Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 51
Filtrar
1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 417, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following a first wave in spring and gradual easing of lockdown, Luxembourg experienced an early second epidemic wave of SARS-CoV-2 before the start of summer school holidays on 15th July. This provided the opportunity to investigate the role of school-age children and school settings for transmission. METHODS: We compared the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 in school-age children, teachers and the general working population in Luxembourg during two epidemic waves: a spring wave from March-April 2020 corresponding to general lockdown with schools being closed and May-July 2020 corresponding to schools being open. We assessed the number of secondary transmissions occurring in schools between May and July 2020 using routine contact tracing data. RESULTS: During the first wave in March-April 2020 when schools were closed, the incidence in pupils peaked at 28 per 100,000, while during the second wave in May-July 2020 when schools were open, incidence peaked 100 per 100,000. While incidence of SARS-CoV-2 was higher in adults than in children during the first spring wave, no significant difference was observed during the second wave in early summer. Between May and July 2020, we identified a total of 390 and 34 confirmed COVID-19 cases among 90,150 school-age children and 11,667 teachers, respectively. We further estimate that 179 primary cases caused 49 secondary cases in schools. While some small clusters of mainly student-to-student transmission within the same class were identified, we did not observe any large outbreaks with multiple generations of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within Luxembourg schools was limited during an early summer epidemic wave in 2020. Precautionary measures including physical distancing as well as easy access to testing, systematic contact tracing appears to have been successful in mitigating transmission within educational settings.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9121, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907272

RESUMO

Visceral adiposity is a major risk factor of cardiometabolic diseases. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is usually measured with expensive imaging techniques which present financial and practical challenges to population-based studies. We assessed whether cardiometabolic conditions were associated with VAT by using a new and easily measurable anthropometric index previously published and validated. Data (1529 participants) came from the European Health Examination Survey in Luxembourg (2013-2015). Logistic regressions were used to study associations between VAT and cardiometabolic conditions. We observed an increased risk of all conditions associated with VAT. The total adjusted odds ratio (AOR, [95% CI]) for hypertension, prediabetes/diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia for the fourth quartile of VAT compared to the lowest were (10.67 [6.95, 16.39]), (6.14 [4.14, 9.10]), (6.03 [3.97, 9.16]) and (9.18 [5.97, 14.12]). We observed higher odds in women than in men for all outcomes with the exception of hypertension. Future studies should investigate the impact of VAT changes on cardiometabolic health and the use of anthropometrically predicted VAT as an accurate outcome when no biomedical imaging is available.

3.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(4): e222-e231, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to better understand the factors associated with the heterogeneity of in-hospital COVID-19 morbidity and mortality across France, one of the countries most affected by COVID-19 in the early months of the pandemic. METHODS: This geo-epidemiological analysis was based on data publicly available on government and administration websites for the 96 administrative departments of metropolitan France between March 19 and May 11, 2020, including Public Health France, the Regional Health Agencies, the French national statistics institute, and the Ministry of Health. Using hierarchical ascendant classification on principal component analysis of multidimensional variables, and multivariate analyses with generalised additive models, we assessed the associations between several factors (spatiotemporal spread of the epidemic between Feb 7 and March 17, 2020, the national lockdown, demographic population structure, baseline intensive care capacities, baseline population health and health-care services, new chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine dispensations, economic indicators, degree of urbanisation, and climate profile) and in-hospital COVID-19 incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates. Incidence rate was defined as the cumulative number of in-hospital COVID-19 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, mortality rate as the cumulative number of in-hospital COVID-19 deaths per 100 000, and case fatality rate as the cumulative number of in-hospital COVID-19 deaths per cumulative number of in-hospital COVID-19 cases. FINDINGS: From March 19 to May 11, 2020, hospitals in metropolitan France notified a total of 100 988 COVID-19 cases, including 16 597 people who were admitted to intensive care and 17 062 deaths. There was an overall cumulative in-hospital incidence rate of 155·6 cases per 100 000 inhabitants (range 19·4-489·5), in-hospital mortality rate of 26·3 deaths per 100 000 (1·1-119·2), and in-hospital case fatality rate of 16·9% (4·8-26·2). We found clear spatial heterogeneity of in-hospital COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates, following the spread of the epidemic. After multivariate adjustment, the delay between the first COVID-19-associated death and the onset of the national lockdown was positively associated with in-hospital incidence (adjusted standardised incidence ratio 1·02, 95% CI 1·01-1·04), mortality (adjusted standardised mortality ratio 1·04, 1·02-1·06), and case fatality rates (adjusted standardised fatality ratio 1·01, 1·01-1·02). Mortality and case fatality rates were higher in departments with older populations (adjusted standardised ratio for populations with a high proportion older than aged >85 years 2·17 [95% CI 1·20-3·90] for mortality and 1·43 [1·08-1·88] for case fatality rate). Mortality rate was also associated with incidence rate (1·0004, 1·0002-1·001), but mortality and case fatality rates did not appear to be associated with baseline intensive care capacities. We found no association between climate and in-hospital COVID-19 incidence, or between economic indicators and in-hospital COVID-19 incidence or mortality rates. INTERPRETATION: This ecological study highlights the impact of the epidemic spread, national lockdown, and reactive adaptation of intensive care capacities on the spatial distribution of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. It provides information for future geo-epidemiological analyses and has implications for preparedness and response policies to current and future epidemic waves in France and elsewhere. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Geografia Médica , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espacial
4.
Euro Surveill ; 25(50)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334399

RESUMO

In France, measures including curfew and lockdown were implemented to control the COVID-19 pandemic second wave in 2020. This study descriptively assesses their possible effects, also relative to their timing. A considerable decrease in incidence of COVID-19 cases and hospital admissions was observed 7 to 10 days after mitigation measures were put in place, occurring earlier in metropolitan areas which had implemented these first. This temporal coincidence suggests the measures' positive impact, consistent with international experiences.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Pandemias , Quarentena , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , /diagnóstico , /transmissão , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores de Tempo
5.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e041834, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234656

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A few major clinical factors such as sex, obesity or comorbidities have already been associated with COVID-19 severity, but there is a need to identify new epidemiological, clinical, digital and biological characteristics associated with severity and perform deep phenotyping of patients according to severity. The objectives of the Predi-COVID study are (1) to identify new determinants of COVID-19 severity and (2) to conduct deep phenotyping of patients by stratifying them according to risk of complications, as well as risk factors for infection among household members of Predi-COVID participants (the Predi-COVID-H ancillary study). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Predi-COVID is a prospective, hybrid cohort study composed of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases in Luxembourg who will be followed up remotely for 1 year to monitor their health status and symptoms. Predi-COVID-H is an ancillary cohort study on household members of index cases included in Predi-COVID to monitor symptoms and household clusters in this high-risk population. A subcohort of up to 200 Predi-COVID and 300 Predi-COVID-H participants with biological samples will be included. Severity of infection will be evaluated by occurrence and duration of hospitalisation, admission and duration of stay in intensive care units or equivalent structures, provision of and duration of supplemental oxygen and ventilation therapy, transfer to another hospital, as well as the impact of infection on daily activities following hospital discharge. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the National Research Ethics Committee of Luxembourg (study number 202003/07) in April 2020. An informed consent is signed by study participants. Scientific articles will be submitted to international peer-reviewed journals, along with press releases for lay audience for major results. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04380987.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240024, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An increasing number of diseases is linked to deterioration of quality of life (QoL). Part of this association can be explained by socio-economic factors, which are most commonly accounted for. Our aim was to explore the potential contribution of other factors related to clinical burden, social interaction and functioning. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on wave 6 of the population-based Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), among participants aged 50+ (n = 67 179). The Control, Autonomy, Self-Realization and Pleasure (CASP-12v1) questionnaire measured QoL. The association between number of diseases and QoL was tested in a mixed-effects linear regression model. The base model controlled for socio-economic characteristics. Factors of interest (symptoms, polypharmacy, unmet care needs, utilisation of care, social network, personal and financial help, loneliness and activities of daily living (ADL) with instrumental activities (IADL)) were added to the base model one at a time and tested for relevance (i.e. change in the ß-coefficient of the number of conditions of 15% or more). RESULTS: Symptoms, polypharmacy, loneliness and ADL/IADL appeared relevant and were retained in the final model. The association between number of conditions and QoL in the base model was -2.44 [95% CI: -2.72; -2.16], while this association was -0.76 [95%CI: -0.97; -0.54] after all relevant factors were included. CONCLUSION: Factors beyond the socio-economic circumstances play an important role in explaining the association between number of conditions and QoL. These factors should be considered to better estimate the impact of chronic diseases on QoL, and for improving patient care.


Assuntos
Multimorbidade , Qualidade de Vida , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Solidão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Rede Social , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e19284, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501804

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has created an urgent need for coordinated mechanisms to respond to the outbreak across health sectors, and digital health solutions have been identified as promising approaches to address this challenge. This editorial discusses the current situation regarding digital health solutions to fight COVID-19 as well as the challenges and ethical hurdles to broad and long-term implementation of these solutions. To decrease the risk of infection, telemedicine has been used as a successful health care model in both emergency and primary care. Official communication plans should promote facile and diverse channels to inform people about the pandemic and to avoid rumors and reduce threats to public health. Social media platforms such as Twitter and Google Trends analyses are highly beneficial to model pandemic trends as well as to monitor the evolution of patients' symptoms or public reaction to the pandemic over time. However, acceptability of digital solutions may face challenges due to potential conflicts with users' cultural, moral, and religious backgrounds. Digital tools can provide collective public health benefits; however, they may be intrusive and can erode individual freedoms or leave vulnerable populations behind. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the strong potential of various digital health solutions that have been tested during the crisis. More concerted measures should be implemented to ensure that future digital health initiatives will have a greater impact on the epidemic and meet the most strategic needs to ease the life of people who are at the forefront of the crisis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Mídias Sociais , Telemedicina/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Medição de Risco
8.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 21(5): 758-765, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation is a major cardiometabolic risk factor, associated with increased inflammation. Oxidative stress (OS) is also associated with inflammation and cardiometabolic issues, yet mainly through general obesity. Both OS and obesity were linked to vitamin D deficiency. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether OS increase is associated with VAT accumulation in youth, and whether in the presence of VAT accumulation, a higher vitamin D status is associated with lower OS. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-eight youth with overweight/obesity, 7 to 17 years old, were recruited (Pediatric Clinic, Luxembourg). We assessed visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues by magnetic resonance imaging, OS by DNA/RNA oxidative damage with ELISA and vitamin D by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: VAT was the body fat compartment the most strongly associated with OS (RPearson : 0.298; P < 10-4 ). The general linear (GLM) models assessing the relationship between OS, VAT and vitamin D concentrations showed that "Log10 OS = (0.003 × VAT) + 3.911 (R2 adjusted : 0.083; P-value < 10-4 )"; "Log10 OS = (0.003 × VAT) - (0.156 × log10 vitamin D) + 4.110 (R2 adjusted : 0.101; P-value < 10-4 )". After back-transformation of the log-values into normal values, the GLM showed that, for a person with an average value of VAT (40.7 cm2 ), a 10 cm2 increase in VAT would increase OS by approx. 771.833 pg/mL, after age, gender, Tanner stage and physical activity adjustment. An approximate increase of 9 ng/mL of vitamin D would counterbalance this negative effect of increased VAT. CONCLUSION: Dietary strategies improving vitamin D status should be investigated to tackle VAT and OS increase.

9.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 180(3): 777-790, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086655

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the benefits of adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) for reducing recurrence and mortality risks after hormone-sensitive breast cancer, AET adherence is sub-optimal for a high proportion of women. However, little is known about long-term patterns of AET adherence over the minimally recommended 5 years. Our objectives were to: (1) identify 5-year AET adherence trajectory groups; (2) describe trajectory groups according to adherence measures traditionally used (i.e., Proportion of Days Covered); and (3) explore factors associated with trajectories. METHODS: We conducted a 5-year cohort study using data from a French national study that included AET dispensing data. Women diagnosed with first non-metastatic breast cancer and having at least 1 AET dispensing in the 12 months after diagnosis were included. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify adherence trajectory groups by clustering similar patterns of monthly AET dispensing. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with trajectories. RESULTS: Among 674 women, five AET adherence trajectory groups were identified: (1) quick decline and stop (5.2% of women); (2) moderate decline and stop (6.4%); (3) slow decline (17.2%); (4) high adherence (30.0%); and (5) maintenance of very high adherence (41.2%). Mean 5-year Proportion of Days Covered varied from 10 to 97% according to trajectories. Women who did not receive chemotherapy or a personalized care plan were more likely to belong to trajectories where AET adherence declined and stopped. CONCLUSION: Our results provide information on the diversity of longitudinal AET adherence patterns, the timing of decline and discontinuation and associated factors that could inform healthcare professionals.

10.
Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) ; 10(2): 249-262, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: No hierarchy of first-line treatments for anogenital warts (AGWs) is provided in international guidelines. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of topical treatments and ablative procedures for the management of AGWs. METHODS: Twelve electronic databases were systematically searched from inception to August 2018. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing immunocompetent adults with AGWs who received at least 1 provider-administered or patient-administered treatment in at least 1 parallel group were included. Risk of bias assessment followed the Cochrane Handbook. The study endpoint was complete lesion response after clearance and recurrence assessment. A network meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS: A network geometry was constructed based on 49 of the 70 RCTs included in our systematic review. All but 4 RCTs had a high risk of bias. The most efficacious treatments compared to placebo were surgery (RR 10.54; CI 95% 4.53-24.52), ablative therapy + imiquimod (RR 7.52; CI 95% 4.53-24.52), and electrosurgery (RR 7.10; CI 95% 3.47-14.53). SUCRA values confirmed the superiority of surgery (90.9%), ablative therapy + imiquimod (79.8%), and electrosurgery (77.1%). The most efficacious patient-administered treatments were podophyllotoxin 0.5% solution (63.5%) and podophyllotoxin 0.5% cream (62.2%). CONCLUSIONS: With low-level evidence of most included RCTs, surgery and electrosurgery were superior to other treatments after clearance and recurrence assessment. Podophyllotoxin 0.5% was the most efficacious patient-administered treatment. Combined therapies should be evaluated in future RCTs in view of their identified effectiveness. The results of future RCTs should systematically include clinical type, number and location of AGWs, and sex of the patient, to refine therapeutic indications. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO-CRD42015025827.

11.
JAMA ; 322(23): 2303-2312, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846014

RESUMO

Importance: Rocuronium and succinylcholine are often used for rapid sequence intubation, although the comparative efficacy of these paralytic agents for achieving successful intubation in an emergency setting has not been evaluated in clinical trials. Succinylcholine use has been associated with several adverse events not reported with rocuronium. Objective: To assess the noninferiority of rocuronium vs succinylcholine for tracheal intubation in out-of-hospital emergency situations. Design, Setting and Participants: Multicenter, single-blind, noninferiority randomized clinical trial comparing rocuronium (1.2 mg/kg) with succinylcholine (1 mg/kg) for rapid sequence intubation in 1248 adult patients needing out-of-hospital tracheal intubation. Enrollment occurred from January 2014 to August 2016 in 17 French out-of-hospital emergency medical units. The date of final follow-up was August 31, 2016. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to undergo tracheal intubation facilitated by rocuronium (n = 624) or succinylcholine (n = 624). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the intubation success rate on first attempt. A noninferiority margin of 7% was chosen. A per-protocol analysis was prespecified as the primary analysis. Results: Among 1248 patients who were randomized (mean age, 56 years; 501 [40.1%] women), 1230 (98.6%) completed the trial and 1226 (98.2%) were included in the per-protocol analysis. The number of patients with successful first-attempt intubation was 455 of 610 (74.6%) in the rocuronium group vs 489 of 616 (79.4%) in the succinylcholine group, with a between-group difference of -4.8% (1-sided 97.5% CI, -9% to ∞), which did not meet criteria for noninferiority. The most common intubation-related adverse events were hypoxemia (55 of 610 patients [9.0%]) and hypotension (39 of 610 patients [6.4%]) in the rocuronium group and hypoxemia (61 of 616 [9.9%]) and hypotension (62 of 616 patients [10.1%]) in the succinylcholine group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing endotracheal intubation in an out-of-hospital emergency setting, rocuronium, compared with succinylcholine, failed to demonstrate noninferiority with regard to first-attempt intubation success rate. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02000674.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Indução e Intubação de Sequência Rápida/métodos , Rocurônio/administração & dosagem , Succinilcolina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego
12.
Diabetes Care ; 42(10): 1903-1911, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Frailty is a dynamic state of vulnerability in the elderly. We examined whether individuals with overt diabetes or higher levels of HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose (FG) experience different frailty trajectories with aging. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Diabetes, HbA1c, and FG were assessed at baseline, and frailty status was evaluated with a 36-item frailty index every 2 years during a 10-year follow-up among participants from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Mixed-effects models with age as time scale were used to assess whether age trajectories of frailty differed as a function of diabetes, HbA1c, and FG. RESULTS: Among 5,377 participants (median age [interquartile range] 70 [65, 77] years, 45% men), 35% were frail at baseline. In a model adjusted for sex, participants with baseline diabetes had an increased frailty index over aging compared with those without diabetes. Similar findings were observed with higher levels of HbA1c, while FG was not associated with frailty. In a model additionally adjusted for income, social class, smoking, alcohol, and hemoglobin, only diabetes was associated with an increased frailty index. Among nonfrail participants at baseline, both diabetes and HbA1c level were associated with a higher increased frailty index over time. CONCLUSIONS: People with diabetes or higher HbA1c levels at baseline had a higher frailty level throughout later life. Nonfrail participants with diabetes or higher HbA1c also experienced more rapid deterioration of frailty level with aging. This observation could reflect a role of diabetes complications in frailty trajectories or earlier shared determinants that contribute to diabetes and frailty risk in later life.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/sangue , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Fragilidade/etiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Trials ; 20(1): 20, 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing gynaecological surgery are known to experience anxiety. While the use of music selected by patients based on their personal taste has hardly been evaluated, a recent study suggests that musical preferences significantly alter the anxiolytic and relaxing effects of music. Our study aims to determine whether self-selected music decreases patient anxiety prior to gynaecological surgery, as compared with predetermined music from a software programme such as MUSIC CARE®. METHODS: The study will consist of a clinical trial comparing the effects of self-selected music versus predetermined music on patient anxiety prior to gynaecological surgery. A minimum of 170 patients will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio. Inclusion criteria will be: women aged 18-55 years, awaiting scheduled gynaecological surgery under general/local anaesthesia or under sedation; having created a personal 20-min playlist; and not having received anxiolytic drugs prior to surgery. The primary outcome will be the difference between the preoperative anxiety score taken 15 to 20 min before the music-listening session and the preoperative anxiety score taken shortly after the session, as measured with the STAI for state anxiety. DISCUSSION: This study should help to identify more effective non-medical treatments for preoperative anxiety, as well as to adapt music therapy to the cultural context of patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03226834 . Registered on 24 July 2017.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/psicologia , Musicoterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Tamanho da Amostra , Adulto Jovem
14.
SAGE Open Med ; 6: 2050312118801250, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319778

RESUMO

Objectives: Health literacy refers to the ability of individuals to gain access to, use, and understand health information and services in order to maintain a good health. The assessment of health literacy profiles in a population is potentially crucial to respond to health needs. The Health Literacy Questionnaire explores nine dimensions of health literacy and has been shown to display robust psychometric properties. The aim was to test the validity of the multidimensional Health Literacy Questionnaire and to describe the health literacy profiles in a French population at risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods: Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires from 175 participants attending health education and support programmes in local associations of patients in Paris. Analysis included scale reliability, confirmatory factor analysis, and health literacy profiles via descriptive statistics. Results: In confirmatory factor analysis, the nine-factor structure was close to the original Health Literacy Questionnaire. A nine-factor confirmatory factor analysis model was fitted to the 44 items with no cross-loadings or correlated residuals allowed. Given the restricted nature of the model, the fit was satisfactory: χ2 WLSMV(866 df) = 1383.81, p = 0.0000, comparative fit index = 0.925, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.918, root mean square error of approximation = 0.058, weighted root mean square residual = 1.175. Composite reliability ranged from 0.77 to 0.91. Among the 9 scales of the Health Literacy Questionnaire, the highest scores were found for scale 1 'Feeling understood and supported by healthcare professionals' and scale 9 'Understand health information enough to know what to do' and the lowest for scale 2 'Having sufficient information to manage my health' and scale 7 'Navigating the healthcare system'. Conclusion: The French version of the Health Literacy Questionnaire was shown to be psychometrically robust with good reliability. In the context of France, the 9 scales of Health Literacy Questionnaire allow a thorough assessment of health literacy strengths and weaknesses to respond to health literacy needs and improve the accessibility of health information and services.

15.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195531, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621322

RESUMO

Evidence from literature is mixed regarding a possible association of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and overweight in the offspring. Sexual dimorphism, or sex disparities in the pathogenesis linking GDM exposure to overweight, could be at play. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between GDM and child overweight at 5-7 years. Six hundred pairs (1:1) of Reunionese liveborn singletons selected from a hospital-based birth registry, matched for sex, gestational age, and birth period, underwent a prospective in-home follow-up and were analyzed with respect to their exposure to GDM. The primary outcome was child overweight at 5-7 years, as defined by the International Obesity Task Force. The association between GDM exposure and child overweight was estimated by the odds ratio (OR) using conditional logistic regression models. For the subset of children exposed to GDM with available maternal glycemic data, we analyzed the relationship between maternal glycemic levels during pregnancy and child body mass index (BMI) at 5-7 years with a linear regression model. In light of the significant interaction between sex and GDM, all statistical analyses were then stratified by sex. After controlling for pre-pregnancy BMI and maternal sociodemographic characteristics, the risk of overweight increased with exposure to GDM for boys (adjusted OR: 2.34; 95% confidence interval = 1.26-4.34, P = 0.007) but not for girls (adjusted OR: 0.56; 95%CI = 0.28-1.10, P = 0.093). Consistent with this, the linear increase of boys' BMI at 5-7 years with maternal blood glucose levels during pregnancy, in the exposed group, displayed a dose-response relationship. Our findings indicate that exposure to GDM is a risk factor for childhood overweight in boys but not in girls, which adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting greater sensitivity of male offspring to intrauterine hyperglycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
BMJ Open ; 8(3): e018180, 2018 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Unlike several other national health agencies, French health authorities recommended that the newer direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) agents only be prescribed as second choice for the treatment of newly diagnosed non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) remaining the first choice. We investigated the patterns of use of DOACs versus VKA in the treatment of NVAF in France over the first 5 years of DOAC availability. We also identified the changes in patient characteristics of those who initiated DOAC treatment over this time period. METHODS: Based on the French National Health Administrative Database, we constituted a population-based cohort of all patients who were newly treated for NVAF between January 2011 and December 2015. Trends in drug use were described as the percentage of patients initiating each drug at the time of treatment initiation. A multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was performed to identify independent sociodemographic and clinical predictors of initial anticoagulant choice. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 814 446 patients who had received a new anticoagulant treatment for NVAF. The proportion of patients using DOACs as initial anticoagulant therapy reached 54% 3 months after the Health Ministry approved the reimbursement of dabigatran for NVAF, and 61% by the end of 2015, versus VKA use. In the multivariate analysis, we found that DOAC initiators were younger and healthier overall than VKA initiators, and this tendency was reinforced over the 2011-2014 period. DOACs were more frequently prescribed by cardiologists in 2012 and after (adjusted OR in 2012: 2.47; 95% CI 2.40 to 2.54). CONCLUSION: Despite recommendations from health authorities, DOACs have been rapidly and massively adopted as initial therapy for NVAF in France. Observational studies should account for the fact that patients selected to initiate DOAC treatment are healthier overall, as failure to do so may bias the risk-benefit assessment of DOACs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial , Seguro Saúde , Padrões de Prática Médica , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
17.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0191262, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29357380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of peer-led self-management education in improving glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in a low-income country (Mali). METHODS: We conducted an open-label randomised controlled trial. A total of 151 adults (76% women, mean age 52.5) with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c≥8%), treated in the diabetes consultation units of two secondary health centres in Bamako, were allocated to peer-led structured patient education (n = 76) or conventional care alone (n = 75). The intervention group received 1 year of culturally tailored structured patient education (3 courses of 4 sessions) delivered in the community by five trained peer educators. Both groups underwent conventional diabetes monitoring and follow-up. Primary outcome was the mean absolute change in HbA1c from baseline to 12 months. RESULTS: 177 education sessions were delivered to the intervention group. Patient attrition was 8%. From baseline to 12 months, the decrease in HbA1c levels was 1.05% (SD = 2.0; CI95%: 1.54;-0.56) in the intervention group compared with 0.15% (SD = 1.7; CI95%: -0.56; 0.26) in the control group, p = 0.006. Mean BMI change was -1.65 kg/m2 (SD = 2.5; CI95%: -2.25; -1.06) in the intervention group and +0.05 kg/m2 (SD = 3.2; CI95%: -0.71; 0.81) in the control group, p = 0.0005. Mean waist circumference decreased by 3.34 cm (SD = 9.3; CI95%: -5.56;-1.13) in the intervention group and increased by 2.65 cm (SD = 10.3; CI95%: 0.20; 5.09) in the control group, p = 0.0003. CONCLUSIONS: Peer-led structured patient education delivered over 1 year to patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in Mali yielded substantial improvements in glycaemic control and anthropometric parameters. This is of importance for the scaling up of efficient interventions in low-resource settings in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01485913.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Autogestão/métodos , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Mali , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Grupo Associado , Autocuidado/métodos
18.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 83(9): 2096-2106, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28390065

RESUMO

AIMS: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are alternatives to vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs) for the prevention of thromboembolism. It is unclear how NOACs have been adopted in the UK since first introduced in 2008. The present study was conducted to describe the trends in the prescription of NOACs in the UK, including dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban. METHODS: Using the UK's Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the rates of new use of NOACs and VKAs from 2009 to 2015 were calculated using Poisson regression. Patient characteristics associated with NOAC initiation were identified using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The overall rate of oral anticoagulant initiation increased by 58% over the study period [rate ratio (RR) 1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23, 2.03], even as the rate of new VKA use decreased by 31% (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.52, 0.93). By contrast, the rate of initiation of NOAC increased, particularly from 2012 onwards, with a 17-fold increase from 2012 to 2015 (RR 17.68; 95% CI 12.16, 25.71). In 2015, NOACs accounted for 56.5% of oral anticoagulant prescriptions, with rivaroxaban prescribed most frequently, followed by apixaban and then dabigatran. Compared to VKAs, new NOAC users were less likely to have congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease, and more likely to have a history of ischaemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In the UK, the rate of initiation of NOACs has increased substantially since 2009, and these agents have now surpassed VKAs as the anticoagulant of choice. Moreover, the characteristics of patients initiated on NOACs have changed over time, and this should be accounted for in future studies comparing NOACs and VKAs.


Assuntos
Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 17(1): 297, 2017 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28431579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvement of coordination of all health and social care actors in the patient pathways is an important issue in many countries. Health Information (HI) technology has been considered as a potentially effective answer to this issue. The French Health Ministry first funded the development of five TSN ("Territoire de Soins Numérique"/Digital health territories) projects, aiming at improving healthcare coordination and access to information for healthcare providers, patients and the population, and at improving healthcare professionals work organization. The French Health Ministry then launched a call for grant to fund one research project consisting in evaluating the TSN projects implementation and impact and in developing a model for HI technology evaluation. METHODS: EvaTSN is mainly based on a controlled before-after study design. Data collection covers three periods: before TSN program implementation, during early TSN program implementation and at late TSN program implementation, in the five TSN projects' territories and in five comparison territories. Three populations will be considered: "TSN-targeted people" (healthcare system users and people having characteristics targeted by the TSN projects), "TSN patient users" (people included in TSN experimentations or using particular services) and "TSN professional users" (healthcare professionals involved in TSN projects). Several samples will be made in each population depending on the objective, axis and stage of the study. Four types of data sources are considered: 1) extractions from the French National Heath Insurance Database (SNIIRAM) and the French Autonomy Personalized Allowance database, 2) Ad hoc surveys collecting information on knowledge of TSN projects, TSN program use, ease of use, satisfaction and understanding, TSN pathway experience and appropriateness of hospital admissions, 3) qualitative analyses using semi-directive interviews and focus groups and document analyses and 4) extractions of TSN implementation indicators from TSN program database. DISCUSSION: EvaTSN is a challenging French national project for the production of evidenced-based information on HI technologies impact and on the context and conditions of their effectiveness and efficiency. We will be able to support health care management in order to implement HI technologies. We will also be able to produce an evaluation toolkit for HI technology evaluation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02837406 , 08/18/2016.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Disseminação de Informação , Melhoria de Qualidade , Pessoal de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Cancer Surviv ; 11(4): 421-430, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28150122

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the use of non-conventional medicine (NCM) in a representative sample of French patients 2 years after cancer diagnosis. METHODS: The study was based on data obtained in the VICAN survey (2012) on a representative sample of 4349 patients 2 years after cancer diagnosis. Self-reported data were collected at telephone interviews with patients. The questionnaire addressed the various types of non-conventional treatments used at the time of the survey. RESULTS: Among the participants, 16.4% reported that they used NCM, and 45.3% of this group had not used NCM before cancer diagnosis (new NCM users). Commonly, NCMs used were homeopathy (64.0%), acupuncture (22.1%), osteopathy (15.1%), herbal medicine (8.1%), diets (7.3%) and energy therapies (5.8%). NCM use was found to be significantly associated with younger age, female gender and a higher education level. Previous NCM use was significantly associated with having a managerial occupation and an expected 5-year survival rate ≥80% at diagnosis; recent NCM use was associated with cancer progression since diagnosis, impaired quality of life and higher pain reports. CONCLUSION: This is the first study on NCM use 2 years after cancer diagnosis in France. In nearly half of the NCM users, cancer diagnosis was one of the main factors which incited patients to use NCM. Apart from the NCM users' socioeconomic profile, the present results show that impaired health was a decisive factor: opting for unconventional approaches was therefore a pragmatic response to needs which conventional medicine fails to meet during the course of the disease. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Better information of patients and caregivers is needed to allow access to these therapies to a larger population of survivors.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...