susceptibility to PA. METHODS: Eight hundred fifty cases and 926 hyper-control subjects and more than 7.8 million genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in a genome-wide association study to identify susceptibility variants for PA in the Canadian population. A meta-analysis of 2 phenotypes (PA and food allergy) was conducted by using 7 studies from the Canadian, American (n = 2), Australian, German, and Dutch (n = 2) populations. RESULTS: An SNP near integrin α6 (ITGA6) reached genome-wide significance with PA (P = 1.80 × 10-8), whereas SNPs associated with Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 1 (SKAP1), matrix metallopeptidase 12 (MMP12)/MMP13, catenin α3 (CTNNA3), rho GTPase-activating protein 24 (ARHGAP24), angiopoietin 4 (ANGPT4), chromosome 11 open reading frame (C11orf30/EMSY), and exocyst complex component 4 (EXOC4) reached a threshold suggestive of association (P ≤ 1.49 × 10-6). In the meta-analysis of PA, loci in or near ITGA6, ANGPT4, MMP12/MMP13, C11orf30, and EXOC4 were significant (P ≤ 1.49 × 10-6). When a phenotype of any food allergy was used for meta-analysis, the C11orf30 locus reached genome-wide significance (P = 7.50 × 10-11), whereas SNPs associated with ITGA6, ANGPT4, MMP12/MMP13, and EXOC4 and additional C11orf30 SNPs were suggestive (P ≤ 1.49 × 10-6). Functional annotation indicated that SKAP1 regulates expression of CBX1, which colocalizes with the EMSY protein coded by C11orf30. CONCLUSION: This study identifies multiple novel loci as risk factors for PA and food allergy and establishes C11orf30 as a risk locus for both PA and food allergy. Multiple genes (C11orf30/EMSY, SKAP1, and CTNNA3) identified by this study are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

20.
Mol Autism ; 8: 63, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214007

RESUMO

Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex, pervasive, and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions with varying trajectories, significant male bias and largely unknown etiology. However, an understanding of the biological mechanisms driving pathophysiology is evolving. Immune system aberrations, as identified through cytokine profiles, are believed to have a role in ASD. Altered cytokine levels may facilitate identification of ASD subtypes as well as provide biological markers of response to effective treatments. Research exploring the relationship between cytokine profiles and ASD symptoms is, however, in its infancy. The objective of this study was to explore relationships between cytokine levels and the severity of ASD and other clinical traits. Methods: Multiplex assay techniques were used to measure levels of 27 cytokines in plasma samples from a cohort of 144 children diagnosed with ASD. Results: Overall, results showed a significant negative association between platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, and the severity of ASD symptoms. Furthermore, a significant interaction with sex suggested a different immune profile for females compared to males. ASD symptom severity was negatively associated with levels of 4 cytokines, IL-1ß, IL-8, MIP-1ß, and VEGF, in females, but not in males. Conclusions: Results of the present study suggest that an altered cytokine response or profile is associated with the severity of ASD-related symptoms, with sex a potential modifier of this relationship. Further research in larger populations which recognizes the importance of sex comparisons and longitudinal assessments are now required to extend and further describe the role of the immune system in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Citocinas/sangue , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Becaplermina , Comportamento/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-sis/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
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