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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a growing interest in how people living with dementia may achieve good outcomes and be resilient despite their health challenges. Understanding what might be important for resilience in this population is largely untested theory. METHODS: The analysis draws a subsample with cognitive impairment (N=579) from two waves of the CFAS Wales study, a nationally representative study of community-dwelling people aged 65+ in Wales. We constructed a measure of mental health resilience (MHR) defined as no depression, no anxiety and high wellbeing. Drawing on a resilience framework, we tested univariate and cumulative effects models of the factors that enable MHR, and then examined whether MHR is important for reducing loneliness over time. RESULTS: Across both waves of data 22% (n=121) met the criteria for MHR. The cumulative effects model found the odds of MHR were greater for male gender, higher self-esteem, greater social resources and no subjective memory complaints. Controlling for these significant predictors, MHR significantly predicted lower total and sub-scale scores for loneliness at wave 2. Sensitivity analysis shows these effects held at lower levels of cognitive function when the MMSE score was <25, but not at <23. CONCLUSIONS: This paper addresses a gap in research regarding the conceptualisation and measurement of resilience when facing cognitive impairment. Understanding what aspects of a person's life might enable good mental health despite cognitive impairment - to be resilient - could inform effective strategies for friends and families, along with health and social policy and practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534876

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to investigate trends in frailty and its relationship with mortality among older adults aged 64-84 years across a period of 21 years. Data from 1995 to 2016 were used from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. A total of 7,742 observations of 2,874 respondents in the same age range (64-84 years) across six measurement waves were included. Frailty was measured with a 32-item frailty index, with a cut-point of ≥0.25 to indicate frailty. The outcome measure was 4-year mortality. Generalized Estimating Equation analyses showed that among older adults aged 64-84 years the 4-year mortality rate declined between 1995 and 2016, while the prevalence of frailty increased. Across all measurement waves, frailty was associated with 4-year mortality (Odds Ratio: 2.79, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.39, 3.26). There was no statistically significant interaction effect between frailty and time on 4-year mortality, indicating a stable association between frailty and mortality. In more recent generations of older adults, frailty prevalence rates were higher, while excess mortality rates of frailty remained the same. This is important information for health policy makers and clinical practice, as it shows that continued efforts are needed to reduce frailty and its negative health consequences.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 654, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510174

RESUMO

Low muscle strength is an important heritable indicator of poor health linked to morbidity and mortality in older people. In a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 256,523 Europeans aged 60 years and over from 22 cohorts we identify 15 loci associated with muscle weakness (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition: n = 48,596 cases, 18.9% of total), including 12 loci not implicated in previous analyses of continuous measures of grip strength. Loci include genes reportedly involved in autoimmune disease (HLA-DQA1 p = 4 × 10-17), arthritis (GDF5 p = 4 × 10-13), cell cycle control and cancer protection, regulation of transcription, and others involved in the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Using Mendelian randomization we report possible overlapping causal pathways, including diabetes susceptibility, haematological parameters, and the immune system. We conclude that muscle weakness in older adults has distinct mechanisms from continuous strength, including several pathways considered to be hallmarks of ageing.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Sarcopenia/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fator 5 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/genética , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 155, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the educational expansion is often seen as a mechanism that might reduce health inequalities, socioeconomic inequalities in health (SEIH) have persisted or increased over the past decades. Theories suggest that this persistence could be due to a changing role of education as a 'gatekeeper' to access other socioeconomic resources such as occupation and income that are also associated with health outcomes. To test this, we examine whether the mediating role of occupation and income in the education-health relationship differs between three cohorts of 55-64 year old adults. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from three cohorts of 988, 1002, and 1023 adults born in 1928/37, 1938/47 and 1948/57 and observed in 1992/93, 2002/03, 2012/13 respectively, who participated in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We used multigroup structural equation modelling to compare the strength of indirect effects of education via occupational skill level and income to functional limitations and depressive symptoms between cohorts. RESULTS: Absolute educational inequalities in functional limitations increased for men and women in later cohorts, and in depressive symptoms only for men. Relative inequalities in functional limitations increased only for women and in depressive symptoms only for men. The indirect effect of education via income on both health outcomes was weaker in the most recent birth cohort compared to the earlier cohorts. In contrast, the indirect effect of education via occupation on functional limitations was stronger in the most recent cohort compared to the earlier cohorts. These differences were mainly due to a decreasing direct effect of education on income and an increasing direct effect of education on occupational skill level, rather than to changes in the direct effects of occupation and income on health. CONCLUSIONS: The role of education in determining inequalities in health appears to have changed across cohorts. While education became a less important determinant of income, it became a more important determinant of occupational level. This changing role of education in producing health inequalities should be considered in research and policy.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on associations between urban green space and mental health have yielded mixed results. This study examines associations of green space exposures with subjective health and depressed affect of middle-aged and older adults in four European cohorts. METHODS: Data came from four Western-European and Central-European ageing cohorts harmonised as part of the Mindmap project, comprising 16 189 adults with an average age of 50-71 years. Green space exposure was based on the distance to the nearest green space and the amount of green space within 800 m buffers around residential addresses. Cohort-specific and one-step individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses were used to examine associations of green space exposures with subjective health and depressed affect. RESULTS: The amount of green spaces within 800 m buffers was lowest for Residential Environment and CORonary heart Disease (Paris, 15.0 hectares) and highest for Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (Czech Republic, 35.9 hectares). IPD analyses indicated no evidence of an association between the distance to the nearest green space and depressed affect (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.00) or good self-rated health (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.02). Likewise, the amount of green space within 800 m buffers did not predict depressed affect (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.00) or good self-rated health (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.02). Findings were consistent across all cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Data from four European ageing cohorts provide no support for the hypothesis that green space exposure is associated with subjective health or depressed affect. While longitudinal evidence is required, these findings suggest that green space may be less important for older urban residents.

6.
Gerontology ; 67(1): 69-77, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429387

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Frailty can be seen as a continuum, from fit to frail. While many recent studies have focused on frailty, much less attention has been paid to the other end of the continuum: the group of older adults that remain (relatively) vital. Moreover, there is a lack of studies on frailty and vitality that investigate predictors from multiple domains of functioning simultaneously. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of frailty as well as vitality among older adults aged 75 years and over. METHODS: We used longitudinal data from 569 adults aged ≥75 years who participated in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Predictors from the sociodemographic, social, psychological, lifestyle, and physical domains of functioning were measured at T1 (2008-2009). We used the frailty index (FI) to identify frail (FI ≥ 0.25) and vital (FI ≤ 0.15) respondents at follow-up, 3 years later (T2: 2011-2012). We conducted logistic regression analyses with backward stepwise selection to develop and internally validate our prediction models. RESULTS: The prevalence of frailty in our sample at follow-up was 49.4% and the prevalence of vitality was 18.3%. Predictors of frailty and vitality partly overlapped and included age, depressive symptoms, number of chronic diseases, and self-rated health. We also found predictors that did not overlap. Male sex, moderate alcohol use, more emotional support received, and no hearing problems, were predictors of vitality. Lower cognitive functioning, polypharmacy, and pain were predictors of frailty. The final model for vitality explained 42% of the variance and the final model for frailty explained 48%. Both models had a good discriminative value (area under ROC-curve [AUC] vitality: 0.88; AUC frailty: 0.85). CONCLUSION: Among older adults aged 75 years and over, predictors of frailty only partially overlap with predictors of vitality. The readily accessible predictors in our models may help to identify older adults who are likely to be vital, or who are at risk of frailty.

7.
J Affect Disord ; 281: 235-243, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is mixed evidence regarding the change in the prevalence of depression in the general population over time. This study aimed to synthesise the evidence on studies that use equivalent approaches in equivalent populations across different time points. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify studies focused on the change over time in depression incidence and prevalence in the general population. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to obtain a pooled effect for the change in the prevalence estimates between the first and last time points considered. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were used to ascertain differences in the effect sizes by gender, age group, prevalence type, elapsed time between cross-sections, and depression operationalisation. RESULTS: 19 studies provided information on the change in depression prevalence over time, whereas none provided such information regarding incidence. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI) were estimated by using 17 studies: OR=1.35 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.61). Similar pooled effects were obtained for females and males, separately. The high heterogeneity across studies was not explained by any of the design variables considered. No evidence for publication bias was found. LIMITATIONS: The review included published articles up to August 2018, and the information of studies with more than two time points was summarised in a single estimate of change. CONCLUSIONS: There is a predominant increasing trend in the likelihood of experiencing depression over time that seems not to be explainable by study design differences or publication bias alone.

8.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199855

RESUMO

We aimed to obtain reliable reference charts for sleep duration, estimate the prevalence of sleep complaints across the lifespan and identify risk indicators of poor sleep. Studies were identified through systematic literature search in Embase, Medline and Web of Science (9 August 2019) and through personal contacts. Eligible studies had to be published between 2000 and 2017 with data on sleep assessed with questionnaires including ≥100 participants from the general population. We assembled individual participant data from 200,358 people (aged 1-100 years, 55% female) from 36 studies from the Netherlands, 471,759 people (40-69 years, 55.5% female) from the United Kingdom and 409,617 people (≥18 years, 55.8% female) from the United States. One in four people slept less than age-specific recommendations, but only 5.8% slept outside of the 'acceptable' sleep duration. Among teenagers, 51.5% reported total sleep times (TST) of less than the recommended 8-10 h and 18% report daytime sleepiness. In adults (≥18 years), poor sleep quality (13.3%) and insomnia symptoms (9.6-19.4%) were more prevalent than short sleep duration (6.5% with TST < 6 h). Insomnia symptoms were most frequent in people spending ≥9 h in bed, whereas poor sleep quality was more frequent in those spending <6 h in bed. TST was similar across countries, but insomnia symptoms were 1.5-2.9 times higher in the United States. Women (≥41 years) reported sleeping shorter times or slightly less efficiently than men, whereas with actigraphy they were estimated to sleep longer and more efficiently than man. This study provides age- and sex-specific population reference charts for sleep duration and efficiency which can help guide personalized advice on sleep length and preventive practices.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216869

RESUMO

Studying the genome of centenarians may give insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying extreme human longevity and the escape of age-related diseases. Here, we set out to construct polygenic-risk-scores (PRS) for longevity and to investigate the functions of longevity-associated variants. Using a cohort of centenarians with maintained cognitive health (N=343), a population-matched cohort of older-adults from five cohorts (N=2905), and summary statistics data from a GWAS on parental longevity, we constructed a PRS including 330 variants that significantly discriminated between centenarians and older-adults. This PRS was also associated with longer survival in an independent sample of younger individuals, (p=0.02), leading up to a 4-year difference in survival based on common genetic factors only. We show that this PRS was, in part, able to compensate for the deleterious effect of the APOE-ε4 allele. Using an integrative framework, we annotated the 330 variants included in this PRS by the genes they associate with. We find that they are enriched with genes associated with cellular differentiation, developmental processes, and cellular response to stress. Together, our results indicate that an extended human lifespan is, in part, the result of a constellation of variants each exerting small advantageous effects on aging-related biological mechanisms that maintain overall health and decrease the risk of age-related diseases.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examines the impact of environmental noise policy on depressive symptoms by exploiting the national experiment afforded by the New Deal aircraft noise control policy introduced in Schiphol (Amsterdam) in 2008. METHODS: Data came from older adults (ages 57-102) participating in three waves (2005/2006, 2008/2009 and 2011/2012) of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) (N=1746). Aircraft noise data from the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency were linked to LASA cohort addresses using the GeoDMS software. The Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. Using a difference-in-dfferences (DiD) approach, we compared changes in CES-D levels of depressive symptoms before and after the policy between people living close (≤15 km) and those living far away (>15 km) from Schiphol airport. RESULTS: There were few changes in noise levels after the introduction of the policy. Estimates suggested that the policy did not lead to a reduction in noise levels in the treatment areas relative to the control areas (DiD estimate=0.916 dB(A), SE=0.345), and it had no significant impact on levels of depressive symptoms (DiD estimate=0.044, SE=0.704). Results were robust to applying different distance thresholds. CONCLUSION: The New Deal aircraft noise control policy introduced in Amsterdam was not effective in reducing aircraft noise levels and had no impact on depressive symptoms in older people. Our results raise questions about the effectiveness of the current noise control policy to improve the well-being of residents living near the airport.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although ageing populations are increasingly residing in cities, it is unknown whether depression inequalities are moderated by urbanicity degree. We estimated gender, marital and educational inequalities in depressive symptoms among older European and Canadian adults, and examined whether higher levels of urbanicity, captured by population density, heightened these inequalities. METHODS: Harmonised cross-sectional data on 97 826 adults aged ≥50 years from eight cohorts were used. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated for probable depression, depressed affect and depressive symptom severity by gender, marital status and education within each cohort, and combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Using a subsample of 73 123 adults from six cohorts with available data on population density, we tested moderating effects measured by the number of residents per square kilometre. RESULTS: The pooled PRs for probable depression by female gender, unmarried or non-cohabitating status and low education were 1.48 (95% CI 1.28 to 1.72), 1.44 (95% CI 1.29 to 1.61) and 1.29 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.41), respectively. PRs for depressed affect and high symptom severity were broadly similar. Except for one Dutch cohort with findings in an unexpected direction, there was no evidence that population density modified depressive symptom inequalities. CONCLUSIONS: Despite cross-cohort variation in gender, marital status and educational inequalities in depressive symptoms, there was weak evidence that these inequalities differed by levels of population density.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loneliness is associated with several adverse mental and physical health outcomes in older adults. Previous studies have shown that a variety of individual-level and perceived area-level characteristics are associated with loneliness. This study examined the associations of objectively measured social and physical neighbourhood characteristics with loneliness. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 1959 older adults (63-98 years) who participated in the Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam (LASA; wave 2011/12) and the Health and Living Conditions of the Population of Eindhoven and Surroundings study (GLOBE; wave 2014) in the Netherlands. Study-specific loneliness scores were harmonised across both cohort studies and divided into tertiles denoting low, medium and high levels of loneliness. Objectively measured neighbourhood characteristics, including area-level percentages of low educated residents, social security beneficiaries and unoccupied dwellings, average income, crime levels and land use mix, were linked to individual-level data. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations of interest. RESULTS: There was no statistical evidence for an association of the included neighbourhood characteristics with loneliness. Although not statistically significant, the observed associations suggested that participants living in neighbourhoods with more heterogeneous land use mix were less likely to have a medium and high level of loneliness than those living in more homogeneous neighbourhoods in terms of land use mix (ORmedium=0.54, 95% CI=0.18-1.67; ORhigh=0.67, 95% CI=0.21-2.11). CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the included objectively measured social and physical neighbourhood characteristics are not associated with loneliness in old age.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095831

RESUMO

To be able to extend working lives, maintaining good health in older workers is important. The aim of the present study was to identify which work characteristics are associated with physical and mental health outcomes in older workers in the Netherlands, and particularly whether there are educational differences in these associations. We used longitudinal tobit and ordered logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between physical demands, psychosocial demands, variation in tasks, autonomy, and job strain and self-rated health (SRH), functional limitations, and depressive symptoms. We included interaction terms between the work characteristics and education to examine effect modification by education. We found that high physical demands, low variation in tasks, low autonomy, and high job strain were associated with poorer physical and mental health. We found evidence for educational differences in the exposure to these work characteristics, as well as in the strengths of their associations with health, with lower educated workers being disadvantaged. The associations between physical demands (SRH: OR = 3.70 (95%CI:1.92;7.11); functional limitations: B = 1.27 (95%CI:.47;2.07)), autonomy (SRH: OR = .42(95%CI:.26;.69)), and job strain (active job; SRH: OR = .25 (95%CI:.09;.69); functional limitations: B = -1.51 (95%CI:-2.68;-.34), and health were strongest in the lower educated workers. In order to maintain good health in older workers and reduce health inequalities, it is recommended to implement workplace interventions to improve working conditions, especially among the lower educated workers.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is an increasing research interest in factors that characterize those who reach exceptionally old ages. Although loneliness is often associated with an increased risk for premature mortality, its relationship with reaching longevity is still unclear. We aimed to quantify the association between (social/emotional) loneliness and the likelihood of reaching the age of 90 years in men and women separately. METHODS: For these analyses, data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) was used. Loneliness, social loneliness and emotional loneliness were assessed at baseline using the 11-item De Jong-Gierveld scale in 1992-93 (at age 64-85 years). Follow-up for vital status information until the age of 90 years was 99.5% complete. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses with a fixed follow-up time were based on 1,032 men and 1,078 women to calculate Risk Ratios (RR) of reaching 90 years. RESULTS: No significant associations were observed between loneliness and reaching 90 years in both men (RR,0.90; 95%CI,0.70-1.14) and women (RR,0.98; 95%CI,0.83-1.14). Social loneliness was significantly associated with a reduced chance of reaching 90 years in women (RR,0.82; 95%CI,0.67-0.99). DISCUSSION: The current analyses, did not show support for the existence of a meaningful effect of loneliness on reaching longevity in both sexes. When investigating specific dimensions of loneliness, we observed that reporting social loneliness was associated with reaching 90 years in women. This indicates that, for women, a large and diverse personal network at an older age could increase the probability of reaching longevity. However, replication of our findings in other cohorts is needed.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 332, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994401

RESUMO

Developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) is influenced by multiple genetic variants that are involved in five major AD-pathways. Per individual, these pathways may differentially contribute to the modification of the AD-risk. The pathways involved in the resilience against AD have thus far been poorly addressed. Here, we investigated to what extent each molecular mechanism associates with (i) the increased risk of AD and (ii) the resilience against AD until extreme old age, by comparing pathway-specific polygenic risk scores (pathway-PRS). We used 29 genetic variants associated with AD to develop pathway-PRS for five major pathways involved in AD. We developed an integrative framework that allows multiple genes to associate with a variant, and multiple pathways to associate with a gene. We studied pathway-PRS in the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort of well-phenotyped AD patients (N = 1895), Dutch population controls from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (N = 1654) and our unique 100-plus Study cohort of cognitively healthy centenarians who avoided AD (N = 293). Last, we estimated the contribution of each pathway to the genetic risk of AD in the general population. All pathway-PRS significantly associated with increased AD-risk and (in the opposite direction) with resilience against AD (except for angiogenesis, p < 0.05). The pathway that contributed most to the overall modulation of AD-risk was ß-amyloid metabolism (29.6%), which was driven mainly by APOE-variants. After excluding APOE variants, all pathway-PRS associated with increased AD-risk (except for angiogenesis, p < 0.05), while specifically immune response (p = 0.003) and endocytosis (p = 0.0003) associated with resilience against AD. Indeed, the variants in these latter two pathways became the main contributors to the overall modulation of genetic risk of AD (45.5% and 19.2%, respectively). The genetic variants associated with the resilience against AD indicate which pathways are involved with maintained cognitive functioning until extreme ages. Our work suggests that a favorable immune response and a maintained endocytosis pathway might be involved in general neuro-protection, which highlight the need to investigate these pathways, next to ß-amyloid metabolism.

16.
Health Place ; 64: 102359, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838884

RESUMO

This study examines the impact of the Dutch District Approach, a major urban regeneration programme that was started in 2008 in the Netherlands, on social, physical and mental functioning of older adults. Data from 1092 participants (58-93 years at baseline) across two waves (2005/06 and 2011/12) of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were linked to detailed data on exposure to the programme. Using a difference-in-difference approach, we assessed differences from pre-intervention to the intervention period between the target and control districts in loneliness, social engagement, social isolation, physical activity, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Regardless of programme intensity, the results indicate that the Dutch District Approach did not benefit or harm these aspects of functioning in older adults.

17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(11): 2587-2593, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Frailty, loneliness, and social isolation are all associated with adverse outcomes in older adults, but little is known about their combined impact on mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling older adults aged 65 and older (n = 1,427). MEASUREMENTS: Frailty was measured with the frailty phenotype (Fried criteria). Loneliness was assessed with the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Social isolation was operationalized using information on partner status, social support, and network size. Two categorical variables were created, for each possible combination regarding frailty and loneliness (FL) and frailty and social isolation (FS), respectively. Mortality was monitored over a period of 22 years (1995-2017). Survival curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used to study the effects of the FL and FS combinations on mortality. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, depression, chronic diseases, and smoking. RESULTS: Frailty prevalence was 13%, and 5.9% of the sample were frail and lonely, and 6.2% frail and socially isolated. In fully adjusted models, older adults who were only frail had a higher risk of mortality compared with people without any of the conditions (hazard ratio [HR] range = 1.40-1.48; P < .01). However, the highest risk of mortality was observed in people with a combined presence of frailty and loneliness or social isolation (HRFL = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.42-2.37; HRFS = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.36-2.30). Sensitivity analyses using a frailty index based on the deficit accumulation approach instead of the frailty phenotype showed similar results, confirming the robustness of our findings. CONCLUSION: Frail older adults are at increased risk of mortality, but this risk is even higher for those who are also lonely or socially isolated. To optimize well-being and health outcomes in physically frail older adults, targeted interventions focusing on both subjective and objective social vulnerability are needed.

18.
Eur J Ageing ; 17(2): 217-227, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547349

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify macro-level determinants of early work exit and investigate whether the effects of these determinants differ across educational groups. We used data from the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) (2011-2013) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) (2010/2011-2012/2013) as well as macro-level data and included 10,584 participants in 14 European countries. We used logistic multilevel analyses to examine educational differences in macro-level determinants of early work exit. Macro-level determinants were: minimum unemployment replacement rates, expenditure on active labour market policies (aimed to help the unemployed find work) and passive labour market policies (unemployment and early retirement benefits), employment protection legislation (costs involved in dismissing individuals), unemployment rates, statutory pension age and implicit tax on continued work. We found low-educated workers to be more at risk of early work exit than higher educated workers. In low-educated men, higher unemployment replacement rates, higher expenditure on passive labour market policies, stricter employment protection legislation and a higher implicit tax on continued work were associated with a higher risk of early work exit, whereas no macro-level factors were associated with early work exit in highly educated men. In women, a higher expenditure on passive labour market policies and a higher implicit tax on continued work were determinants of early work exit, regardless of educational level. To conclude, low-educated men seem to be especially responsive to the effects of pull factors that make early retirement financially more attractive.

19.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 28(8): 844-855, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of genetic and social factors on depressive symptoms and depression over time and to test whether social factors moderate the relationship between depressive symptoms and its underlying genetics in later life. METHODS: The study included 2,279 participants with a mean follow-up of 15 years from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam with genotyping data. The personal genetic loading for depression was estimated for each participant by calculating a polygenic risk scores (PRS-D), based on 23,032 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with major depression in a large genome-wide association study. Partner status, network size, received and given emotional support were assessed via questionnaires and depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D Scale. A CES-D Scale of 16 and higher was considered as clinically relevant depression. RESULTS: Higher PRS-D was associated with more depressive symptoms whereas having a partner and having a larger network size were independently associated with less depressive symptoms. After extra adjustment for education, cognitive function and functional limitations, giving more emotional support was also associated with less depressive symptoms. No evidence for gene-environment interaction between PRS-D and social factors was found. Similar results were found for clinically relevant depression. CONCLUSION: Genetic and social factors are independently associated with depressive symptoms over time in older adults. Strategies that boost social functioning should be encouraged in the general population of older adults regardless of the genetic liability for depression.

20.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(8): 568-575, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous research has shown that poor physical and mental health are important risk factors for early work exit. We examined potential differences in this association in older workers (50+) across educational levels. METHODS: Coordinated analyses were carried out in longitudinal data sets from four European countries: the Netherlands (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam), Denmark (Danish Longitudinal Study of Ageing), England (English Longitudinal Study of Ageing) and Germany (German Ageing Survey). The effect of poor self-rated health (SRH), functional limitations and depression on different types of early work exit (early retirement, economic inactivity, disability and unemployment) was examined using Cox regression analysis. We examined educational differences in these effects by testing interaction terms. RESULTS: Poor physical and mental health were more common among the lower educated. Poor SRH, functional limitations, and depression were all associated with a higher risk of early work exit. These health effects were strongest for the disability exit routes (poor SRH: HRs 5.77 to 8.14; functional limitations: HRs 6.65 to 10.42; depression: HRs 3.30 to 5.56). In the Netherlands (functional limitations) and England (functional limitations and SRH), effects were stronger in the lower educated. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of health problems, that is, poor SRH, functional limitations and depression, was higher in the lower educated workers. All three health indicators increase the risk of early work exit. In some countries, health effects on early exit were stronger in the lower educated. Thus, lower educated older workers are an important target group for health policy and intervention.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Depressão , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aposentadoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
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