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1.
BioDrugs ; 34(3): 405, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253718

RESUMO

The article Effectiveness of Switching from Reference Product Infliximab to Infliximab-Dyyb in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in an Integrated Healthcare System in the United States: A Retrospective, Propensity Score-Matched, Non-Inferiority Cohort Study, written by Stephanie L. Ho, Fang Niu, Suresh Pola, Fernando S. Velayos, Xian Ning and Rita L. Hui, was originally published electronically on 26 February 2020 without open access.

2.
J Foot Ankle Surg ; 59(2): 269-273, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130989

RESUMO

Bisphosphonates (BP) are used to treat osteoporosis, although rare atypical femur fractures have occurred with long-term exposure, especially among Asians. Metatarsal fractures have also been reported with atypical femur fracture. We examined the epidemiology of metatarsal fractures among 48,390 females aged ≥50 years who initiated oral BP and were followed for a median 7.7 years, including 68 females who experienced an atypical femur fracture. Incident metatarsal fractures after BP initiation were identified by clinical diagnoses and validated by record review. The association of BP, clinical risk factors, race/ethnicity, and metatarsal fracture was examined by using Cox proportional hazard analyses. Among 1123 females with incident metatarsal fracture, 61.0% had an isolated fifth metatarsal fracture. The incidence of metatarsal fracture was 312 per 100,000 person-years of follow-up and was substantially lower for Asians. The adjusted relative rate for metatarsal fractures was 0.5 (95% confidence interval 0.4 to 0.6) for Asians compared with whites. Younger age, prior fracture, other risk factors, and current BP were associated with an increased relative rate of metatarsal fracture, but BP duration was not. Females with atypical femur fracture were not more likely to experience metatarsal fracture (2.9% versus 2.3%, p = .7), but only 68 females had an atypical fracture and stress fracture of the metatarsals was not examined. Except for age, the demographic profile for metatarsal fracture after initiating BP was similar to that for osteoporotic fracture, with Asians at a much lower risk. Although metatarsal fractures were not associated with BP duration or atypical femur fracture, the subset of metatarsal stress fractures was not specifically examined.

3.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 26(2): 197-202, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined factors that determine bisphosphonate (BP) continuation beyond 5 years in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with BP continuation among women who completed 5 years of BP therapy. METHODS: Women who received 5 consecutive years of oral BP treatment entered the cohort during 2002-2014 and were followed up to 5 additional years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of demographic and clinical factors with adherent treatment continuation. RESULTS: The cohort included 19,091 women with a median age of 72 years. Baseline and time-varying factors associated with increased odds of BP continuation after 5 years were (a) most recent bone mineral density (BMD) T-score -2 to -2.4 (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.25-1.38), T-score -2.5 to -2.9 (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.39-1.57), and T-score ≤ -3.0 (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.47-1.68) versus T-scores above -2.0; (b) index date before 2008 (OR =1.35, 95% CI = 1.29-1.41); and (c) diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.01-1.16). In contrast, factors associated with decreased odds of BP continuation were (a) recent hip (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.52-0.71) or humerus (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66-0.94) fracture or fracture other than hip, wrist, spine, or humerus (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.84-0.97); (b) Charlson Comorbidity Index score > 2 (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.84-0.98); (c) history of rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.80-0.99); (d) Hispanic (OR = 0.89, 95% CI=0.85-0.94) or Asian (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.85-0.94) race/ethnicity; and (e) use of proton pump inhibitors (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.59-0.71). Patient age and fracture before BP initiation were not associated with treatment continuation. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical factors predicting continued BP treatment beyond 5 years include low BMD T-score, absence of recent fracture, and earlier era of treatment. Use of proton pump inhibitors was associated with lower likelihood of BP continuation. Other clinical and demographic factors were also noted to have variable effects on BP treatment continuation. DISCLOSURES: This study was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Aging and National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases at the National Institutes of Health (NIH; R01AG047230, S1). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH or Kaiser Permanente. Lo has received previous research funding from Amgen and Sanofi, unrelated to the current study. Adams has received previous research funding from Merck, Amgen, Otsuka, and Radius Health, unrelated to the current study. Ettinger has served as an expert witness for Teva Pharmaceuticals, unrelated to the current study. Ott previously attended a scientific advisory meeting for Amgen but declined the honorarium. The other authors have nothing to disclose. These data were presented at the 2018 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR), September 28-October 1, 2018, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

4.
BioDrugs ; 34(3): 395-404, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103457

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim was to compare outcomes in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who switched to infliximab-dyyb with those who remained on reference product (RP) infliximab in the United States (US) in a retrospective, propensity score-matched, non-inferiority cohort trial. METHODS: This study was a retrospective, non-inferiority study conducted within a US integrated healthcare system and included adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. A 1:1 propensity score matching was utilized to match patients who switched to infliximab-dyyb during the period April 2016-March 2018 to patients who remained on RP infliximab. The non-inferiority margin was set at + 10% of the upper limit. The primary outcome was a composite measure of disease worsening requiring acute care after the index date of switching to infliximab-dyyb or continuing RP infliximab. Disease worsening requiring acute care was defined as any IBD-related emergency room visit, hospitalization, or surgery. The secondary outcome was the composite measure of disease worsening requiring acute care or treatment failure. A switch to another biologic or tofacitinib was a proxy for treatment failure. All patients were followed for up to 9 months. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, the matched cohort included 1409 patients in the infliximab-dyyb group and 1409 patients in the RP infliximab group. The overall mean age (± standard deviation) was 47.7 ± 17.0 years, 50.9% of patients were of male gender, and 51.8% of patients had Crohn's disease, while the remainder of the cohort had ulcerative colitis. There were 144 patients (10.2%) in the infliximab-dyyb group and 245 patients (17.4%) in the RP infliximab group who experienced disease worsening requiring acute care (P < 0.01 for non-inferiority). There were 347 patients (24.6%) in the infliximab-dyyb group who experienced disease worsening requiring acute care or treatment failure compared to 375 patients (26.6%) who remained on RP infliximab (P < 0.01 for non-inferiority). CONCLUSION: There was no increased risk of (1) disease worsening requiring acute care or (2) disease worsening requiring acute care or treatment failure in patients with IBD who switched from RP infliximab to infliximab-dyyb when compared to patients who remained on RP infliximab in this US population. Infliximab-dyyb is an option for patients with IBD who need to use RP infliximab.

5.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(3): 696-703, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concurrent use of benzodiazepines in opioid users has been linked to a higher risk of an emergency room visit or inpatient admission for opioid overdose and death from drug overdose. Further research is needed to confirm the findings and analyze contributing risk factors for opioid overdoses in a large commercially insured population. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of opioid overdose associated with opioid users exposed to various combinations of opioid, benzodiazepine, and non-benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic therapy. To identify other factors that are associated with increased risk for opioid overdose. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS: New start adult users of opioids, defined as naïve to opioids for 6 months, in Kaiser Permanente California regions from January 2013 through September 2017. MAIN MEASURES: Inpatient or emergency department admissions due to opioid-related overdose. KEY RESULTS: A total of 2,241,530 patients were included in this study. Patients exposed to opioids, benzodiazepines, and non-benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics at any point during their follow-up were 60% more likely to overdose than those who were only exposed to opioids (p < 0.0001). Those exposed to opioids and benzodiazepines were 20% more likely to have an opioid-related overdose than those exposed to opioids only (p < 0.0001). Significant risk factors for opioid overdose included exposure to all three medication classes, higher opioid dosage strengths, elderly age (age ≥ 65 years), history of previous overdose, and substance use disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study demonstrate a significant increase in risk of opioid overdose in patients exposed to combinations of sedative-hypnotics with opioids compared to those only taking opioids. Findings from this study provide evidence that opioids should be avoided in combination with benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics, used at the lowest dose possible, and used with caution in the elderly, those with previous history of overdose, and those with substance use disorder at baseline.

6.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(8): 927-934, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the elderly, use of medications may increase the propensity for adverse drug events due to alterations in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles from normal aging processes. Deprescribing is the planned and supervised process of dose reduction or discontinuation of medications that may lead to harm or are no longer beneficial. While there are studies detailing strategies to deprescribe medications such as benzodiazepines and antipsychotics in nursing homes or for patients with dementia, there is a lack of guidance to safely deprescribe chronic medications, such as antidiabetics, for older patients in the community setting. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of hypoglycemia and other outcomes of pharmacist-managed deprescribing on selected antidiabetic medications under the guidance of a standardized program compared with usual care within an integrated health care system. METHODS: This was a retrospective propensity score-matched cohort study. The pharmacist-managed deprescribing group included patients who were enrolled in the deprescribing program between July 1, 2016, and June 30, 2017. The usual care group included eligible patients who did not receive the deprescribing intervention and were matched to the deprescribing group using propensity score matching (PSM). Baseline demographics and clinical variables were used for matching. Patients were followed for 6 months or the end of membership or death, whichever occurred first. Primary outcome was the risk of hypoglycemia. Secondary outcomes included risk of hyperglycemia, proportion of patients at goal (A1c), change in A1c, change in monthly antidiabetic drug cost, and all-cause mortality. Outcomes were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariant regression or Cox proportional hazard models when appropriate. RESULTS: After PSM, 685 patients in the deprescribing group and 2,055 patients in the usual care group were similar in age, gender, weight, and comorbidity burden (mean [SD] age 82.4 [5.4] years, 48% female, mean [SD] weight 81.7 [19.2] kg, mean [SD] Charlson Comorbidity Index score 3.2 [1.6]). Compared with the usual care group, the deprescribing group had a lower risk of hypoglycemia (1.5% vs. 3.1%, P < 0.02; adjusted odds ratio 0.42, P < 0.01). As for the secondary outcomes, the deprescribing group had a greater change (SD) in A1c (0.3 [0.6] vs. 0.2 [0.7] P < 0.01) and lower all-cause mortality (2.3% vs 5.6%, P < 0.01; adjusted hazard ratio 0.35, P < 0.01). There were no differences observed in the risk of hyperglycemia, proportion of patients at goal A1c < 7%, and change in monthly antidiabetic drug costs between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: There are currently no studies to our knowledge that evaluate the outcomes of a pharmacist-managed deprescribing program targeting antidiabetic medications. The results of our study showed that deprescribing of selected antidiabetics reduced the risk of hypoglycemia and may have mortality benefit in elderly patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes, who are taking medications that can cause hypoglycemia. Further and longer studies are needed to validate these benefits. DISCLOSURES: No outside funding was provided to support this research study. The authors of this study have no actual or potential conflicts of interest to report. Parts of this study were presented in a nonreviewed resident poster at the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy Managed Care and Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting; April 23-26, 2018; Boston, MA.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desprescrições , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Masculino , Assistência Farmacêutica , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco
7.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(3): 350-356, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by chronic hyper-glycemia and can lead to life-threatening complications if not treated. A stepwise and patient-centered approach is recommended when managing patients with T2D. Metformin is the preferred first-line agent, while sulfonylureas (SU) are often chosen as second-line agents. If a patient's hemoglobin A1c (A1c) goal is not achieved despite 3 months of treatment with dual therapy, then triple therapy is recommended. However, due to the lack of head-to-head trials for different triple antidiabetic regimens, the recommendations are unclear for selection of an optimal third-line agent. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) compared with a thiazolidinedione (TZD) or insulin as a third-line add-on therapy in patients who have not achieved A1c goals while receiving metformin and SU dual therapy in the real-world setting within an integrated health care system. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with T2D who were not at goal A1c while on dual therapy with metformin and an SU and initiated triple antidiabetic therapy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who achieved goal A1c within 3-7 months after starting triple therapy with a GLP-1 RA compared with a TZD or insulin. Goal A1c was defined as an A1c of < 7% for patients aged less than 65 years and A1c of < 8% for patients aged 65 years or older. Secondary outcomes included mean change in A1c, mean change in weight, and the proportion of patients with an emergent health care encounter due to a hypoglycemic event. Propensity score matching was used to select comparison groups from the insulin and TZD groups with similar baseline characteristics to the GLP-1 RA group in a 4:1 ratio. RESULTS: 274 patients initiated a GLP-1 RA in addition to dual therapy with metformin and an SU. A propensity matched group of 1,096 patients who initiated insulin and 1,096 patients who initiated a TZD were selected as the control groups. Addition of a GLP-1 RA resulted in a significantly lower proportion of patients achieving goal A1c (23.0%) compared with the addition of a TZD (30.8%, P = 0.011). There was no significant difference with the addition of a GLP-1 RA when compared with insulin (24.1%, P = 0.704). CONCLUSIONS: This study reflects data from real-world practice in a large integrated health care system. Significantly less patients achieved goal A1c with the addition of a GLP-1 RA as a third-line add-on option to dual therapy with metformin and an SU compared with the addition of a TZD. Providers and patients should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of different antidiabetic agents when choosing triple therapy regimens. DISCLOSURES: No outside funding supported this study. The authors have nothing to disclose. Part of this study was presented as a nonreviewed resident poster at the Academy of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2017 in Denver, CO, on March 27-29, 2017.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/administração & dosagem , Tiazolidinedionas/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Am J Manag Care ; 23(12): e421-e422, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29261250

RESUMO

In the setting of changing temporal trends in the management of osteoporosis, we examined how select characteristics of new oral bisphosphonate (BP) initiators changed over time among 94,073 women within a large, integrated healthcare organization during the period 2004 to 2012. In the earlier era (2004-2007), approximately half of women younger than 65 years initiating BP therapy (47%-54%) had osteoporosis by bone mineral density (BMD) criteria, but this proportion increased sharply in the later era (2008-2012), with 55% to 81% having osteoporosis. This trend was not evident in older women (≥65 years). The proportion of younger women with prior fracture increased from 15% in 2008 to 32% in 2012, after remaining relatively stable (10%-15%) during the earlier era. Again, this trend was not observed among older women. Thus, among women younger than 65 years, we observed a marked temporal shift in initiation of BP treatment toward women at high risk (including those with prior fracture and those with osteoporosis by BMD testing) and away from those at lower risk (such as those with osteopenia and/or no prior fracture).


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/complicações , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
9.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 23(4): 503-512, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28345435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Examining drug exposure is essential to pharmacovigilance, especially for bisphosphonate (BP) therapy. OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in 4 measures of oral BP exposure: treatment discontinuation, adherence, persistence, and nonpersistence. METHODS: Among women aged ≥ 50 years who initiated oral BP therapy during 2002-2007 with at least 3 years of health plan membership follow-up, discontinuation was defined by evidence of no further treatment during the study observation period. Among those with at least 2 filled BP prescriptions during the study period, adherence was calculated for each year of follow-up using the (modified) proportion of days covered (mPDC) metric that allows for stockpiling of prescription/refills overlap ≤ 30 days supply. Persistence was quantified by treatment duration, allowing a gap of up to 60 days between prescription/refill days covered. Nonpersistence was quantified by the periods without drugs outside this allowable gap. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare age and race groups and the relationships of early adherence (adherence during the first year) with subsequent adherence. RESULTS: Among 48,390 women initiating oral BP therapy and followed for 3 years, 26.7% discontinued in year 1, and 14.7% of the remaining 35,456 women discontinued in year 2. Discontinuation rates were slightly higher (29.4%, P < 0.001) for women aged ≥ 75 years and somewhat lower (21.1%, P < 0.001) for Asian women. During the first year, 60.4% of the women achieved an mPDC of ≥ 75%, with demographic differences in adherence similar to that seen for treatment discontinuation. Over the 3 years, the median mPDC levels for BP therapy were 86%, 84%, and 85% in years 1, 2, and 3, respectively, for those receiving treatment. Cumulative persistence was 2.3 years (median, IQR = 1.0-3.0) overall and slightly greater for Asian versus white women and lower for older women. There were 18,174 (42.9%) women with at least 1 period of nonpersistence during 3 years follow-up in excess of the 60-day allowable gap between prescription/refills (median cumulative nonpersistence = 0.65, IQR = 0.30-1.25 years). Women with mPDC ≥ 75% during the first year had a 12-fold and 6-fold increased odds of mPDC ≥ 75% during year 2 and year 3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: BP discontinuation rates are highest for women during the first year. Among those continuing treatment in subsequent years, adherence rates were relatively stable. Persistence and adherence varied slightly by age and was somewhat higher in Asians, contributing to differences in cumulative BP exposure. We also found evidence that optimal adherence in the first year was highly predictive of optimal adherence in the subsequent 1-2 years. Hence, subgroups of patients receiving oral BP drugs may require different levels of support and monitoring to maximize treatment benefit, especially based on early patterns of use. DISCLOSURES: This study was supported by grants from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Community Benefit Program and the National Institutes of Health, 1R01AG047230-01A1. The opinions expressed in this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of Kaiser Permanente or the National Institutes of Health. Hui, Yi, and Chandra have received past research funding from Amgen not related to the current study. Adams has received research funding from Amgen, Merck, and Otsuka not related to the current study. Niu has received research funding from Bristol-Myers Squibb not related to the current study. Ettinger has received past legal fees in litigation involving Fosamax. Lo has received past research funding from Amgen and current research funding from Sanofi not related to the current study. The data from this study were presented at the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy Annual Meeting; April 19-22, 2016; San Francisco, California. Study concept and design were contributed primarily by Hui and Lo, along with Adams, Niu, Yi, and Ettinger. Hui took the lead in data collection, along with Chandra, and data interpretation was performed by Niu, Yi, and Lo, along with the other authors. The manuscript was written by Hui, Adams, and Lo, along with Niu, Yi, and Ettinger, and revised by Ettinger, Hui, Lo, and Niu, along with the other authors.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Americanos Asiáticos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos
11.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 23(2): 195-205, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28125366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A variety of regimens are used as first-line treatment in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which may include combination regimens and single agents, depending on histology, molecular profile, and performance status. OBJECTIVE: To describe the types of first-line therapies and compare overall survival between therapies used for patients with advanced NSCLC in an integrated health care system. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients aged 18 years or older from Kaiser Permanente California with a diagnosis of stage IIIB/IV NSCLC. First systemic treatment date occurred from January 1, 2008, through September 30, 2013. Overall survival was measured as the number of months from initial treatment until death, end of enrollment, or September 30, 2014. Treatment regimens were categorized into 6 mutually exclusive groups: platinum doublets; pemetrexed-based, bevacizumab-based, and pemetrexed + bevacizumab-based combinations; singlets; and tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Subgroup analyses were performed by age group and by nonsquamous histology. RESULTS: Of 2,081 patients, approximately half (52.3%) received platinum doublets, followed by TKIs (19.0%), pemetrexed-based regimens (13.4%), bevacizumab-regimens (8.0%), singlets (5.5%), and pemetrexed + bevacizumab-based combinations (1.8%). Median survival was longest for pemetrexed + bevacizumab-based combinations (18.5 months), followed by bevacizumab-based regimens (14.5), TKIs (12.7), pemetrexed-based regimens (10.4), doublets (9.2), and singlets (5.3). There was a significantly reduced risk of mortality for pemetrexed + bevacizumab-based combinations (HR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.42-0.94) and TKIs (HR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.73-0.94) compared with doublets. Singlets were associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.22-1.84). Subgroup analysis among patients aged 65 years and over found no significant differences among treatment groups, with the exception of singlets, which were associated with an increased risk of mortality compared with doublets (HR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.20-1.90). Among patients under aged 65 years, pemetrexed + bevacizumab-based combinations (HR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.21-0.64) and TKIs (HR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.59-0.97) were associated with a reduced risk of mortality, and singlets were associated with an increased risk (HR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.17-2.92). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients with advanced NSCLC, patients received a platinum agent with or without bevacizumab or pemetrexed, a TKI, or a single agent. Younger patients (aged < 65 years) receiving bevacizumab + pemetrexed-based combinations had a survival advantage over those receiving platinum doublets, and this finding merits further investigation. Younger patients receiving TKIs also had longer survival. Compared with platinum doublets, we found no survival advantage for older patients receiving bevacizumab or pemetrexed, which suggests that combination therapy of a platinum agent and taxane, such as carboplatin and paclitaxel, could be a reasonable option for older patients who are not candidates for targeted therapy. DISCLOSURES: No outside funding supported this study. Rashid has received past funding from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Astellas, Novartis, and Pfizer. No other authors report any potential financial conflicts of interest. Study concept and design were primarily contributed by Spence and Hui, with input from the other authors. Hui, Spence, and Rashid took the lead in data collection, and data interpretation was performed by Schottinger, Millares, and Spence, assisted by the other authors. The manuscript was written primarily by Spence, along with Chang, and revised by Spence, with input from the other authors.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Pemetrexede/administração & dosagem , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxoides/administração & dosagem
12.
Pharmacotherapy ; 36(10): 1065-1074, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27521530

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To identify subsequent therapies used after first-line therapies in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), compare overall survival (OS) associated with subsequent therapies, and evaluate factors associated with OS in these patients. METHODS: The study was a retrospective cohort analysis of patients with advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB/IV) who were initiated on first-line therapy from January 1, 2008, through September 30, 2013, and afterward given subsequent chemotherapy (index date). Patients had to be 18 years or older at the time of diagnosis of advanced NSCLC. Patients were followed from the index date until one of the following end points: end of the study (September 30, 2014), disenrollment from the health plan, or death-whichever came the earliest. The primary outcome was OS. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze OS and evaluate the factors associated with OS. RESULTS: The analysis included 1280 patients on subsequent therapies. The most common subsequent therapies were pemetrexed (284 patients [22%]), erlotinib (216 patients [17%]), and docetaxel (139 patients [11%]). Patients from the singlets group had a lower OS at 6.3 months compared with all other groups: pemetrexed based, combination of pemetrexed and bevacizumab based, bevacizumab based, doublets, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (p<0.0001). Factors associated with greater OS included age younger than 65 years, female gender, and a longer time between initiation of first and subsequent therapies. Factors associated with a reduction in OS were pemetrexed-based or singlet regimens for subsequent therapy, diagnosis of squamous histology, and a higher number of adverse events prior to subsequent therapy. CONCLUSION: We found that a subsequent therapy consisting of singlets is associated with reduced OS compared with other chemotherapy groups. Patient characteristics such as female gender, age younger than 65 years, diagnosis of nonsquamous histology, and/or a longer time frame between initiation of first-line and subsequent chemotherapy are associated with longer survival.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 22(8): 932-8, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27459656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown an increased risk of pneumonia with benzodiazepines (BZD) and an increased risk of any infection with non-BZD hypnotics, but no analysis has specifically investigated the risk of pneumonia with non-BZD hypnotic use. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of pneumonia associated with non-BZD hypnotic use in the elderly. METHODS: This was a retrospective case-control study of members aged 65 years and older enrolled in an integrated health care system. Cases were identified as patients aged 65 years and older with a diagnosis of pneumonia from January 2011 to December 2012. Controls were matched in a 4:1 ratio to cases based on age, gender, and active enrollment. Non-BZD hypnotic exposure was evaluated for all cases and controls 1 year before the index date. Proximity of exposure to index date and duration of use were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression adjusted for covariates was performed. RESULTS: We identified 51,029 cases with pneumonia and matched 188,391 controls without pneumonia. Of the cases with pneumonia, 5.5% (2,790) of cases had exposure to a non-BZD hypnotic, compared with 3.4% (6,345) of controls. Non-BZD hypnotic exposure was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.08-1.20). When exposure was stratified by proximity to index date, only current exposure was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.18-1.36). Short-term exposure was associated with a relatively higher risk of pneumonia (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.39-1.77) compared with long-term use (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.06-1.25). CONCLUSIONS: Current use of non-BZD hypnotics in older adults is associated with an increased risk of pneumonia. The findings of this study provide additional support for reducing the use of non-BZD hypnotics in older adults and for pursuing safer alternatives for treating insomnia. DISCLOSURES: No outside funding supported this study. At the time of this study, Jung was a PGY2 resident in drug information at Kaiser Permanente Drug Information Services. All authors are employed by Kaiser Permanente and report no other potential financial conflicts of interest. Study concept and design were contributed by Jung, Spence, Lee, and Gibbs. Jung, Spence, and Hui were responsible for data collection, and data interpretation was performed by Jung and Spence, with assistance from Escasa, Lee, and Hui. The manuscript was primarily written by Jung, along with Spence and Escasa, and revised by Spence, Escasa, and Lee, along with the other authors.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Distribuição Aleatória , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Bone ; 85: 142-7, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26769007

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several epidemiologic studies suggest that compared to white women, Asians have a greater propensity to suffer an atypical femur fracture (AFF) while taking bisphosphonate therapy. This study examines the relative risk of AFF following bisphosphonate initiation for Asian compared to white women. METHODS: Using data from a large integrated northern California healthcare delivery system, we examined diaphyseal femur fracture outcomes among women age≥50years old who initiated oral bisphosphonate therapy during 2002-2007. An AFF was defined by the 2013 American Society of Bone and Mineral Research Task Force criteria. The risk of radiographically-confirmed AFF was examined for Asian compared to white women, adjusting for differences in bisphosphonate exposure and other potential risk factors. RESULTS: Among 48,390 women (65.3% white, 17.1% Asian) who newly initiated bisphosphonate therapy and were followed for a median of 7.7years, 68 women experienced an AFF. The rate of AFF was 18.7 per 100,000 person-years overall and eight-fold higher among Asian compared to white women (64.2 versus 7.6 per 100,000 person-years). Asians were also more likely to have longer bisphosphonate treatment duration compared to whites (median 3.8 versus 2.7years). The age-adjusted relative hazard for AFF was 8.5 (95% confidence interval 4.9-14.9) comparing Asian to white women, and was only modestly reduced to 6.6 (3.7-11.5) after adjusting for bisphosphonate duration and current use. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms marked racial disparity in AFF risk that should be further investigated, particularly the mechanisms accounting for this difference. These findings also underscore the need to further examine the association of bisphosphonate duration and AFF in women of Asian race, as well as differential risk across Asian subgroups. In the interim, counseling of Asian women about osteoporosis drug continuation should include consideration of their potentially higher AFF risk.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Grupos Étnicos , Fraturas do Fêmur/induzido quimicamente , Fraturas do Fêmur/epidemiologia , Administração Oral , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 63(6): 1197-202, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26096393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of injury associated with gastrointestinal (GI) antispasmodic and anticholinergic use in elderly adults. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: Integrated healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: Healthcare system members aged 65 and older (N = 260,010; 54,152 cases, 205,858 controls). MEASUREMENTS: Cases were identified as individuals with an injury resulting in a hospitalization, emergency department, or urgent care visit (index date) from January 2009 through December 2010. Cases and controls were matched in a 1:4 ratio based on age and sex. GI antispasmodic and anticholinergic current and past exposure for cases and controls was evaluated. Individuals were classified as current users if the days' supply of the GI prescription overlapped the index date and past users if the days' supply ended more than 60 days before the index date. Duration of use for current users was analyzed for short- and long-term use. Conditional logistic regression produced adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Of the total population, 1,068 (0.4%) had current exposure to a GI antispasmodic or anticholinergic (302 (0.6%) cases, 766 (0.4%) controls). Current users had a small but significantly greater risk of injury than nonusers (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.01-1.34, P = .03). Past use was not significantly different from no use. Short-term users had a significantly greater risk of injury (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.01-1.70, P = .04) than nonusers. Long-term use was associated with greater risk, but the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Older adults using GI antispasmodic and anticholinergic drugs have greater risk of injury. These findings support recommendations to limit the prescribing of GI antispasmodics and anticholinergics in elderly adults.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Parassimpatolíticos/efeitos adversos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Neurooncol ; 122(1): 145-50, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25575937

RESUMO

Bevacizumab (BEV, Avastin(®)) produces durable objective radiological responses of 20-26 %, median response durations of 16-18 weeks, and median overall survival (mOS) of 31-40 weeks. While the use of BEV is well-established, the lack of dose-response studies in glioblastoma (GBM) patients raises the question whether current dosing practice is optimal. As a result of differing approaches to BEV dosing that ranged from the FDA approved package insert dose of 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks to 7.5 mg/kg every 3-4 weeks, among physicians within Northern California Kaiser Permanente hospitals over 4+ years, we did an IRB-approved retrospective analysis of patients seen in Northern California Kaiser Permanente facilities and treated with BEV. Between September 1, 2008 and August 31, 2013, 181 patients received BEV for tumor progression/recurrence starting 2.6 weeks after completion of chemoradiation. The integrated BEV administered dose-week (AUCBEV) for all patients had a median AUCBEV of 3.6 mg·wk/kg). Maximum likelihood analysis found patients over 65 years did worse than younger patients (p = 0.004), women lived longer (p = 0.002), and patients treated below the AUCBEV did better than those treated above the median AUCBEV (p = 0.003). mOS for BEV starting 1 month after chemoradiation was 45 versus 68 weeks (p = 0.012) and BEV starting 3 months after chemoradiation was 40 versus 74 weeks (p = 0.0085). Dosing BEV at half the standard dose for progressive/recurrent GBM was at least equivalent to or, maybe better than standard dosing. Unexplained was the observation that females had longer OS with BEV than males.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Manag Care ; 20(2): e43-51, 2014 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24738554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of a Medicare Medication Therapy Management (MTM) program in a large integrated health plan on patient mortality, hospitalization and emergency department (ED) utilization, and daily prescription costs. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective matched cohort study. METHODS: Patients who received MTM services between 2006 and 2010 were matched to control patients who were enrolled in Medicare but did not receive MTM services. They were matched in a 1:4 ratio based on age, gender, geographic location, and prospective diagnostic-cost-group (DxCG) risk score. Multivariate regressions were used to analyze the outcomes. Subgroup analyses were conducted for patients enrolled in 2010 because the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services lowered the drug-cost threshold for MTM eligibility and changed from opt-in to optout participation. RESULTS: We identified 34,532 members who received MTM services and 138,128 control members. The MTM group was found to have a significantly reduced mortality (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-0.88; P <.001), lower odds for hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] = 0.97, 95% CI, 0.94-0.99; P = .018), higher odds for emergency department visits (OR = 1.17, 95% CI, 1.14-1.20; P <.001), and no differences in change in daily medication costs when compared to the matched group. The subgroup analysis of the 2010 cohort found similar results with better outcomes than the overall cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Medicare MTM services resulted in lower mortality and odds for hospitalization for enrolled patients compared with matched controls. This study observed an increase in ED visits and no differences in change in daily medication costs in MTM services.


Assuntos
Medicare/organização & administração , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/organização & administração , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Custos de Medicamentos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Medicare Part D/economia , Medicare Part D/organização & administração , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/economia , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
18.
J Bone Oncol ; 3(2): 49-53, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26909297

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer are at increased risk for femur fracture. Contributing factors include estrogen deficiency, cancer-related therapies, or direct bone involvement. This study examines fracture subtypes in women with prior breast cancer experiencing a femur fracture. METHODS: Women age ≥50 years old with a history of invasive breast cancer who experienced a femur fracture were identified during 2005-2012. Fracture site was classified by hospital diagnosis (for hip) and/or radiologic findings (for femoral diaphysis), with subtype classification as pathologic, atypical or fragility fracture. Clinical characteristics were ascertained using health plan databases and disease registries. RESULTS: There were 802 women with prior breast cancer who experienced a femur fracture. The mean age at fracture was 80.5±9.6 years, with most fractures (93.8%) occurring in the hip and only 6.2% in the femoral diaphysis. However, diaphyseal fractures accounted for 23.6% of fractures in younger women (age ≤65 years). Pathologic fractures comprised 9.6% of total fractures (56.0% of diaphyseal fractures) and accounted for half the fractures in younger women. An atypical fracture pattern was seen in 1% of all femur fractures and 16.0% of diaphyseal fractures, with prior bisphosphonate exposure in all atypical fracture cases. CONCLUSION: Most femur fractures in women with prior breast cancer occurred in the hip. Among younger women and those experiencing diaphyseal fractures, a larger proportion were pathologic and some were found to be atypical. Further studies should examine risk factors for femur fracture in women with breast cancer with specific attention to fracture subtype and pharmacologic exposures.

19.
Pharmacotherapy ; 32(11): 981-7, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23074134

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical and safety outcomes among transplant recipients whose tacrolimus was converted from the brand-name formulation to a generic formulation. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. DATA SOURCE: Clinical databases and electronic records from a large, integrated health care system in California. PATIENTS: A total of 234 clinically stable, adult transplant recipients (renal, liver, and heart) whose tacrolimus was converted from the brand-name formulation to a generic formulation between October 1, 2010, and December 31, 2010, according to a physician-approved protocol. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: For each patient, pre- and postconversion tacrolimus trough concentrations and serum creatinine concentrations were analyzed. Data were also collected on the percentage of patients who required dosage titration, drug cost savings, and rates of reversion to brand-name tacrolimus, biopsy-proved acute allograft rejections, and mortality. No significant differences were noted in mean ± SD pre- and postconversion tacrolimus trough levels (6.74 ± 1.61 vs 6.96 ± 2.31 ng/ml, p=0.137) or serum creatinine concentrations (1.33 ± 0.48 vs 1.36 ± 0.82 mg/dl, p=0.302). The mean ± SD percent change in tacrolimus trough concentration was 5.63 ± 32.95%. Thirty-six patients (15.4%) required dosage titration. Six patients (2.6%) reverted back to brand-name tacrolimus. No deaths or acute rejections occurred. Use of the generic product saved each patient an average of $45/month in drug acquisition cost and $26/prescription copayment. CONCLUSION: Clinical experience as well as research data show that use of generic tacrolimus results in trough concentrations that are comparable to the brand-name drug. Given the lack of adverse events reported and the cost savings recognized, conversion from brand-name tacrolimus to generic tacrolimus should be encouraged. Since dosage titration may be required, close therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Coração/imunologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim/imunologia , Transplante de Fígado/imunologia , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , California/epidemiologia , Redução de Custos , Custos de Medicamentos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Medicamentos Genéricos/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/farmacocinética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração/economia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/economia , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Rim/economia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/economia , Masculino , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Tacrolimo/economia , Tacrolimo/farmacocinética , Equivalência Terapêutica
20.
J Manag Care Pharm ; 18(7): 497-505, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22971203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past decade, increasing attention has focused on identification and treatment of vitamin D deficiency although repletion outcomes of pharmacologic vitamin D therapy have not been examined at a population level. OBJECTIVE: To investigate population trends and outcomes of pharmacologic treatment of vitamin D deficiency. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from an integrated health system with approximately 3.2 million members. Automated laboratory and pharmacy databases were used to identify patients aged 18 years or older with hypovitaminosis D (defined as a 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] serum level < 20 nanograms [ng] per mL) who newly initiated pharmacologic ergocalciferol (50,000 international units [IU] per week) during 2007-2010 and did not have a prescription for ergocalciferol in the prior 12 months. Patients were required to be continuously enrolled for 12 months before and 6 months after ergocalciferol initiation. Age, gender, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and 25(OH)D levels were obtained from health plan electronic medical records and administrative, laboratory, and pharmacy databases. Outcome and predictors of repletion among the subset who received 12 weekly doses of 50,000 IU ergocalciferol (total dose 600,000 IU) were examined using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 72,093 vitamin D-deficient patients who newly initiated pharmacologic ergocalciferol. During the study period, the use of ergocalciferol increased nearly 8-fold from 161 per 100,000 adult members in 2007 to 1,241 per 100,000 adult members in 2010. One-fifth (n = 14,727) had severe vitamin D deficiency (25[OH]D level < 10 ng per mL). Among 23,322 patients receiving 50,000 IU ergocalciferol for 12 weeks in whom subsequent 25(OH)D levels were measured between 90 and 365 days after the index ergocalciferol prescription date, 74.0% achieved 25(OH)D of at least 20 ng per mL, and 35.8% achieved 25(OH)D of at least 30 ng per mL. Increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% CI 1.02-1.02) and higher baseline 25(OH)D level (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.10-1.12) were associated with greater odds of successful repletion. Asian race (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.73-0.88), Hispanic ethnicity (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.65-0.77), and increasing overweight/obesity (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.85 for body mass index [BMI], 25.0-29.9 kg/m²; OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.60-0.71 for BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m²; OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.48-0.60 for BMI ≥ 40 kg/m²) were associated with lower odds of repletion compared with BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m². CONCLUSIONS: There is increasing recognition and treatment of vitamin D deficiency within the health care setting. Patients of younger age, Asian and Hispanic race/ethnicity, and those who are obese or with more severe vitamin D deficiency may be at greater risk for incomplete repletion using standard regimens and may require additional treatment to achieve optimal levels.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Ergocalciferóis/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Americanos Asiáticos , Índice de Massa Corporal , California , Estudos de Coortes , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
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