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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 192, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431615

RESUMO

Our recent study has demonstrated that increased connectivity in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) circuitry is a state-independent neural trait that can potentially predict the onset of psychosis. One possible cause of such "trait" abnormality would be genetic predisposition. Here, we tested this hypothesis using multi-paradigm functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from two independent twin cohorts. In a sample of 85 monozygotic (MZ) and 52 dizygotic (DZ) healthy twin pairs acquired from the Human Connectome Project, we showed that the connectivity pattern of the identified CTC circuitry was more similar in the MZ twins (r = 0.54) compared with that in the DZ twins (r = 0.22). The structural equation modeling analysis revealed a heritability estimate of 0.52 for the CTC connectivity, suggesting a moderately strong genetic effect. Moreover, using an independent schizophrenia cotwin sample (10 discordant MZ cotwins, 30 discordant DZ cotwins, and 32 control cotwins), we observed a significant linear relationship between genetic distance to schizophrenia and the connectivity strength in the CTC circuitry (i.e., schizophrenia MZ cotwins > schizophrenia DZ cotwins > control twins, P = 0.045). The present data provide converging evidence that increased connectivity in the CTC circuitry is likely to be a heritable trait that is associated with the genetic risk of schizophrenia.

2.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(7): 545-556, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic liability, and some structural brain abnormalities are common to both conditions. First-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (FDRs-SZ) show similar brain abnormalities to patients, albeit with smaller effect sizes. Imaging findings in first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder (FDRs-BD) have been inconsistent in the past, but recent studies report regionally greater volumes compared with control subjects. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of global and subcortical brain measures of 6008 individuals (1228 FDRs-SZ, 852 FDRs-BD, 2246 control subjects, 1016 patients with schizophrenia, 666 patients with bipolar disorder) from 34 schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder family cohorts with standardized methods. Analyses were repeated with a correction for intracranial volume (ICV) and for the presence of any psychopathology in the relatives and control subjects. RESULTS: FDRs-BD had significantly larger ICV (d = +0.16, q < .05 corrected), whereas FDRs-SZ showed smaller thalamic volumes than control subjects (d = -0.12, q < .05 corrected). ICV explained the enlargements in the brain measures in FDRs-BD. In FDRs-SZ, after correction for ICV, total brain, cortical gray matter, cerebral white matter, cerebellar gray and white matter, and thalamus volumes were significantly smaller; the cortex was thinner (d < -0.09, q < .05 corrected); and third ventricle was larger (d = +0.15, q < .05 corrected). The findings were not explained by psychopathology in the relatives or control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Despite shared genetic liability, FDRs-SZ and FDRs-BD show a differential pattern of structural brain abnormalities, specifically a divergent effect in ICV. This may imply that the neurodevelopmental trajectories leading to brain anomalies in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are distinct.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302732

RESUMO

Preclinical studies indicate a link between the kynurenine pathway and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), but there is a lack of clinical studies examining this further. We here perform a secondary analysis of kynurenine metabolites and MCP-1 in cerebrospinal fluid of 23 twins affected from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or unaffected. We show an association between MCP-1 and kynurenic acid (KYNA), driven by unique environmental influences and a less pronounced association between MCP-1 and tryptophan. No association was detected between MCP-1 and quinolinic acid. Further studies on the mechanism behind the putative relationship between KYNA and MCP-1 are needed.

4.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165892

RESUMO

Methylome-wide association studies (MWASs) are promising complements to sequence variation studies. We used existing sequencing-based methylation data, which assayed the majority of all 28 million CpGs in the human genome, to perform an MWAS for schizophrenia in blood, while controlling for cell-type heterogeneity with a recently generated platform-specific reference panel. Next, we compared the MWAS results with findings from 3 existing large-scale array-based schizophrenia methylation studies in blood that assayed up to ~450 000 CpGs. Our MWAS identified 22 highly significant loci (P < 5 × 10-8) and 852 suggestively significant loci (P < 1 × 10-5). The top finding (P = 5.62 × 10-11, q = 0.001) was located in MFN2, which encodes mitofusin-2 that regulates Ca2+ transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria in cooperation with DISC1. The second-most significant site (P = 1.38 × 10-9, q = 0.013) was located in ALDH1A2, which encodes an enzyme for astrocyte-derived retinoic acid-a key neuronal morphogen with relevance for schizophrenia. Although the most significant MWAS findings were not assayed on the arrays, we observed significant enrichment of overlapping findings with 2 of the 3 array datasets (P = 0.0315, 0.0045, 0.1946). Overrepresentation analysis of Gene Ontology terms for the genes in the significant overlaps suggested high similarity in the biological functions detected by the different datasets. Top terms were related to immune and/or stress responses, cell adhesion and motility, and a broad range of processes essential for neurodevelopment.

5.
Psychiatry Res ; 278: 180-187, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207455

RESUMO

Twin- and family studies have shown variations in the heritability estimates of bipolar disorder (BPD). The current study uses an updated statistical methodology for heritability estimation in BPD by taking available time of follow-up into account while controlling for co-variates. We identified monozygotic and dizygotic same and different sex twins with BPD (n = 804) or unaffected from BPD (n = 91,604) from the Swedish Twin Register and the National Patient Register. We applied structural equational modeling with inversed probability weighting to estimate the heritability, taking into account censoring and truncation of data. Sex-limitation models were constructed to analyze qualitative or quantitative sex-differences in BPD. Heritability for BPD was 60.4% (95% Confidence Interval: 50.3-70.5) after age, sex, left-hand truncation and censoring of the data was taken into account. A larger proportion of females were affected from BPD (females 62.2%; males 37.8%, p < 0.001), but no sex-difference in BPD heritability was found, nor any sex-specific genetic effects. We demonstrated a robust 60% heritability for BPD with no evidence of sex-specific genetic effects on disease liability.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1252-1258, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified germline genetic variants in 25 genetic loci that increase the risk of developing glioma in adulthood. It is not known if these variants increase the risk of developing glioma in children and adolescents and young adults (AYA). To date, no studies have performed genome-wide analyses to find novel genetic variants associated with glioma risk in children and AYA. METHODS: We investigated the association between 8,831,628 genetic variants and risk of glioma in 854 patients diagnosed up to the age of 29 years and 3,689 controls from Sweden and Denmark. Recruitment of patients and controls was population based. Genotyping was performed using Illumina BeadChips, and untyped variants were imputed with IMPUTE2. We selected 41 established adult glioma risk variants for detailed investigation. RESULTS: Three adult glioma risk variants, rs634537, rs2157719, and rs145929329, all mapping to the 9p21.3 (CDKN2B-AS1) locus, were associated with glioma risk in children and AYA. The strongest association was seen for rs634537 (odds ratioG = 1.21; 95% confidence interval = 1.09-1.35; P = 5.8 × 10-4). In genome-wide analysis, an association with risk was suggested for 129 genetic variants (P <1 × 10-5). CONCLUSIONS: Carriers of risk alleles in the 9p21.3 locus have an increased risk of glioma throughout life. The results from genome-wide association analyses require validation in independent cohorts. IMPACT: Our findings line up with existing evidence that some, although not all, established adult glioma risk variants are associated with risk of glioma in children and AYA. Validation of results from genome-wide analyses may reveal novel susceptibility loci for glioma in children and AYA.

7.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 431-444, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804558

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable and heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental phenotypes diagnosed in more than 1% of children. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ASD susceptibility, but to date no individual variants have been robustly associated with ASD. With a marked sample-size increase from a unique Danish population resource, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 18,381 individuals with ASD and 27,969 controls that identified five genome-wide-significant loci. Leveraging GWAS results from three phenotypes with significantly overlapping genetic architectures (schizophrenia, major depression, and educational attainment), we identified seven additional loci shared with other traits at equally strict significance levels. Dissecting the polygenic architecture, we found both quantitative and qualitative polygenic heterogeneity across ASD subtypes. These results highlight biological insights, particularly relating to neuronal function and corticogenesis, and establish that GWAS performed at scale will be much more productive in the near term in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
8.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(2): 110-119, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic risk for bipolar disorder (BD) is conferred through many common alleles, while a role for rare copy number variants (CNVs) is less clear. Subtypes of BD including schizoaffective disorder bipolar type (SAB), bipolar I disorder (BD I), and bipolar II disorder (BD II) differ according to the prominence and timing of psychosis, mania, and depression. The genetic factors contributing to the combination of symptoms among these subtypes are poorly understood. METHODS: Rare large CNVs were analyzed in 6353 BD cases (3833 BD I [2676 with psychosis, 850 without psychosis, and 307 with unknown psychosis history], 1436 BD II, 579 SAB, and 505 BD not otherwise specified) and 8656 controls. CNV burden and a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia were used to evaluate the relative contributions of rare and common variants to risk of BD, BD subtypes, and psychosis. RESULTS: CNV burden did not differ between BD and controls when treated as a single diagnostic entity. However, burden in SAB was increased relative to controls (p = .001), BD I (p = .0003), and BD II (p = .0007). Burden and schizophrenia PRSs were increased in SAB compared with BD I with psychosis (CNV p = .0007, PRS p = .004), and BD I without psychosis (CNV p = .0004, PRS p = 3.9 × 10-5). Within BD I, psychosis was associated with increased schizophrenia PRSs (p = .005) but not CNV burden. CONCLUSIONS: CNV burden in BD is limited to SAB. Rare and common genetic variants may contribute differently to risk for psychosis and perhaps other classes of psychiatric symptoms.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 210, 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297702

RESUMO

Ankyrin-3 (ANK3) is one of the few genes that have been consistently identified as associated with bipolar disorder by multiple genome-wide association studies. However, the exact molecular basis of the association remains unknown. A rare loss-of-function splice-site SNP (rs41283526*G) in a minor isoform of ANK3 (incorporating exon ENSE00001786716) was recently identified as protective of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This suggests that an elevated expression of this isoform may be involved in the etiology of the disorders. In this study, we used novel approaches and data sets to test this hypothesis. First, we strengthen the statistical evidence supporting the allelic association by replicating the protective effect of the minor allele of rs41283526 in three additional large independent samples (meta-analysis p-values: 6.8E-05 for bipolar disorder and 8.2E-04 for schizophrenia). Second, we confirm the hypothesis that both bipolar and schizophrenia patients have a significantly higher expression of this isoform than controls (p-values: 3.3E-05 for schizophrenia and 9.8E-04 for bipolar type I). Third, we determine the transcription start site for this minor isoform by Pacific Biosciences sequencing of full-length cDNA and show that it is primarily expressed in the corpus callosum. Finally, we combine genotype and expression data from a large Norwegian sample of psychiatric patients and controls, and show that the risk alleles in ANK3 identified by bipolar disorder GWAS are located near the transcription start site of this isoform and are significantly associated with its elevated expression. Together, these results point to the likely molecular mechanism underlying ANK3´s association with bipolar disorder.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202028, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138449

RESUMO

Individuals with schizophrenia or substance use disorder have a substantially increased mortality compared to the general population. Despite a high and probably increasing prevalence of comorbid substance use disorder in people with schizophrenia, the mortality in the comorbid group has been less studied and with contrasting results. We performed a nationwide open cohort study from 2009 to 2015, including all Norwegians aged 20-79 with schizophrenia and/or substance use disorder registered in any specialized health care setting in Norway, a total of 125,744 individuals. There were 12,318 deaths in the cohort, and total, sex-, age- and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated, comparing the number of deaths in patients with schizophrenia, schizophrenia only, substance use disorder only or a co-occurring diagnosis of schizophrenia and substance use disorder to the number expected if the patients had the age-, sex- and calendar-year specific death rates of the general population. The SMRs were 4.9 (95% CI 4.7-5.1) for all schizophrenia patients, 4.4 (95% CI 4.2-4.6) in patients with schizophrenia without substance use disorder, 6.6 (95% CI 6.5-6.8) in patients with substance use disorder only, and 7.4 (95% CI 7.0-8.2) in patients with both schizophrenia and substance use disorder. The SMRs were elevated in both genders, in all age groups and for all considered causes of death, and most so in the youngest. Approximately 27% of the excess mortality in all patients with schizophrenia was due to the raised mortality in the subgroup with comorbid SUD. The increased mortality in patients with schizophrenia and/or substance use disorder corresponded to more than 10,000 premature deaths, which constituted 84% of all deaths in the cohort. The persistent mortality gap highlights the importance of securing systematic screening and proper access to somatic health care, and a more effective prevention of premature death from external causes in this group.

11.
Schizophr Res ; 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121189

RESUMO

The schizophrenia and bipolar twin study in Sweden (STAR) is a large nation-wide cohort of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) same-sex twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and healthy control pairs, extensively characterized with brain imaging, neuropsychological tests, biomarkers, genetic testing, psychiatric symptoms and personality traits. The purpose is to investigate genetic and environmental mechanisms that give rise to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as well as the intermediate phenotypes. This article describes the design, recruitment, data collection, measures, collected twins' characteristics, diagnostic procedures as well as ongoing and planned analyses. Identification of biomarkers, genetic and epigenetic variation and the development of specific and common endophenotypes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are potential gains from this cohort.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6915, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720671

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a serious psychotic disorder with high heritability. Several common genetic variants, rare copy number variants and ultra-rare gene-disrupting mutations have been linked to disease susceptibility, but there is still a large gap between the estimated and explained heritability. Since several studies have indicated brain myelination abnormalities in schizophrenia, we aimed to examine whether variants in myelination-related genes could be associated with risk for schizophrenia. We established a set of 117 myelination genes by database searches and manual curation. We used a combination of GWAS (SCZ_N = 35,476; CTRL_N = 46,839), exome chip (SCZ_N = 269; CTRL_N = 336) and exome sequencing data (SCZ_N = 2,527; CTRL_N = 2,536) from schizophrenia cases and healthy controls to examine common and rare variants. We found that a subset of lipid-related genes was nominally associated with schizophrenia (p = 0.037), but this signal did not survive multiple testing correction (FWER = 0.16) and was mainly driven by the SREBF1 and SREBF2 genes that have already been linked to schizophrenia. Further analysis demonstrated that the lowest nominal p-values were p = 0.0018 for a single common variant (rs8539) and p = 0.012 for burden of rare variants (LRP1 gene), but none of them survived multiple testing correction. Our findings suggest that variation in myelination-related genes is not a major risk factor for schizophrenia.

13.
Scand J Public Health ; : 1403494818771418, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708026

RESUMO

AIMS: Following the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami, Swedish authorities received public criticism for slow implementation of rescue work. Meanwhile, data are scarce on survivors' perspectives and potential mental health symptoms associated with timing of evacuation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate survivors' contentment with evacuation time and whether duration at disaster site following the 2004 tsunami was associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and psychological morbidity. METHODS: Of 10,116 Swedish tsunami survivors who returned to Sweden in the first 3 weeks post tsunami, 4910 (49%) answered a questionnaire 14 months later including questions on evacuation time, contentment with evacuation time and PTSS (Impact of Event Scale). We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of PTSS by timing of evacuation adjusting for gender, age, education, various indicators of trauma exposure and pre-tsunami psychiatric diagnoses. RESULTS: More than half of the survivors (53%) were content with evacuation time while 33% wanted later evacuation and 13% earlier evacuation. Compared with those evacuated 14-21 days post tsunami, individuals evacuated at day 1-4 presented with increased odds of PTSS (crude OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0-4.5; and multivariable adjusted OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.0) and impaired mental health (crude OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4; and multivariable adjusted OR 1.4 95% CI 1.0-2.0). CONCLUSIONS: One-third of Swedish tsunami survivors preferred a later evacuation from disaster sites. These findings call for further studies, with prospective designs, to disentangle the causal direction of the association between evacuation time and PTSS.

14.
Psychol Med ; 48(16): 2710-2716, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurological, visual and hearing deviations have been observed in the offspring of parents with schizophrenia. This study test whether children to parents hospitalized with schizophrenia have increased the likelihood of childhood neurological disorder. METHODS: Among all parents in Sweden born 1950-1985 and with offspring born 1968-2002: 7107 children with a parent hospitalized for schizophrenia were compared to 172 982 children with no parents hospitalized for schizophrenia or major depression, as well as to 32 494 children with a parent hospitalized for major depression as a control population with another severe psychiatric outcome. We estimated relative risks (RR) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals calculated from Poisson regression. RESULTS: Children to parents with schizophrenia were more likely than controls to have been hospitalized before the age of 10 with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy, RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.15-2.69); epilepsy, RR = 1.78 (95% CI: 1.33-2.40), combined neurological disease, RR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11-1.60) and certain diseases of the eye, RR = 1.92 (95% CI: 1.17-3.15) and ear, RR = 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05-1.32). Similar disease-risk-pattern was found for children to parents hospitalized with a diagnosis of major depression. A specific risk increase for strabismus RR = 1.21 (95%CI: 1.05-1.40) was found for off-spring with parental depression. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with children to healthy parents, children to parents with schizophrenia have increased risk of a variety of neurological disorders as well as visual and hearing disorders at an early age. The risk increase was not specific to schizophrenia but was also seen in children to parents with a diagnosis of major depression.

15.
Schizophr Bull ; 44(5): 1045-1052, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534239

RESUMO

Genetic risk variants for schizophrenia have been linked to many related clinical and biological phenotypes with the hopes of delineating how individual variation across thousands of variants corresponds to the clinical and etiologic heterogeneity within schizophrenia. This has primarily been done using risk score profiling, which aggregates effects across all variants into a single predictor. While effective, this method lacks flexibility in certain domains: risk scores cannot capture nonlinear effects and do not employ any variable selection. We used random forest, an algorithm with this flexibility designed to maximize predictive power, to predict 6 cognitive endophenotypes in a combined sample of psychiatric patients and controls (N = 739) using 77 genetic variants strongly associated with schizophrenia. Tenfold cross-validation was applied to the discovery sample and models were externally validated in an independent sample of similar ancestry (N = 336). Linear approaches, including linear regression and task-specific polygenic risk scores, were employed for comparison. Random forest models for processing speed (P = .019) and visual memory (P = .036) and risk scores developed for verbal (P = .042) and working memory (P = .037) successfully generalized to an independent sample with similar predictive strength and error. As such, we suggest that both methods may be useful for mapping a limited set of predetermined, disease-associated SNPs to related phenotypes. Incorporating random forest and other more flexible algorithms into genotype-phenotype mapping inquiries could contribute to parsing heterogeneity within schizophrenia; such algorithms can perform as well as standard methods and can capture a more comprehensive set of potential relationships.

16.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0191153, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370225

RESUMO

Oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria is the main source of aerobic energy for neuronal functioning, and the key genes are located in mitochondrial DNA. Deficits in oxidative phosphorylation functioning have been reported for schizophrenia, but efforts in the identification of genetic markers within the mitochondrial DNA that predispose to schizophrenia have been limited. We genotyped a set of mitochondrial SNPs using Illumina HumanExome arrays and tested for association in the Swedish schizophrenia sample (N> 10,000). We developed a novel approach for mitochondrial DNA imputation in order to increase the number of common SNPs available for association analysis. The most significant findings were for the mitochondrial SNPs C15452A (GRCh38.p10; rs527236209; p = 0.007; gene MT-CYB; defining haplogroup JT); A11251G (rs869096886; p = 0.007; gene MT-ND4; defining haplogroup JT), and T4216C (rs1599988; p = 0.008, gene MT-ND1, defining haplogroup R2'JT). We also conducted rare variant burden analyses and obtained a p-value of 0.007. For multimarker haplotypes analysis, the most significant finding was for the J group (OR: 0.86, p = 0.02). We conducted the largest association study of mitochondrial DNA variants and schizophrenia but did not find an association that survived multiple testing correction. Analysis of a larger sample is required and will allow a better understanding of the role of mitochondria in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Suécia
17.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 43(3): 525-533, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28758643

RESUMO

Recent work suggests that genes encoding complement proteins that are active in the innate immune system may confer risk for schizophrenia by disrupting typical synaptic pruning in late adolescence. Alterations in the complement pathway may contribute to aberrant cortical thinning in schizophrenia prodromes and reduced prefrontal cortical thickness in chronic schizophrenia patients; however, this theory needs to be translated to humans. We conducted a series of analyses in a sample of adult Swedish twins enriched for schizophrenia (N=129) to assess the plausibility of a relationship between complement gene expression and cortical thickness that could go awry in the etiology of schizophrenia. First, we identified that peripheral mRNA expression levels of two complement genes (C5, SERPING1) made unique contributions to the variance in superior frontal cortical thickness among all participants. Vertex-wise maps of the association between gene expression levels and thickness across the cortex suggested that this relationship was especially strong with SERPING1 in the superior frontal region, consistent with the pattern of disruption in cortical thickness observed in schizophrenia. Additional analyses identified that these genes are expressed in the human superior frontal cortex, that heritable genetic factors influence SERPING1 gene expression levels, and that these associations are observed regardless of case status. These findings provide initial evidence linking the complement system with cortical thinning in humans, a process potentially involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/metabolismo , Complemento C5/metabolismo , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/patologia
18.
Biol Psychiatry ; 83(7): 589-597, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has both genetic and environmental origins, including potentially maternal effects. Maternal effects describe the association of one or more maternal phenotypes with liability to ASD in progeny that are independent of maternally transmitted risk alleles. While maternal effects could play an important role, consistent with association to maternal traits such as immune status, no study has estimated maternal, additive genetic, and environmental effects in ASD. METHODS: Using a population-based sample consisting of all children born in Sweden from 1998 to 2007 and their relatives, we fitted statistical models to family data to estimate the variance in ASD liability originating from maternal, additive genetic, and shared environmental effects. We calculated sibling and cousin family recurrence risk ratio as a direct measure of familial, genetic, and environmental risk factors and repeated the calculations on diagnostic subgroups, specifically autistic disorder (AD) and spectrum disorder (SD), which included Asperger's syndrome and/or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 776,212 children of whom 11,231 had a diagnosis of ASD: 4554 with AD, 6677 with SD. We found support for large additive genetic contribution to liability; heritability (95% confidence interval [CI]) was estimated to 84.8% (95% CI: 73.1-87.3) for ASD, 79.6% (95% CI: 61.2-85.1) for AD, and 76.4% (95% CI: 63.0-82.5) for SD. CONCLUSIONS: There was modest, if any, contribution of maternal effects to liability for ASD, including subtypes AD and SD, and there was no support for shared environmental effects. These results show liability to ASD arises largely from additive genetic variation.

19.
Psychiatry Res ; 258: 9-14, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968513

RESUMO

Previous studies on the relationship between autoimmune diseases, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder are mainly based on hospital discharge registers with insufficient coverage of outpatient data. Furthermore, data is scant on the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in bipolar subgroups. Here we estimate the self-reported prevalences of autoimmune diseases in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I and II, and controls. Lifetime prevalence of autoimmune diseases was assessed through a structured interview in a sample of 9076 patients (schizophrenia N = 5278, bipolar disorder type I N = 1952, type II N = 1846) and 6485 controls. Comparative analyses were performed using logistic regressions. The prevalence of diabetes type 1 did not differ between groups. Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism regardless of lithium effects, rheumatoid arthritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica were most common in bipolar disorder. Systemic lupus erythematosus was less common in bipolar disorder than in the other groups. The rate of autoimmune diseases did not differ significantly between bipolar subgroups. We conclude that prevalences of autoimmune diseases show clear differences between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but not between the bipolar subgroups.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
20.
Nature ; 548(7665): 87-91, 2017 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746312

RESUMO

Hundreds of thousands of human genomes are now being sequenced to characterize genetic variation and use this information to augment association mapping studies of complex disorders and other phenotypic traits. Genetic variation is identified mainly by mapping short reads to the reference genome or by performing local assembly. However, these approaches are biased against discovery of structural variants and variation in the more complex parts of the genome. Hence, large-scale de novo assembly is needed. Here we show that it is possible to construct excellent de novo assemblies from high-coverage sequencing with mate-pair libraries extending up to 20 kilobases. We report de novo assemblies of 150 individuals (50 trios) from the GenomeDenmark project. The quality of these assemblies is similar to those obtained using the more expensive long-read technology. We use the assemblies to identify a rich set of structural variants including many novel insertions and demonstrate how this variant catalogue enables further deciphering of known association mapping signals. We leverage the assemblies to provide 100 completely resolved major histocompatibility complex haplotypes and to resolve major parts of the Y chromosome. Our study provides a regional reference genome that we expect will improve the power of future association mapping studies and hence pave the way for precision medicine initiatives, which now are being launched in many countries including Denmark.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional/normas , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Adulto , Alelos , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Dinamarca , Feminino , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Masculino , Idade Materna , Taxa de Mutação , Idade Paterna , Mutação Puntual/genética , Padrões de Referência
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