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1.
Arch Osteoporos ; 14(1): 98, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494745

RESUMO

We analyzed volumetric bone mineral density, by 3D analysis, in 76 people with Down syndrome and 76 controls. People with Down syndrome, particularly men, have a lower hip volumetric bone mineral density than the general population. Besides, volumetric bone mineral density declines more rapidly in Down syndrome. INTRODUCTION: People with Down syndrome (DS) have a lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD) estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, they have smaller-sized bones, which could influence the measurements. Therefore, our objective was to determine volumetric BMD in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 76 outpatients with DS and 76 control healthy volunteers matched for age and sex distribution. Clinical data were obtained with a standardized interview and physical exam, including age, sex, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). aBMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray at the femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH). The 3D-SHAPER® software (version 2.8, Galgo Medical, Barcelona, Spain) was used to derive 3D analysis from participants' hip DXA scans. RESULTS: DS femurs had a similar 3D geometry, compared with the femurs of controls. However, 3D analysis showed that participants with DS had smaller cortical thickness (1.84 mm ± 0.17 vs. 2.02 ± 0.20 mm; p < 0.0001), cortical vBMD (777 ± 49 mg/cm3 vs. 809 ± 43 mg/cm3; p < 0.0001), and cortical sBMD (143 ± 19 mg/cm2 vs. 164 ± 22 mg/cm2; p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age and BMI, all 3D measurements remained lower in DS than in controls. These differences were more marked in men than in women. vBMD decreased with age in controls and DS, but the decline was greater in DS for all 3D parameters. CONCLUSION: People with DS, particularly men, have a lower hip vBMD than the general population. Besides, vBMD declines more rapidly in DS.

2.
Med Image Anal ; 56: 44-67, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181343

RESUMO

The medical image analysis field has traditionally been focused on the development of organ-, and disease-specific methods. Recently, the interest in the development of more comprehensive computational anatomical models has grown, leading to the creation of multi-organ models. Multi-organ approaches, unlike traditional organ-specific strategies, incorporate inter-organ relations into the model, thus leading to a more accurate representation of the complex human anatomy. Inter-organ relations are not only spatial, but also functional and physiological. Over the years, the strategies proposed to efficiently model multi-organ structures have evolved from the simple global modeling, to more sophisticated approaches such as sequential, hierarchical, or machine learning-based models. In this paper, we present a review of the state of the art on multi-organ analysis and associated computation anatomy methodology. The manuscript follows a methodology-based classification of the different techniques available for the analysis of multi-organs and multi-anatomical structures, from techniques using point distribution models to the most recent deep learning-based approaches. With more than 300 papers included in this review, we reflect on the trends and challenges of the field of computational anatomy, the particularities of each anatomical region, and the potential of multi-organ analysis to increase the impact of medical imaging applications on the future of healthcare.

3.
Bone ; 121: 89-99, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611923

RESUMO

Osteoporotic bone fractures reduce quality of life and drastically increase mortality. Minimally irradiating imaging techniques such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) allow assessment of bone loss through the use of bone mineral density (BMD) as descriptor. Yet, the accuracy of fracture risk predictions remains limited. Recently, DXA-based 3D modelling algorithms were proposed to analyse the geometry and BMD spatial distribution of the proximal femur. This study hypothesizes that such approaches can benefit from finite element (FE)-based biomechanical analyses to improve fracture risk prediction. One hundred and eleven subjects were included in this study and stratified in two groups: (a) 62 fracture cases, and (b) 49 non-fracture controls. Side fall was simulated using a static peak load that depended on patient mass and height. Local mechanical fields were calculated based on relationships between tissue stiffness and BMD. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic method evaluated the ability of calculated biomechanical descriptors to discriminate fracture and control cases. The results showed that the major principal stress was better discriminator (AUC > 0.80) than the volumetric BMD (AUC ≤ 0.70). High discrimination capacity was achieved when the analysis was performed by bone type, zone of fracture and gender/sex (AUC of 0.91 for women, trabecular bone and trochanter area), and outcomes suggested that the trabecular bone is critical for fracture discrimination. In conclusion, 3D FE models derived from DXA scans might significantly improve the prediction of hip fracture risk; providing a new insight for clinicians to use FE simulations in clinical practice for osteoporosis management.

4.
J Clin Densitom ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503030

RESUMO

Methods using statistical shape and appearance models have been proposed to analyze bone mineral density (BMD) in 3D from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. This paper presents a retrospective case-control study assessing the association of DXA-derived 3D measurements with osteoporotic hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Patients who experienced a hip fracture between 1 and 6 years from baseline and age-matched controls were included in this study. The 3D-SHAPER software (version 2.7, Galgo Medical, Barcelona, Spain) was used to derive 3D analysis from hip DXA scans at baseline. DXA and 3D measurements were compared between groups. Total hip areal BMD of hip fracture group as measured by DXA was 10.7% lower compared to control group. Differences in volumetric BMD (total hip) as measured by 3D-SHAPER were more pronounced in the trabecular compartment (-23.3%) than in the cortex (-8.2%). The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.742 for trabecular volumetric BMD, 0.706 for cortical volumetric BMD, and 0.712 for total hip areal BMD. Differences in the cortex were locally more pronounced at the medial aspect of the shaft, the lateral aspect of the greater trochanter, and the superolateral aspect of the neck. Marked differences in volumetric BMD were observed in the greater trochanter. This case-control study showed the association of DXA-derived 3D measurements with hip fracture. Analysis of large cohorts will be performed in future work to determine if DXA-derived 3D measurements could improve fracture risk prediction in clinical practice.

5.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 37(12): 2651-2662, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29994113

RESUMO

Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is the standard exam for osteoporosis diagnosis and fracture risk evaluation at the spine. However, numerous patients with bone fragility are not diagnosed as such. In fact, standard analysis of DXA images does not differentiate between trabecular and cortical bone; neither specifically assess of the bone density in the vertebral body, which is where most of the osteoporotic fractures occur. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) is an alternative technique that overcomes limitations of DXA-based diagnosis. However, due to the high cost and radiation dose, QCT is not used for osteoporosis management. We propose a method that provides a 3-D subject-specific shape and density estimation of the lumbar spine from a single anteroposterior (AP) DXA image. A 3-D statistical shape and density model is built, using a training set of QCT scans, and registered onto the AP DXA image so that its projection matches it. Cortical and trabecular bone compartments are segmented using a model-based algorithm. Clinical measurements are performed at different bone compartments. Accuracy was evaluated by comparing DXA-derived to QCT-derived 3-D measurements for a validation set of 180 subjects. The shape accuracy was 1.51 mm at the total vertebra and 0.66 mm at the vertebral body. Correlation coefficients between DXA and QCT-derived measurements ranged from 0.81 to 0.97. The method proposed offers an insightful 3-D analysis of the lumbar spine, which could potentially improve osteoporosis and fracture risk assessment in patients who had an AP DXA scan of the lumbar spine without any additional examination.

6.
J Clin Densitom ; 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017573

RESUMO

The 3D distribution of the cortical and trabecular bone mass is a critical component in determining the resistance of a bone to fracture that is not assessed in standard dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) exams. In this work, we assessed in vivo short-term precision of measurements provided by 3D modeling techniques from DXA scans and trend assessment intervals (TAIs) in postmenopausal women. Subjects included to study precision errors were scanned twice, with repositioning for duplicate hip scans, using either a Lunar iDXA scanner (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) or a Discovery W scanner (Hologic, Inc., Waltham, MA). Postmenopausal women having baseline and 18-mo follow-up visit were scanned using a Lunar iDXA device to assess TAIs. TAIs indicate what time intervals are required to allow accurate assessment of response to treatment or progression of disease. The 3D-SHAPER software (Galgo Medical, Barcelona, Spain) was used to derive 3D measurements from hip DXA scans. Least significant changes were 10.39 and 8.72 mg/cm3 for integral volumetric bone mineral density (BMD), 9.64 and 9.59 mg/cm3 for trabecular volumetric BMD, and 6.25 and 5.99 mg/cm2 for cortical surface BMD, using the Lunar iDXA and Discovery W scanners, respectively. TAIs in postmenopausal women were 2.9 yr (integral volumetric BMD), 2.6 yr (trabecular volumetric BMD), and 3.5 yr (cortical surface BMD), using the Lunar iDXA scanner. As a comparison, TAIs for areal BMD were 2.8 yr at neck and 2.7 yr at total femur. Least significant changes of measurements provided by 3D modeling techniques from DXA were assessed. TAIs in postmenopausal women were similar to those measured for areal BMD measurements. DXA-derived 3D measurements could potentially provide additional indicators to improve patient monitoring in clinical practices.

7.
J Sports Sci ; : 1-8, 2018 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912627

RESUMO

Given the lack of relevant data, the aim of this study was to examine femur cortical and trabecular bone in female and male professional ballet dancers. 40 professional ballet dancers and 40 sex- and age-matched non-exercising controls volunteered. Femoral bone density was scanned by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. A 3D-DXA software was used to analyse trabecular and cortical bone. Anthropometry, maturation (Tanner staging), menstrual parameters (age at menarche and primary amenorrhea), energy availability and nutritional analysis (3-day record) were also assessed.Compared to non-exercising participants, dancers exhibited significantly higher volumetric density for integral, cortical and trabecular bone, and thicker cortex at the femur. Ballet dancers demonstrated lower body weight compared to controls (p < 0.01). Female dancers had their menarche later than controls, and the prevalence of primary amenorrhea were significantly higher in dancers than controls (p < 0.01). Dancer's energy availability was below the normal range (<30 kcal/kgFFM/day). Despite the presence of certain osteoporosis risk factors such as low energy availability, primary amenorrhoea and lower body weight, professional ballet dancers revealed higher bone density for both cortical and trabecular bone compartments compared to controls.

8.
J Clin Densitom ; 21(4): 480-484, 2018 Oct - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28648836

RESUMO

High bone mass (HBM), a rare phenotype, can be detected by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. Measurements with peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the tibia have found increased trabecular bone mineral density and changes in cortical bone density and structure, all of which lead to increased bone strength. However, no studies on cortical and trabecular bone have been performed at the femur. The recently developed 3-dimensional (3D)-DXA software algorithm quantifies the trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and the anatomical distribution of cortical thickness using routine hip DXA scans. We analyzed the femurs of 15 women with HBM and 15 controls from the Barcelona Osteoporosis (BARCOS) cohort using the 3D-DXA technique. The mean vBMD of proximal femur was 29.7% higher in HBM cases than in controls for the integral bone, 41.3% higher for the trabecular bone, and 7.3% higher for the cortical bone (p < 0.001). No differences in bone size were detected between cases and controls. Patients with HBM had a thicker cortex and higher trabecular and cortical vBMDs, as measured by 3D-DXA at the femur and compared to controls; bone size was similar in both groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of trabecular and cortical characteristics of the hip in patients with HBM.

9.
J Clin Densitom ; 21(4): 550-562, 2018 Oct - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28624339

RESUMO

Structural parameters of the proximal femur evaluate the strength of the bone and its susceptibility to fracture. These parameters are computed from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or from quantitative computed tomography (QCT). The 3-dimensional (3D)-DXA software solution provides 3D models of the proximal femur shape and bone density from anteroposterior DXA scans. In this paper, we present and evaluate a new approach to compute structural parameters using 3D-DXA software. A cohort of 60 study subjects (60.9 ± 14.7 yr) with DXA and QCT examinations was collected. 3D femoral models obtained by QCT and 3D-DXA software were aligned using rigid registration techniques for comparison purposes. Geometric, cross-sectional, and volumetric structural parameters were computed at the narrow neck, intertrochanteric, and lower shaft regions for both QCT and 3D-DXA models. The accuracy of 3D-DXA structural parameters was evaluated in comparison with QCT. Correlation coefficients (r) between geometric parameters computed by QCT and 3D-DXA software were 0.86 for the femoral neck axis length and 0.71 for the femoral neck shaft angle. Correlation coefficients ranged from 0.86 to 0.96 for the cross-sectional parameters and from 0.84 to 0.97 for the volumetric structural parameters. Our study demonstrated that accurate estimates of structural parameters for the femur can be obtained from 3D-DXA models. This provides clinicians with 3D indexes related to the femoral strength from routine anteroposterior DXA scans, which could potentially improve osteoporosis management and fracture prevention.

10.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 36(1): 27-39, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27448343

RESUMO

The 3D distribution of the cortical and trabecular bone mass in the proximal femur is a critical component in determining fracture resistance that is not taken into account in clinical routine Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) examination. In this paper, a statistical shape and appearance model together with a 3D-2D registration approach are used to model the femoral shape and bone density distribution in 3D from an anteroposterior DXA projection. A model-based algorithm is subsequently used to segment the cortex and build a 3D map of the cortical thickness and density. Measurements characterising the geometry and density distribution were computed for various regions of interest in both cortical and trabecular compartments. Models and measurements provided by the "3D-DXA" software algorithm were evaluated using a database of 157 study subjects, by comparing 3D-DXA analyses (using DXA scanners from three manufacturers) with measurements performed by Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT). The mean point-to-surface distance between 3D-DXA and QCT femoral shapes was 0.93 mm. The mean absolute error between cortical thickness and density estimates measured by 3D-DXA and QCT was 0.33 mm and 72 mg/cm3. Correlation coefficients (R) between the 3D-DXA and QCT measurements were 0.86, 0.93, and 0.95 for the volumetric bone mineral density at the trabecular, cortical, and integral compartments respectively, and 0.91 for the mean cortical thickness. 3D-DXA provides a detailed analysis of the proximal femur, including a separate assessment of the cortical layer and trabecular macrostructure, which could potentially improve osteoporosis management while maintaining DXA as the standard routine modality.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton , Densidade Óssea , Fêmur , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Med Phys ; 43(4): 1945, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27036590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cortical thickness and density are critical components in determining the strength of bony structures. Computed tomography (CT) is one possible modality for analyzing the cortex in 3D. In this paper, a model-based approach for measuring the cortical bone thickness and density from clinical CT images is proposed. METHODS: Density variations across the cortex were modeled as a function of the cortical thickness and density, location of the cortex, density of surrounding tissues, and imaging blur. High resolution micro-CT data of cadaver proximal femurs were analyzed to determine a relationship between cortical thickness and density. This thickness-density relationship was used as prior information to be incorporated in the model to obtain accurate measurements of cortical thickness and density from clinical CT volumes. The method was validated using micro-CT scans of 23 cadaver proximal femurs. Simulated clinical CT images with different voxel sizes were generated from the micro-CT data. Cortical thickness and density were estimated from the simulated images using the proposed method and compared with measurements obtained using the micro-CT images to evaluate the effect of voxel size on the accuracy of the method. Then, 19 of the 23 specimens were imaged using a clinical CT scanner. Cortical thickness and density were estimated from the clinical CT images using the proposed method and compared with the micro-CT measurements. Finally, a case-control study including 20 patients with osteoporosis and 20 age-matched controls with normal bone density was performed to evaluate the proposed method in a clinical context. RESULTS: Cortical thickness (density) estimation errors were 0.07 ± 0.19 mm (-18 ± 92 mg/cm(3)) using the simulated clinical CT volumes with the smallest voxel size (0.33 × 0.33 × 0.5 mm(3)), and 0.10 ± 0.24 mm (-10 ± 115 mg/cm(3)) using the volumes with the largest voxel size (1.0 × 1.0 × 3.0 mm(3)). A trend for the cortical thickness and density estimation errors to increase with voxel size was observed and was more pronounced for thin cortices. Using clinical CT data for 19 of the 23 samples, mean errors of 0.18 ± 0.24 mm for the cortical thickness and 15 ± 106 mg/cm(3) for the density were found. The case-control study showed that osteoporotic patients had a thinner cortex and a lower cortical density, with average differences of -0.8 mm and -58.6 mg/cm(3) at the proximal femur in comparison with age-matched controls (p-value < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This method might be a promising approach for the quantification of cortical bone thickness and density using clinical routine imaging techniques. Future work will concentrate on investigating how this approach can improve the estimation of mechanical strength of bony structures, the prevention of fracture, and the management of osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Cortical/fisiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/fisiologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos
12.
Med Image Anal ; 17(4): 475-87, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23466075

RESUMO

Current vertebral fracture prevention measures use Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) to quantify the density of the vertebrae and subsequently determine the risk of fracture. This modality however only provides information about the projected Bone Mineral Density (BMD) while the shape and spatial distribution of the bone determines the strength of the vertebrae. Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) allows for the measurement of the vertebral dimensions and volumetric densities, which have been shown to be able to determine the fracture risk more reliably than DXA. However, for the high cost and high radiation dose, QCT is not used in clinical routine for fracture risk assessment. In this work, we therefore propose a method to reconstruct the 3D shape and density volume of lumbar vertebrae from an anteroposterior (AP) and lateral DXA image used in clinical routine. The method is evaluated for the L2, L3 and L4 vertebra. Of these vertebrae a statistical model of the vertebral shape and density distribution is first constructed from a large dataset of QCT scans. All three models are then simultaneously registered onto both AP and lateral DXA image. The shape and volumetric BMD at several regions of the reconstructed vertebrae is then evaluated with respect to the ground truth QCT volumes. For the L2, L3 and L4 vertebrae respectively the shape was reconstructed with a mean (2RMS) point-to-surface distance of 1.00 (2.64) mm, 0.93(2.52) mm and 1.34(3.72) mm and a strong correlation (r > 0.82) was found between the trabecular volumetric BMD extracted from the reconstructions and from the same subject QCT scans. These results indicate that the proposed method is able to accurately reconstruct the 3D shape and density volume of the lumbar vertebrae from AP and lateral DXA, which can potentially improve the fracture risk estimation accuracy with respect to the currently used DXA derived areal BMD measurements.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Eur Spine J ; 22(2): 379-86, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23073744

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to investigate the use of biplanar radiography for assessing congenital scoliosis due to hemivertebra in 3D. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A reconstruction method was developed to model 3D spines with congenital scoliosis from biplanar radiography. 3D measurements quantifying the global posture, scoliotic deformities and imbalance and describing the shape and pose of the hemivertebra were automatically computed. Five cases of congenital scoliosis were analyzed and the accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparing 3D reconstructions from biplanar radiography with 3D segmentations generated from CT. RESULTS: The mean shape accuracy was 1.8 mm (1.5 mm for the vertebral bodies and pedicles and 2.2 mm for the posterior arches). CONCLUSION: Biplanar radiography can be considered an interesting tool for clinical follow-up of congenital scoliosis as it overcomes some limitations of the analyses based on CT or anteroposterior X-ray: head to feet acquisition, low radiation dose and provides a set of automatically computed postural and morphological parameters in 3D.


Assuntos
Imagem Tridimensional , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Radiografia , Escoliose/congênito , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Bone ; 51(5): 896-901, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22959281

RESUMO

Although the areal Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurements from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are able to discriminate between hip fracture cases and controls, the femoral strength is largely determined by the 3D bone structure. In a previous work a statistical model was presented which parameterizes the 3D shape and BMD distribution of the proximal femur. In this study the parameter values resulting from the registration of the model onto DXA images are evaluated for their hip fracture discrimination ability with respect to regular DXA derived areal BMD measurements. The statistical model was constructed from a large database of QCT scans of females with an average age of 67.8 ± 17.0 years. This model was subsequently registered onto the DXA images of a fracture and control group. The fracture group consisted of 175 female patients with an average age of 66.4 ± 9.9 years who suffered a fracture on the contra lateral femur. The control group consisted of 175 female subjects with an average age of 65.3 ± 10.0 years and no fracture history. The discrimination ability of the resulting model parameter values, as well as the areal BMD measurements extracted from the DXA images were evaluated using a logistic regression analysis. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) of the combined model parameters and areal BMD values was 0.840 (95% CI 0.799-0.881), whilst using only the areal BMD values resulted in an AUC of 0.802 (95% CI 0.757-0.848). These results indicate that the discrimination ability of the areal BMD values is improved by supplementing them with the model parameter values, which give a more complete representation of the subject specific shape and internal bone distribution. Thus, the presented method potentially allows for an improved hip fracture risk estimation whilst maintaining DXA as the current standard modality.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Estatísticos , Idoso , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Cintilografia
15.
Med Phys ; 39(8): 5272-6, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22894452

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is used in clinical routine to provide a two-dimensional (2D) analysis of the bone mineral density (BMD). 3D reconstruction methods from 2D DXA images could improve the BMD analysis. To find the optimal configuration that should be used in clinical routine, this paper relies on a 3D reconstruction method from DXA images to compare the accuracy that can be obtained from one single-view and from multiview DXA images (two to four projections). METHODS: The 3D reconstruction method uses a statistical model and a nonrigid registration technique to recover in 3D the shape and the BMD distribution of the proximal femur. The accuracy was evaluated in vivo by comparing 3D reconstructions obtained from simulated DXA images of 30 patients (using between one and four DXA views) with quantitative computed tomography reconstructions. RESULTS: This comparison showed that the use of one single DXA provides accurate 3D reconstructions (mean shape accuracy of 1.0 mm and BMD distribution errors of 7.0%). Among the multiview configurations, the use of two views (0° and 45°) was the best compromise, increasing the accuracy of pose (mean accuracy of 0.7°/1.2°/0.9° against 1.0°/3.5°/3.3° for the single view), reducing slightly the BMD errors (5.7%) while maintaining the same shape accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The use of two views constitutes an interesting configuration when multiview DXA devices are available in clinical routine. However, the use of only one single view remains an accurate solution to recover the shape and the BMD distribution in 3D, with the advantage of a higher potential for clinical translation.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Idoso , Algoritmos , Densidade Óssea , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv ; 14(Pt 2): 393-400, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21995053

RESUMO

This work presents a statistical model of both the shape and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) distribution of the proximal femur for fracture risk assessment. The shape and density model was built from a dataset of Quantitative Computed Tomography scans of fracture patients and a control group. Principal Component Analysis and Horn's parallel analysis were used to reduce the dimensionality of the shape and density model to the main modes of variation. The input data was then used to analyze the model parameters for the optimal separation between the fracture and control group. Feature selection using the Fisher criterion determined the parameters with the best class separation, which were used in Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis to find the direction in the parameter space that best separates the fracture and control group. This resulted in a Fisher criterion value of 6.70, while analyzing the Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry derived femur neck areal BMD of the same subjects resulted in a Fisher criterion value of 0.98. This indicates that a fracture risk estimation approach based on the presented model might improve upon the current standard clinical practice.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur/patologia , Consolidação da Fratura , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Densidade Óssea , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/patologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Medição de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
17.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 30(12): 2101-14, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21803681

RESUMO

The accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis has gained increasing importance due to the aging of our society. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established criterion in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. This measure, however, is limited by its two-dimensionality. This work presents a method to reconstruct both the 3D bone shape and 3D BMD distribution of the proximal femur from a single DXA image used in clinical routine. A statistical model of the combined shape and BMD distribution is presented, together with a method for its construction from a set of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans. A reconstruction is acquired in an intensity based 3D-2D registration process whereby an instance of the model is found that maximizes the similarity between its projection and the DXA image. Reconstruction experiments were performed on the DXA images of 30 subjects, with a model constructed from a database of QCT scans of 85 subjects. The accuracy was evaluated by comparing the reconstructions with the same subject QCT scans. The method presented here can potentially improve the diagnosis of osteoporosis and fracture risk assessment from the low radiation dose and low cost DXA devices currently used in clinical routine.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Absorciometria de Fóton/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fêmur/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Imagem Tridimensional/instrumentação , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagens de Fantasmas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 34(23): E826-32, 2009 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19927088

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A three-dimensional analysis of spino-pelvic alignment in 60 asymptomatic young adult males and females. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the differences in sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in a group of asymptomatic young adult males and females and describe gender specific reference values. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Several spinal disorders like idiopathic scoliosis and Scheuermann's disease have a well-known sex-related prevalence ratio. As spino-pelvic alignment plays an important role in spinal biomechanics, it is imperative to analyze possible differences between the male and female spino-pelvic alignment. Furthermore, in spinal fusion surgery, normal sagittal balance should be recreated as closely as possible. METHODS: An innovative biplanar ultra low-dose radiographic technique was used to obtain three-dimensional reconstructions of the spine (T1-L5), sacrum, and pelvis in a freestanding position of 30 asymptomatic young male and 30 young female adults. Values were calculated for thoracic kyphosis (T4-T12), lumbar lordosis (L1-S1), total and regional lumbopelvic lordosis (PRT12, PRL2, PRL4, and PRL5), sagittal plumb line of T1, T4, and T9 (HAT1, HAT4, and HAT9), T1-L5 sagittal spinal inclination, T9 sagittal offset, and pelvic parameters (pelvic tilt, sacral slope, and pelvic incidence). In addition, vertebral inclination in the sagittal plane of each vertebra was measured. Differences in spino-pelvic alignment between the sexes were analyzed. RESULTS: The female spine was more dorsally inclined (11 degrees vs. 8 degrees ; P = 0.003). High thoracic and thoracolumbar vertebrae were more dorsally inclined in women than in men. Thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, regional lumbopelvic lordosis, sagittal plumb lines, T9 sagittal offset, and pelvic parameters were not statistically different between the sexes. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the female spine is definitely different from the male spine. The spine as whole and individual vertebrae in certain regions of the normal spine is more backwardly inclined in females than in males. Based on our previous research this signifies that these spinal regions are subjected to different biomechanical loading conditions. These vertebral segments are possibly less rotationally stable in females than in males.


Assuntos
Ossos Pélvicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Caracteres Sexuais , Curvaturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura , Radiografia , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin ; 11(3): 257-62, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18568823

RESUMO

Considering the increasing development of three dimensional (3D) imaging, the 3D assessment of the acetabular coverage is to become the most interesting tool for the detection of acetabular pathologies. Biplanar X-rays based methods allow a 3D reconstruction of the hip with a reduced radiation dose. This study proposes a 3D assessment method of the acetabular coverage from biplanar X-rays or from an anteroposterior X-ray (conventional clinical imaging). An in vitro evaluation of the method was performed on six hip joints in comparison with computed tomography. The global coverage, the local coverage and the acetabular rim orientation were estimated in 3D. The mean global acetabular coverage was 40% with an estimated mean accuracy of 1.3% for the biplanar X-rays based method. This study evaluated a 3D assessment method of the acetabular coverage from biplanar X-rays or anteroposterior X-ray and open the way for clinical in vivo applications.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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