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1.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 25(2): 152-160, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596141

RESUMO

Aims: To explore patient experiences in a large-scale primary care-based, preemptive genetic testing program. Methods: Patients who received genetic results from the initiative were invited to participate in an online survey 3 weeks postresult disclosure. A 6-month follow-up survey was sent to assess changes over time. Results: The initial survey was completed by 1646 patients, with 544 completing the 6-month follow-up survey. The following outcomes were high overall: patient-reported understanding of results (cancer: 87%; cardiac: 86%); perceived utility (75%); positive emotions (relieved: 66.8%; happy: 62.0%); family result sharing (67.6%); and satisfaction (87%), although analysis by demographic factors identified groups who may benefit from additional education and emotional support. Results-related health behaviors and discussions with providers increased over time (screening procedures 6.1% to 14.2% p < 0.001; provider discussion 10.3% to 25.3%, p < 0.001), and were more likely to take place for patients with positive cancer and/or cardiac results (39.8% vs. 7.6%, p < 0.001). Forty-seven percent of patients reported insurance discrimination concerns, and most (79.4%) were not familiar with privacy and nondiscrimination laws. Concerns regarding discrimination and negative emotions decreased between the two survey time points (privacy issues 44.6% to 35.1% p < 0.001; life insurance discrimination concerns 35.5% to 29.6%, p = 0.001; anxiety 8.1% to 3.3%, p < 0.001; and uncertainty 19.8% to 12.8%, p < 0.001). These findings led to the development and integration of additional patient resources to improve program implementation. Conclusion: Our findings highlight patient experiences with and areas of need in a community-based genomic screening pilot initiative using a mixed primary care/genetics provider model to deliver precision medicine.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300603

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) carriers carrying one defective copy of a CFTR germline mutation are common in the general population. A recent study reported associations of CF carriers with risk for cancers of digestive organs and pancreatic cancer. In the current study, we assessed associations of CFTR F508del carriers with the risk for 54 types of cancers in the UK Biobank, a large population-based study. In Caucasians, compared to the carrier rate of 3.15% (12,357/392,274) in non-cancer subjects, the rate was significantly higher in cancer patients overall (2,621/79,619=3.29%), especially in patients with colorectal cancer (247/6,667=3.70%), cancers of gallbladder and biliary tract (21/351=5.98%), thyroid cancer (30/665=4.51%), and unspecified non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (74/1,805=4.10%), all P<=0.05. In contrast, the carrier rate in patients with cancers of lung and bronchus was significantly lower (89/3,463=2.57%), P=0.05. The association of CFTR F508del carriers with these types of cancer remained significant after adjusting for respective cancer-specific risk factors. For pancreatic cancer, although a higher carrier rate (38/1,004=3.78%) was found in patients with this cancer, the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.26). This null association was unlikely due to lack of statistical power; the large sample size of our study had >80% power, at a significance level of 0.05, to detect an association of >1.5-fold increased risk. In conclusion, the identified associations of CFTR F508del carriers with multiple types of cancer may have potential biological and clinical implications if confirmed in independent study populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Eur Urol ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic risk score (GRS) has been developed and validated for prostate cancer (PCa) risk assessment. As GRS is population standardized, its value can be interpreted as a relative risk to the general population. OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of GRS with two guideline-recommended inherited risk measures, family history (FH) and rare pathogenic mutations (RPMs), for predicting PCa incidence and mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective cohort was derived from the UK Biobank where 208 685 PCa diagnosis-free participants at recruitment were followed via the UK cancer and death registries. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Rate ratios (RRs) of PCa incidence and mortality for FH (positive vs negative), RPMs (carriers vs noncarriers), and GRS (top vs bottom quartile) were measured. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: After a median follow-up of 9.67 yr, 6890 incident PCa cases (419 died of PCa) were identified. Each of the three measures was significantly associated with PCa incidence in univariate analyses; RR (95 % confidence interval [CI]) values were 1.88 (1.75-2.01) for FH, 2.89 (1.89-4.25) for RPMs, and 1.97(1.87-2.07) for GRS (all p < 0.001). The associations were independent in multivariable analyses. While FH and RPMs identified 11 % of men at higher PCa risk, addition of GRS identified an additional 22 % of men at higher PCa risk, and increases in C-statistic from 0.58 to 0.67 for differentiating incidence (p < 0.001) and from 0.65 to 0.71 for differentiating mortality (p = 0.002). Limitations were a small number of minority patients and short mortality follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based prospective study suggests that GRS complements two guideline-recommended inherited risk measures (FH and RPMs) for stratifying the risk of PCa incidence and mortality. PATIENT SUMMARY: In a large population-based prostate cancer (PCa) prospective study derived from UK Biobank, genetic risk score (GRS) complements two guideline-recommended inherited risk measures (family history and rare pathogenic mutations) in predicting PCa incidence and mortality. These results provide critical data for including GRS in PCa risk assessment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270363

RESUMO

The advent of next generation DNA sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized clinical medicine by enabling wide-spread testing for genomic anomalies and polymorphisms. With that explosion in testing, however, come several informatics challenges including managing large amounts of data, interpreting the results and providing clinical decision support. We present Flype, a web-based bioinformatics platform built by a small group of bioinformaticians working in a community hospital setting, to address these challenges by allowing us to: (a) securely accept data from a variety of sources, (b) send orders to a variety of destinations, (c) perform secondary analysis and annotation of NGS data, (d) provide a central repository for all genomic variants, (e) assist with tertiary analysis and clinical interpretation, (f) send signed out data to our EHR as both PDF and discrete data elements, (g) allow population frequency analysis and (h) update variant annotation when literature knowledge evolves. We discuss the multiple use cases Flype supports such as (a) in-house NGS tests, (b) in-house pharmacogenomics (PGX) tests, (c) dramatic scale-up of genomic testing using an external lab, (d) consumer genomics using two external partners, and (e) a variety of reporting tools. The source code for Flype is available upon request to the authors.

5.
J Pers Med ; 10(4)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066060

RESUMO

The scalable delivery of genomic medicine requires collaboration between genetics and non-genetics providers. Thus, it is essential to investigate and address the perceived value of and barriers to incorporating genetic testing into the clinical practice of primary care providers (PCPs). We used a mixed-methods approach of qualitative interviews and surveys to explore the experience of PCPs involved in the pilot DNA-10K population genetic testing program. Similar to previous research, PCPs reported low confidence with tasks related to ordering, interpreting and managing the results of genetic tests, and identified the need for additional education. PCPs endorsed high levels of utility for patients and their families but noted logistical challenges to incorporating genetic testing into their practice. Overall PCPs were not familiar with the United States' Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act and they expressed high levels of concern for patient data privacy and potential insurance discrimination. This PCP feedback led to the development and implementation of several processes to improve the PCP experience with the DNA-10K program. These results contribute to the knowledge base regarding genomic implementation using a mixed provider model and may be beneficial for institutions developing similar clinical programs.

6.
Br J Cancer ; 123(9): 1356-1359, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830201

RESUMO

Germline HOXB13 G84E mutation has been consistently associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk, but its association with other cancers is controversial. We systematically tested its association with the 20 most common cancer types in subjects from the UK Biobank. The G84E mutation was found in 1,545 (0.34%) of 460,224 participants of European ancestry. While mutation status did not associate with cancer risk in females, it was significantly associated with increased risk in males; odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for overall cancer diagnosis was 2.19 (1.89-2.52), P = 2.5E-19. The association remained after excluding PCa; OR = 1.4 (1.16-1.68), P = 0.003, suggesting association with other cancers. Indeed, suggestive novel associations were found for two other cancer types; rectosigmoid cancer, OR = 2.25 (1.05-4.15), P = 0.05 and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), OR = 1.40 (1.12-1.74), P = 0.01. For NMSC, the association was found only in basal cell carcinoma, OR = 1.37 (1.07-1.74), P = 0.03. These findings have potential clinical utility for genetic counselling regarding HOXB13.

7.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

8.
J Community Genet ; 11(3): 339-350, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020508

RESUMO

Family health history (FHH) screening plays a key role in disease risk identification and tailored disease prevention strategies. Primary care physicians (PCPs) are in a frontline position to provide personalized medicine recommendations identified through FHH screening; however, adoption of FHH screening tools has been slow and inconsistent in practice. Information is also lacking on PCP facilitators and barriers of utilizing family history tools with clinical decision support (CDS) embedded in the electronic health record (EHR). This study reports on PCPs' initial experiences with the Genetic and Wellness Assessment (GWA), a patient-administered FHH screening tool utilizing the EHR and CDS. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 PCPs who use the GWA in a network of community-based practices. Four main themes regarding GWA implementation emerged: benefits to clinical care, challenges in practice, CDS-specific issues, and physician-recommended improvements. Sub-themes included value in improving patient access to genetic services, inadequate time to discuss GWA recommendations, lack of patient follow-through with recommendations, and alert fatigue. While PCPs valued the GWA's clinical utility, a number of challenges were identified in the administration and use of the GWA in practice. Based on participants' recommendations, iterative changes have been made to the GWA and workflow to increase efficiency, upgrade the CDS process, and provide additional education to PCPs and patients. Future studies are needed to assess a diverse sample of physicians' and patients' perspectives on the utility of FHH screening utilizing EHR-based genomics recommendations.

9.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SNP-based polygenic risk scores have recently been adopted in the clinic for risk assessment of some common diseases. Their validity is supported by a consistent trend between their percentile rank and disease risk in populations. However, for clinical use at the individual level, the reliability of score values is necessary considering they are directly used to calculate remaining lifetime risk. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the reliability of polygenic score values to estimate prostate cancer (PCa), breast cancer (BCa) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in three incident cohorts from the UK Biobank (n>500 000). METHODS: Cancer-specific Genetic Risk Score (GRS), a well-established population-standardised polygenic risk score, was calculated. RESULTS: A systematic bias was found between estimated risks (GRS values) and observed risks; ß (95% CI) was 0.67 (0.58-0.76), 0.74 (0.65-0.84) and 0.82 (0.75-0.89), respectively, for PCa, BCa and CRC, all significantly lower than 1.00 (perfect calibration), p<0.001. After applying a correction factor derived from a training data set, the ß for corrected GRS values in an independent testing data set were 1.09 (1.05-1.13), 1.00 (0.88-1.12) and 1.08 (0.96-1.21), respectively, for PCa, BCa and CRC. CONCLUSION: Assessing the calibration of polygenic risk scores is necessary and feasible to ensure their reliability prior to clinical implementation.

10.
Med Clin North Am ; 103(6): 977-990, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582008

RESUMO

Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is a powerful tool that can predict increased risks of adverse effects and sub-therapeutic response to medications. This article establishes the core principles necessary for a primary care provider to meaningfully and prudently use PGx testing. Key topics include in which patients PGx testing should be considered, how PGx tests are ordered, how the results are translated into clinical recommendations, and what further advancements are likely in the near future. This will provide clinicians with a foundational knowledge of PGx that can allow incorporation of this tool into their practice or support further personal investigation.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Farmacogenética/métodos , Medicina de Precisão , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/genética , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos
11.
Cancer Med ; 8(12): 5609-5618, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407530

RESUMO

Women who inherit a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation have an increased risk of breast cancer. Preliminary evidence suggests they may also have defects in bone marrow function. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a multicenter, retrospective, matched cohort study, comparing women with localized breast cancer requiring cytotoxic chemotherapy who carried an inherited BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation to similar wild-type patients treated between 1995 and 2017 and matched based on age, race, site, and chemotherapy regimen. The proportion who developed specific hematologic toxicities, timing of these toxicities, and patterns of blood count fluctuations over time were compared among BRCA1 carriers vs matched wild-type patients and among BRCA2 carriers vs matched wild-type patients. 88 BRCA1 carriers and 75 BRCA2 carriers were matched to 226 and 242 wild-type patients, respectively. The proportions and timing of experiencing any grade or grade 3/4 cytopenias during chemotherapy were not significantly different for BRCA1 carriers or BRCA2 carriers vs matched wild-type patients. Proportions requiring treatment modifications and time to first modification were also similar. Patterns of blood count fluctuations over time in mutation carriers mirrored those in wild-type patients overall and by the most common regimens. Women with an inherited mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 experience similar frequency, severity, and timing of hematologic toxicities during curative intent breast cancer chemotherapy as matched wild-type patients. Our findings suggest that BRCA1 or BRCA2 haploinsufficiency is sufficient for adequate bone marrow reserve in the face of short-term repetitive hematopoietic stressors.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1781-1796, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Alelos , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Mutação , Vigilância da População
13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1081-1089, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778173

RESUMO

Hexokinase 1 (HK1) phosphorylates glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, the first rate-limiting step in glycolysis. Homozygous and heterozygous variants in HK1 have been shown to cause autosomal recessive non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia, autosomal recessive Russe type hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, and autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). We report seven patients from six unrelated families with a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, structural brain abnormality, and visual impairments in whom we identified four novel, de novo missense variants in the N-terminal half of HK1. Hexokinase activity in red blood cells of two patients was normal, suggesting that the disease mechanism is not due to loss of hexokinase enzymatic activity.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos , Neuropatia Hereditária Motora e Sensorial , Hexoquinase , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Eritrócitos/patologia , Feminino , Neuropatia Hereditária Motora e Sensorial/enzimologia , Neuropatia Hereditária Motora e Sensorial/genética , Neuropatia Hereditária Motora e Sensorial/patologia , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Retinite Pigmentosa/enzimologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/patologia
15.
Pharmacogenomics ; 19(4): 321-331, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469671

RESUMO

AIM: To assess patient perceptions and utilization of pharmacogenomics (PGx) testing in an integrated community health system. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients completed an online survey assessing their experiences with PGx testing offered through two methods: a designated PGx clinic or direct access in-home testing. RESULTS: The majority of participants perceived PGx testing as helpful in their healthcare and reported understanding their results. Some had concerns about privacy and discrimination; most lacked familiarity with the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. There were no significant differences in views between participants tested through either model. CONCLUSION: Participants reported value in both methods of PGx testing. Patient experiences, understanding and result utilization will play an important role in informing future development and implementation of PGx programs.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacogenética/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Farmacogenômicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Precisão/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Revelação , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(4): 432-438, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28145423

RESUMO

Genome-wide studies of patients carrying pathogenic variants (mutations) in BRCA1 or BRCA2 have reported strong associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cancer risk. To conduct the first genome-wide association analysis of copy-number variants (CNVs) with breast or ovarian cancer risk in a cohort of 2500 BRCA1 pathogenic variant carriers, CNV discovery was performed using multiple calling algorithms and Illumina 610k SNP array data from a previously published genome-wide association study. Our analysis, which focused on functionally disruptive genomic deletions overlapping gene regions, identified a number of loci associated with risk of breast or ovarian cancer for BRCA1 pathogenic variant carriers. Despite only including putative deletions called by at least two or more algorithms, detection of selected CNVs by ancillary molecular technologies only confirmed 40% of predicted common (>1% allele frequency) variants. These include four loci that were associated (unadjusted P<0.05) with breast cancer (GTF2H2, ZNF385B, NAALADL2 and PSG5), and two loci associated with ovarian cancer (CYP2A7 and OR2A1). An interesting finding from this study was an association of a validated CNV deletion at the CYP2A7 locus (19q13.2) with decreased ovarian cancer risk (relative risk=0.50, P=0.007). Genomic analysis found this deletion coincides with a region displaying strong regulatory potential in ovarian tissue, but not in breast epithelial cells. This study highlighted the need to verify CNVs in vitro, but also provides evidence that experimentally validated CNVs (with plausible biological consequences) can modify risk of breast or ovarian cancer in BRCA1 pathogenic variant carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Genes Modificadores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Glutamato Carboxipeptidase II/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Glicoproteínas beta 1 Específicas da Gravidez/genética , Fatores de Transcrição TFII/genética
17.
Eur Urol ; 71(5): 740-747, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27989354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in BRCA1/2 and ATM have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. OBJECTIVE: To directly assess whether germline mutations in these three genes distinguish lethal from indolent PCa and whether they confer any effect on age at death. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective case-case study of 313 patients who died of PCa and 486 patients with low-risk localized PCa of European, African, and Chinese descent. Germline DNA of each of the 799 patients was sequenced for these three genes. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Mutation carrier rates and their effect on lethal PCa were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test and Cox regression analysis, respectively. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The combined BRCA1/2 and ATM mutation carrier rate was significantly higher in lethal PCa patients (6.07%) than localized PCa patients (1.44%), p=0.0007. The rate also differed significantly among lethal PCa patients as a function of age at death (10.00%, 9.08%, 8.33%, 4.94%, and 2.97% in patients who died ≤ 60 yr, 61-65 yr, 66-70 yr, 71-75 yr, and over 75 yr, respectively, p=0.046) and time to death after diagnosis (12.26%, 4.76%, and 0.98% in patients who died ≤ 5 yr, 6-10 yr, and>10 yr after a PCa diagnosis, respectively, p=0.0006). Survival analysis in the entire cohort revealed mutation carriers remained an independent predictor of lethal PCa after adjusting for race and age, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score at the time of diagnosis (hazard ratio=2.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-3.66, p=0.004). A limitation of this study is that other DNA repair genes were not analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Mutation status of BRCA1/2 and ATM distinguishes risk for lethal and indolent PCa and is associated with earlier age at death and shorter survival time. PATIENT SUMMARY: Prostate cancer patients with inherited mutations in BRCA1/2 and ATM are more likely to die of prostate cancer and do so at an earlier age.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Per Med ; 14(5): 389-400, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754567

RESUMO

AIM: To explore primary care physicians' views of the utility and delivery of direct access to pharmacogenomics (PGx) testing in a community health system. METHODS: This descriptive study assessed the perspectives of 15 healthcare providers utilizing qualitative individual interviews. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged: perceived value and utility of PGx testing; challenges to implementation in practice; and provider as well as patient needs. CONCLUSION: While providers in this study viewed benefits of PGx testing as avoiding side effects, titrating doses more quickly, improving shared decision-making and providing psychological reassurance, challenges will need to be addressed such as privacy concerns, cost, insurance coverage and understanding the complexity of PGx test results.


Assuntos
Farmacogenética/métodos , Testes Farmacogenômicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Testes Farmacogenômicos/tendências , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Saúde Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 73(23): 1956-1966, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27864203

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The development and implementation of a multidisciplinary pharmacogenomics clinic within the framework of an established community-based medical genetics program are described. SUMMARY: Pharmacogenomics is an important component of precision medicine that holds considerable promise for pharmacotherapy optimization. As part of the development of a health system-wide integrated pharmacogenomics program, in early 2015 Northshore University Health-System established a pharmacogenomics clinic run by a multidisciplinary team including a medical geneticist, a pharmacist, a nurse practitioner, and genetic counselors. The team identified five key program elements: (1) a billable-service provider, (2) a process for documentation of relevant medication and family histories, (3) personnel with the knowledge required to interpret pharmacogenomic results, (4) personnel to discuss risks, benefits, and limitations of pharmacogenomic testing, and (5) a mechanism for reporting results. The most important program component is expert interpretation of genetic test results to provide clinically useful information; pharmacists are well positioned to provide that expertise. At the Northshore University HealthSystem pharmacogenomics clinic, patient encounters typically entail two one-hour visits and follow a standardized workflow. At the first visit, pharmacogenomics-focused medication and family histories are obtained, risks and benefits of genetic testing are explained, and a test sample is collected; at the second visit, test results are provided along with evidence-based pharmacotherapy recommendations. CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary clinic providing genotyping and related services can facilitate the integration of pharmacogenomics into clinical care and meet the needs of early adopters of precision medicine.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/tendências , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/tendências , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Farmacogenética/tendências , Papel Profissional , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/tendências , Humanos , Farmacogenética/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/tendências
20.
Pharmacogenomics ; 17(7): 669-78, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27143300

RESUMO

Related to many drug gene-product interactions, application of pharmacogenomics can lead to improved medication efficacy while decreasing or avoiding adverse drug reactions. However, utilizing pharmacogenomics without other information does not allow for optimal medication therapy. Currently, there is a lack of documentation of family medication history, in other words, inefficacy and adverse reactions across family members throughout generations. The family medication history can serve as an impetus for pharmacogenomic testing to explain lack of medication efficacy or an adverse drug reaction and pre-emptive testing can drive recognition and documentation of medication response in family members. We propose combining the family medication history via pedigree construction with pharmacogenomics to further optimize medication therapy. We encourage clinicians to combine family medication history with pharmacogenomics.


Assuntos
Anamnese , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Medicina de Precisão , Resultado do Tratamento
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