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1.
Cancer Cell ; 36(2): 179-193.e11, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378681

RESUMO

Liver cancers are highly heterogeneous with poor prognosis and drug response. A better understanding between genetic alterations and drug responses would facilitate precision treatment for liver cancers. To characterize the landscape of pharmacogenomic interactions in liver cancers, we developed a protocol to establish human liver cancer cell models at a success rate of around 50% and generated the Liver Cancer Model Repository (LIMORE) with 81 cell models. LIMORE represented genomic and transcriptomic heterogeneity of primary cancers. Interrogation of the pharmacogenomic landscape of LIMORE discovered unexplored gene-drug associations, including synthetic lethalities to prevalent alterations in liver cancers. Moreover, predictive biomarker candidates were suggested for the selection of sorafenib-responding patients. LIMORE provides a rich resource facilitating drug discovery in liver cancers.

2.
Cell Stem Cell ; 25(1): 54-68.e5, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271748

RESUMO

Following injury, differentiated epithelial cells can serve as a stem cell-independent source for tissue regeneration by undergoing reprogramming into other cell types. The intrinsic molecular basis underlying plasticity of differentiated cells remains largely unaddressed. Here we show that Arid1a, a key component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, controls liver regeneration and gene expression associated with emergence of injury-induced liver-progenitor-like cells (LPLCs). Hepatocyte-specific Arid1a ablation reduces LPLC gene expression in several models of periportal liver injury and impairs liver regeneration, leading to organ dysfunction. Arid1a establishes a permissive chromatin state at LPLC-enriched genes during homeostasis, suggesting it endows hepatocytes with competence to respond to injury-induced signals. Consistently, Arid1a facilitates binding of YAP, a critical regeneration signaling pathway, to LPLC-enriched genes, and Arid1a deletion prevents their YAP-associated induction following injury. Together, these findings provide a framework for studying the contributions of injury-induced LPLCs to periportal liver regeneration.

3.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Activation of transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) promotes liver fibrosis by activating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), but the mechanism of TGFB activation are not clear. We investigated the role of extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1), which interacts with extracellular and structural proteins, in TGFB activation in livers of mice. METHODS: We performed studies with e C57BL/6J mice (controls), ECM1-knockout (ECM1-KO) mice, and mice with hepatocyte-specific knockout of EMC1 (ECM1Δhep). ECM1 or soluble TGFB receptor 2 (TGFBR2) were expressed in livers of mice following injection of an adeno-associated virus vector. Liver fibrosis was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration. Livers were collected from mice and analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence analyses. Hepatocytes and HSCs were isolated from livers of mice and incubated with ECM1; production of cytokines and activation of reporter genes were quantified. Liver tissues from patients with viral or alcohol-induced hepatitis (with different stages of fibrosis) and individuals with healthy liver were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. RESULTS: ECM1-KO mice spontaneously developed liver fibrosis and died by 2 months of age without significant hepatocyte damage or inflammation. In liver tissues of mice, we found that ECM1 stabilized extracellular matrix-deposited TGFB in its inactive form by interacting with αv integrins to prevent activation of HSCs. In liver tissues from patients and in mice with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, we found an inverse correlation between level of ECM1 and severity of fibrosis. CCl4-induced liver fibrosis was accelerated in ECM1Δhep mice compared with control mice. Hepatocytes produced the highest levels of ECM1 in livers of mice. Ectopic expression of ECM1 or soluble TGFBR2 in liver prevented fibrogenesis in ECM1-KO mice and prolonged their survival. Ectopic expression of ECM1 in liver also reduced the severity of CCl4-induced fibrosis in mice. CONCLUSIONS: ECM1, produced by hepatocytes, inhibits activation of TGFB and its activation of HSCs to prevent fibrogenesis in mouse liver. Strategies to increase levels of ECM1 in liver might be developed for treatment of fibrosis.

4.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(8): 1015-1026, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332348

RESUMO

Human liver cancers, including hepatocellular carcinomas and intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinomas, are often diagnosed late with poor prognosis. A better understanding of cancer initiation could provide potential preventive therapies and increase survival. Models for studying human liver cancer initiation are largely missing. Here, using directly reprogrammed human hepatocytes (hiHeps) and inactivation of p53 and RB, we established organoids possessing liver architecture and function. HiHep organoids were genetically engineered to model the initial alterations in human liver cancers. Bona fide hepatocellular carcinomas were developed by overexpressing c-Myc. Excessive mitochondrion-endoplasmic reticulum coupling induced by c-Myc facilitated hepatocellular carcinoma initiation and seemed to be a target of preventive treatment. Furthermore, through the analysis of human intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma-enriched mutations, we demonstrate that the RAS-induced lineage conversion from hepatocytes to intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells can be prevented by the combined inhibition of Notch and JAK-STAT. Together, hiHep organoids represent a system that can be genetically manipulated to model cancer initiation and identify potential preventive therapies.

6.
Cell Rep ; 27(2): 455-466.e5, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970249

RESUMO

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising melanocyte source as they propagate indefinitely and can be established from patients. However, the in vivo functions of human iPSC-derived melanocytes (hiMels) remain unknown. Here, we generated hiMels from vitiligo patients using a three-dimensional system with enhanced differentiation efficiency, which showed characteristics of human epidermal melanocytes with high sequence similarity and involved in multiple vitiligo-associated signaling pathways. A modified hair follicle reconstitution assay in vivo showed that MITF+PAX3+TYRP1+ hiMels were localized in the mouse hair bulb and epidermis and produced melanin up to 7 weeks after transplantation, whereas MITF+PAX3+TYRP1- hiMelanocyte stem cells integrated into the bulge-subbulge regions. Overall, these data demonstrate the long-term functions of hiMels in vivo to reconstitute pigmented hair follicles and to integrate into normal regions for both mature melanocytes and melanocyte stem cells, providing an alternative source of personalized cellular therapy for depigmentation.

7.
Cell Rep ; 27(4): 1176-1189.e5, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018132

RESUMO

Inflammation, epithelial cell regeneration, macrophage polarization, and gut microbial homeostasis are critical for the pathological processes associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). YAP (Yes-associated protein) is a key component of the Hippo pathway and was recently suggested to promote epithelial cell regeneration for IBD recovery. However, it is unclear how YAP regulates macrophage polarization, inflammation, and gut microbial homeostasis. Although YAP has been shown to promote epithelial regeneration and alleviate IBD, here we show that YAP in macrophages aggravates IBD, accompanied by the production of antimicrobial peptides and changes in gut microbiota. YAP impairs interleukin-4 (IL-4)/IL-13-induced M2 macrophage polarization while promoting lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon γ (IFN-γ)-triggered M1 macrophage activation for IL-6 production. In addition, YAP expression is differently regulated during the induction of M2 versus M1 macrophages. This study suggests that fully understanding the multiple functions of YAP in different cell types is crucial for IBD therapy.

8.
Mol Metab ; 20: 138-148, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: c-Jun, a prominent member of the activator protein 1 (AP-1) family, is involved in various physiology processes such as cell death and survival. However, a role of hepatic c-Jun in the whole-body metabolism is poorly understood. METHODS: We generated liver-specific c-Jun knock-out (c-jun△li) mice to investigate the effect of hepatic c-Jun on the whole-body physiology, particularly in blood glucose and body temperature. Primary hepatocytes were also used to explore a direct regulation of c-Jun in gluconeogenesis. RESULTS: c-jun△li mice showed higher hepatic gluconeogenic capacity compared with control mice, and similar results were obtained in vitro. In addition, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression was directly inhibited by c-Jun knockdown and adenovirus-mediated hepatic FGF21 over-expression blocked the effect of c-Jun on gluconeogenesis in c-jun△li mice. Interestingly, c-jun△li mice also exhibited higher body temperature, with induced thermogenesis and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Furthermore, the body temperature became comparable between c-jun△li and control mice at thermoneutral temperature (30 °C). Moreover, the activity of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) was increased in c-jun△li mice and the higher body temperature was inhibited by beta-adrenergic receptor blocker injection. Finally, the activated SNS and increased body temperature in c-jun△li mice was most likely caused by the signals from the brain and hepatic vagus nerve, as the expression of c-Fos (the molecular marker of neuronal activation) was changed in several brain areas controlling body temperature and body temperature was decreased by selective hepatic vagotomy. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate a novel function of hepatic c-Jun in the regulation of gluconeogenesis and body temperature via FGF21 and neural signals. Our results also provide novel insights into the organ crosstalk in the regulation of the whole-body physiology.

9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1905: 93-101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536093

RESUMO

Primary hepatocytes are widely used in regenerative medicine, drug metabolism analysis, and in vitro drug screens. To overcome the shortage of liver donors, several strategies, such as differentiation of pluripotent stem cells and transdifferentiation from somatic cells, were developed to generate hepatocytes from alternative sources. Here, we describe in detail lenti-virus-based procedure for direct conversion of human fibroblasts to hepatocytes (hiHep cells) in vitro. A detailed protocol for preparation of human fibroblasts from scar tissues is also provided. Based on this protocol, FOXA3, HNF1A, and HNF4A are introduced into SV40-large-T-antigen-expressing human scar fibroblasts by lenti-virus. It usually takes about 5-7 days to get epithelial hiHep colonies. SV40-large-T-antigen-expressing hiHep (hiHepLT) cells are proliferative and can be expanded to a large number for potential uses.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Cicatriz/patologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Hepatócitos/citologia , Lentivirus/genética , Antígenos Transformantes de Poliomavirus/genética , Linhagem da Célula , Proliferação de Células , Transdiferenciação Celular , Reprogramação Celular , Cicatriz/genética , Cicatriz/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Fator 3-gama Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 3-gama Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Vírus 40 dos Símios/genética
10.
Cell Stem Cell ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416071

RESUMO

Transplantation of human hepatocytes (HHs) holds significant potential for treating liver diseases. However, the supply of transplantable HHs is severely constrained by limited donor availability and compromised capacity for in vitro expansion. In response to chronic injury, some HHs are reprogrammed into proliferative cells that express both hepatocyte and progenitor markers, suggesting exploitable strategies for expanding HHs in vitro. Here, we report defined medium conditions that allow 10,000-fold expansion of HHs. These proliferating HHs are bi-phenotypic, partially retaining hepatic features while gaining expression of progenitor-associated genes. Importantly, these cells engraft into injured mouse liver at a level comparable to primary HHs, and they undergo maturation following transplantation in vivo or differentiation in vitro. Thus, this study provides a protocol that enables large-scale expansion of transplantable HHs, which could be further developed for modeling and treating human liver disease.

11.
J Exp Med ; 215(10): 2497-2508, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194265

RESUMO

Neoangiogenesis plays a key role in diverse pathophysiological conditions, including liver regeneration. Yet, the source of new endothelial cells (ECs) remains elusive. By analyzing the regeneration of the liver vasculature in irradiation-based myeloablative and nonmyeloablative bone marrow transplantation mouse models, we discovered that neoangiogenesis in livers with intact endothelium was solely mediated by proliferation of resident ECs. However, following irradiation-induced EC damage, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells were recruited and incorporated into the vasculature. Further experiments with direct bone marrow infusion or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mediated progenitor cell mobilization, which resembles clinically relevant stem cell therapy, demonstrated that bone marrow-derived cells did not contribute to the regeneration of liver vasculature after two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PHx). Taken together, the data reconcile many of the discrepancies in the literature and highlight that the cellular source of regenerating endothelium depends on the fitness of the residual vasculature.

12.
Toxicol Res (Camb) ; 7(1): 13-21, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30090558

RESUMO

Preservation of hepatic phenotype and functions in vitro has always been a great challenge for the reconstruction of liver tissue engineering and in pharmaceutical research studies. Human induced hepatocytes (hiHeps) generated from fibroblasts can be reproducible with almost normal levels of liver specific functions, which are considered as a new source of hepatocytes for biomedical applications. Moreover, paper has served as an attractive biocompatible material for cell-based applications. In this study, we established a simple paper-based scaffold array for creating a 3D liver co-culture model that enabled the assessment of drug induced hepatotoxicity. The hiHeps co-cultured with HUVECs exhibited a 3D like morphology and maintained the liver specific functions of producing albumin and urea for up to 2 months. In addition, the hiHeps in this co-cultured model maintained a higher expression of cytochrome P450 genes as compared with a monolayer culture on a plate and a single culture on paper of hiHeps, revealing a marked enhancement of hepatic functions in the 3D liver co-culture model. Moreover, the 3D liver co-culture model was exposed to acetaminophen (APAP) and pioglitazone, exhibiting near physiological hepatotoxic responses compared to those of the monolayer cultures. Taken together, the low-cost and bioactive paper scaffold could offer great opportunities as 3D in vitro platforms for tissue engineering applications and high-throughput drug testing.

13.
Cell Stem Cell ; 23(1): 114-122.e3, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937200

RESUMO

Chronic liver injury can cause cirrhosis and impaired liver regeneration, impairing organ function. Adult livers can regenerate in response to parenchymal insults, and multiple cellular sources have been reported to contribute to this response. In this study, we modeled human chronic liver injuries, in which such responses are blunted, without genetic manipulations, and assessed potential contributions of non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) to hepatocyte regeneration. We show that NPC-derived hepatocytes replenish a large fraction of the liver parenchyma following severe injuries induced by long-term thioacetamide (TAA) or 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) treatment. Through lineage tracing of biliary epithelial cells (BECs), we show that BECs are a source of new hepatocytes and gain an Hnf4α+CK19+ bi-phenotypic state in periportal regions and fibrotic septa. Bi-phenotypic cells were also detected in cirrhotic human livers. Together, these data provide further support for hepatocyte regeneration from BECs without genetic interventions and show their cellular plasticity during severe liver injury.

14.
Cell Discov ; 4: 23, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796307

RESUMO

Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is emerging as a clinically relevant nonhuman primate model for various diseases, but is hindered by the availability of marmoset cell lines, which are critical for understanding the disease pathogenesis and drug/toxicological screening prior to animal testing. Here we describe the generation of immortalized marmoset hepatic progenitor cells (MHPCs) by lentivirus-mediated transfer of the simian virus 40 large T antigen gene in fetal liver polygonal cells. MHPCs proliferate indefinitely in vitro without chromosomal alteration and telomere shortening. These cells possess hepatic progenitor cell-specific gene expression profiles with potential to differentiate into both hepatocytic and cholangiocytic lineages in vitro and in vivo and also can be genetically modified. Importantly, injected MHPCs repopulated the injured liver of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah)-deficient mice with hepatocyte-like cells. MHPCs also engraft as cholangiocytes into bile ducts of 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)-induced bile ductular injured mice. MHPCs provide a tool to enable efficient derivation and genetic modification of both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes for use in disease modeling, tissue engineering, and drug screening.

15.
PLoS Biol ; 16(5): e2004225, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750781

RESUMO

p38 has long been known as a central mediator of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in brown adipocytes, which positively regulate the transcription of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). However, the physiological role of p38 in adipose tissues, especially the white adipose tissue (WAT), is largely unknown. Here, we show that mice lacking p38α in adipose tissues display a lean phenotype, improved metabolism, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Surprisingly, ablation of p38α causes minimal effects on brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult mice, as evident from undetectable changes in UCP-1 expression, mitochondrial function, body temperature (BT), and energy expenditure. In contrast, genetic ablation of p38α in adipose tissues not only markedly facilitates the browning in WAT upon cold stress but also prevents diet-induced obesity. Consistently, pharmaceutical inhibition of p38α remarkably enhances the browning of WAT and has metabolic benefits. Furthermore, our data suggest that p38α deficiency promotes white-to-beige adipocyte reprogramming in a cell-autonomous manner. Mechanistically, inhibition of p38α stimulates the UCP-1 transcription through PKA and its downstream cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), which form a positive feedback loop that functions to reinforce the white-to-beige phenotypic switch during cold exposure. Together, our study reveals that inhibition of p38α is able to promote WAT browning and confer metabolic benefits. Our study also indicates that p38α in WAT represents an exciting pharmacological target to combat obesity and metabolic diseases.

16.
Stem Cell Reports ; 10(5): 1522-1536, 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606616

RESUMO

Disorders of the biliary epithelium, known as cholangiopathies, cause severe and irreversible liver diseases. The limited accessibility of bile duct precludes modeling of several cholangiocyte-mediated diseases. Therefore, novel approaches for obtaining functional cholangiocytes with high purity are needed. Previous work has shown that the combination of Hnf1ß and Foxa3 could directly convert mouse fibroblasts into bipotential hepatic stem cell-like cells, termed iHepSCs. However, the efficiency of converting fibroblasts into iHepSCs is low, and these iHepSCs exhibit extremely low differentiation potential into cholangiocytes, thus hindering the translation of iHepSCs to the clinic. Here, we describe that the expression of Hnf1α and Foxa3 dramatically facilitates the robust generation of iHepSCs. Notably, prolonged in vitro culture of Hnf1α- and Foxa3-derived iHepSCs induces a Notch signaling-mediated secondary conversion into cholangiocyte progenitor-like cells that display dramatically enhanced differentiation capacity into mature cholangiocytes. Our study provides a robust two-step approach for obtaining cholangiocyte progenitor-like cells using defined factors.

17.
J Biol Chem ; 293(18): 6883-6892, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29507093

RESUMO

Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HTI) is a metabolic genetic disorder caused by mutation of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH). Because of the accumulation of toxic metabolites, HTI causes severe liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. HTI is an ideal model for gene therapy, and several strategies have been shown to ameliorate HTI symptoms in animal models. Although CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing is able to correct the Fah mutation in mouse models, WT Cas9 induces numerous undesired mutations that have raised safety concerns for clinical applications. To develop a new method for gene correction with high fidelity, we generated a Fah mutant rat model to investigate whether Cas9 nickase (Cas9n)-mediated genome editing can efficiently correct the Fah First, we confirmed that Cas9n rarely induces indels in both on-target and off-target sites in cell lines. Using WT Cas9 as a positive control, we delivered Cas9n and the repair donor template/single guide (sg)RNA through adenoviral vectors into HTI rats. Analyses of the initial genome editing efficiency indicated that only WT Cas9 but not Cas9n causes indels at the on-target site in the liver tissue. After receiving either Cas9n or WT Cas9-mediated gene correction therapy, HTI rats gained weight steadily and survived. Fah-expressing hepatocytes occupied over 95% of the liver tissue 9 months after the treatment. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene therapy prevented the progression of liver cirrhosis, a phenotype that could not be recapitulated in the HTI mouse model. These results strongly suggest that Cas9n-mediated genome editing is a valuable and safe gene therapy strategy for this genetic disease.

19.
J Hepatol ; 68(3): 465-475, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29113912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: AT-rich interaction domain 1a (Arid1a), a component of the chromatin remodeling complex, has emerged as a tumor suppressor gene. It is frequently mutated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains unknown how Arid1a suppresses HCC development and whether Arid1a deficiency could be exploited for therapy, we aimed to explore these questions. METHODS: The expression of Arid1a in human and mouse HCCs was determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Gene expression was determined by quantitative PCR, ELISA or western blotting. Arid1a knockdown HCC cell lines were established by lentiviral-based shRNA. Tumor angiogenesis was quantified based on vessel density. The regulation of angiopoietin (Ang2) expression by Arid1a was identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. The tumor promoting function of Arid1a loss was studied with a xenograft model in nude mice and diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC in Arid1a conditional knockout mice. The therapeutic values of Ang2 antibody and sorafenib treatment were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: We demonstrate that Arid1a deficiency, occurring in advanced human HCCs, is associated with increased vessel density. Mechanistically, loss of Arid1a causes aberrant histone H3K27ac deposition at the angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) enhancer and promoter, which eventually leads to ectopic expression of Ang2 and promotes HCC development. Ang2 blockade in Arid1a-deficient HCCs significantly reduces vessel density and tumor progression. Importantly, sorafenib treatment, which suppresses H3K27 acetylation and Ang2 expression, profoundly halts the progression of Arid1a-deficient HCCs. CONCLUSIONS: Arid1a-deficiency activates Ang2-dependent angiogenesis and promotes HCC progression. Loss of Arid1a in HCCs confers sensitivity to Ang2 blockade and sorafenib treatment. LAY SUMMARY: AT-rich interaction domain 1a (Arid1a), is a tumor suppressor gene. Arid1a-deficiency promotes Ang2-dependent angiogenesis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma progression. Arid1a-deficiency also sensitizes tumors to Ang2 blockade by sorafenib treatment.

20.
Cancer Cell ; 32(5): 574-589.e6, 2017 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136504

RESUMO

ARID1A, an SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling gene, is commonly mutated in cancer and hypothesized to be tumor suppressive. In some hepatocellular carcinoma patients, ARID1A was highly expressed in primary tumors but not in metastatic lesions, suggesting that ARID1A can be lost after initiation. Mice with liver-specific homozygous or heterozygous Arid1a loss were resistant to tumor initiation while ARID1A overexpression accelerated initiation. In contrast, homozygous or heterozygous Arid1a loss in established tumors accelerated progression and metastasis. Mechanistically, gain of Arid1a function promoted initiation by increasing CYP450-mediated oxidative stress, while loss of Arid1a within tumors decreased chromatin accessibility and reduced transcription of genes associated with migration, invasion, and metastasis. In summary, ARID1A has context-dependent tumor-suppressive and oncogenic roles in cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Oncogenes/genética , Animais , Western Blotting , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA
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