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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860790

RESUMO

The ability to learn from experience is critical for determining when to take risks and when to play it safe. However, we know little about how within-person state changes, such as an individual's degree of neurophysiological arousal, may impact the ability to learn which risks are most likely to fail vs. succeed. To test this, we used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design to pharmacologically manipulate neurophysiological arousal and assess its causal impact on risk-related learning and performance. Eighty-seven adults (45% female, Mage= 20.1 ± 1.46 years) took either propranolol (n= 42), a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker that attenuates sympathetic nervous system-related signaling, or a placebo (n= 45). Participants then completed the Balloon Emotional Learning Task, a risk-taking task wherein experiential learning is necessary for task success. We found that individuals on propranolol, relative to placebo, earned fewer points on the task, suggesting that they were less effective risk-takers. This effect was mediated by the fact that those on propranolol made less optimal decisions in the final phase of the task on trials with the greatest opportunity for advantageous risk-taking. These findings highlight how neurophysiological arousal supports risk-related learning and, in turn, more advantageous decision-making and optimal behavior under conditions of risk.

2.
Child Abuse Negl ; 117: 105033, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being well-positioned to identify maltreatment in the children that they provide care for and being legally required to report suspected child maltreatment, early childhood professionals (ECPs) make a limited proportion of reports to child protective services. It is critical to identify evidence-based interventions to improve the reporting practices of this group of mandated reporters allowing for the better protection of children from maltreatment. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to determine if iLookOut, an online child abuse identification and reporting training for ECPs, results in differential gains in knowledge and attitudes towards child abuse and its reporting among ECPs, as compared to an online standard training. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Both interventions were completed online by participants recruited from licensed child care programs in Southern Maine from October 2017 to January 2020. Eligibility criteria included being at least 18 years of age, English-speaking, and working as paid or volunteer staff at a licensed child care program taking care of children 5 years of age or younger. Of the 1152 enrolled individuals, 1094 provided complete pre- and post-intervention data. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial comparing iLookOut with an online standard training. RESULTS: ECPs who completed iLookOut significantly outperformed those who completed Standard mandated reporter training in terms of both knowledge (d=1.09 vs. 0.67) and attitudes (d=0.67 vs. 0.54) relative to pre-test scores. CONCLUSIONS: iLookOut is a promising candidate for widespread use in meeting the need for evidence-based training on child abuse and its reporting.

3.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women may be especially susceptible to negative events (i.e. adversity) related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and negative affective responses to these events (i.e. stress). We examined the latent structure of stress and adversity related to the COVID-19 pandemic among pregnant women, potential antecedents of COVID-19-related stress and adversity in this population, and associations with prenatal depressive symptoms. METHOD: We surveyed 725 pregnant women residing in the San Francisco Bay Area in March-May 2020, 343 of whom provided addresses that were geocoded and matched by census tract to measures of community-level risk. We compared their self-reported depressive symptoms to women matched on demographic factors and history of mental health difficulties who were pregnant prior to the pandemic. RESULTS: Women who were pregnant during the pandemic were nearly twice as likely to have possible depression than were matched women who were pregnant prior to the pandemic. Individual- and community-level factors tied to socioeconomic inequality were associated with latent factors of COVID-19-related stress and adversity. Beyond objective adversity, subjective stress responses were strongly associated with depressive symptoms during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Highlighting the role of subjective responses in vulnerability to prenatal depression and factors that influence susceptibility to COVID-19-related stress, these findings inform the allocation of resources to support recovery from this pandemic and future disease outbreaks. In addition to policies that mitigate disruptions to the environment due to the pandemic, treatments that focus on cognitions about the self and the environment may help to alleviate depressive symptoms in pregnant women.

4.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(5): 777-785, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between breastfeeding difficulties and trajectories of bonding in the first 6 months postpartum. METHODS: Each month for the first 6 months following birth, 121 mothers of newborn infants (age = 23-45 years, M = 32.31 ± 4.79, 57% White, 23% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 9% Multiracial, 1% Black/African American) were invited to complete self-assessments of bonding. At the first postpartum assessment, mothers who intended to breastfeed also reported whether breastfeeding was more difficult than they had anticipated. We conducted linear mixed modelling to test whether early breastfeeding difficulty was associated with bonding trajectories and examined whether effects remained when accounting for postnatal depression symptoms. RESULTS: We found main effects of breastfeeding difficulty (ß = - .20, 95% CI [ -  .34, - .06]) and postpartum month (ß = .13, 95% CI [.07, .20]) on bonding. On average, women who reported breastfeeding difficulty reported lower bonding than women who did not (Cohen's d = - 0.44, 95% CI [- 0.81, - 0.06]). Additional analyses indicated that, independent of breastfeeding difficulties, women who reported higher postnatal depressive symptoms across the first 6 months postpartum reported lower levels of bonding, on average. Further, within-individual decreases in postnatal depressive symptoms across the first six months were associated with relative improvements in bonding across this period. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Our findings suggest that mothers who experience breastfeeding difficulties are at risk for reduced bonding with their infants in the first 6 months after birth. Moreover, while postnatal depressive symptoms are also associated with reduced bonding, the effect of breastfeeding difficulties on bonding persists over and above the effect of postnatal depressive symptoms.

5.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 48: 100916, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517107

RESUMO

Although decades of research have shown associations between early caregiving adversity, stress physiology and limbic brain volume (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus), the developmental trajectories of these phenotypes are not well characterized. In the current study, we used an accelerated longitudinal design to assess the development of stress physiology, amygdala, and hippocampal volume following early institutional care. Previously Institutionalized (PI; N = 93) and comparison (COMP; N = 161) youth (ages 4-20 years old) completed 1-3 waves of data collection, each spaced approximately 2 years apart, for diurnal cortisol (N = 239) and structural MRI (N = 156). We observed a developmental shift in morning cortisol in the PI group, with blunted levels in childhood and heightened levels in late adolescence. PI history was associated with reduced hippocampal volume and reduced growth rate of the amygdala, resulting in smaller volumes by adolescence. Amygdala and hippocampal volumes were also prospectively associated with future morning cortisol in both groups. These results indicate that adversity-related physiological and neural phenotypes are not stationary during development but instead exhibit dynamic and interdependent changes from early childhood to early adulthood.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 465-471, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression is prevalent during and following pregnancy and is related to adverse outcomes in offspring. Perinatal depression is associated with risk for difficulties in offspring; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are not clear. We examined whether maternal prenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with infant white matter organization and with behavioral problems in toddlerhood. METHODS: 37 mother-infant dyads (20 male; ages 5.95-7.66 months) participated in this study. We conducted diffusion MRI with infants during natural sleep. Mothers reported on their prenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms at six months postpartum. We calculated fractional anisotropy (FA), radial, axial, and mean diffusivity, and assessed offspring behavioral problems at age 18 months. RESULTS: Prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with FA of the corpus callosum; postnatal depressive symptoms were not associated with FA of limbic tracts or corpus callosum segmentations. Higher levels of prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with higher FA and lower radial diffusivity of the corpus callosum genu; FA of this region was positively associated with behavioral problems at age 18 months. LIMITATIONS: This study had a small sample size; therefore, findings should be replicated. Further, we used retrospective reports of maternal prenatal depression, but validated them in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms during pregnancy may affect infant corpus callosum development and, in turn, offspring behaviors. These findings suggest that early maternal stress accelerates infant neurodevelopment in a manner that may increase risk for behavioral problems. Thus, efforts to reduce maternal prenatal depression should be a public health priority.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Comportamento Problema , Substância Branca , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 40(5): 1363-1376, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507867

RESUMO

To better understand early brain development in health and disorder, it is critical to accurately segment infant brain magnetic resonance (MR) images into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Deep learning-based methods have achieved state-of-the-art performance; h owever, one of the major limitations is that the learning-based methods may suffer from the multi-site issue, that is, the models trained on a dataset from one site may not be applicable to the datasets acquired from other sites with different imaging protocols/scanners. To promote methodological development in the community, the iSeg-2019 challenge (http://iseg2019.web.unc.edu) provides a set of 6-month infant subjects from multiple sites with different protocols/scanners for the participating methods. T raining/validation subjects are from UNC (MAP) and testing subjects are from UNC/UMN (BCP), Stanford University, and Emory University. By the time of writing, there are 30 automatic segmentation methods participated in the iSeg-2019. In this article, 8 top-ranked methods were reviewed by detailing their pipelines/implementations, presenting experimental results, and evaluating performance across different sites in terms of whole brain, regions of interest, and gyral landmark curves. We further pointed out their limitations and possible directions for addressing the multi-site issue. We find that multi-site consistency is still an open issue. We hope that the multi-site dataset in the iSeg-2019 and this review article will attract more researchers to address the challenging and critical multi-site issue in practice.

8.
Dev Sci ; : e13082, 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455064

RESUMO

The quality of the early environment influences the development of psychopathology. Children who are deprived of sufficient environmental enrichment in infancy may be at higher risk for developing symptoms of psychopathology in toddlerhood. In this study, we investigated the prospective association between naturalistic measures of adult language input obtained through passive monitoring of infants' daily environments and emerging psychopathology in toddlerhood. In a sample of 100 mothers and their infants recruited from the community (mean age [range] = 6.73 [5-9] months), we used the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) system to measure multiple dimensions of infants' language environments, including both the quantity and consistency of adult speech and conversational turns in infants' daily lives as well as the quantity of infant vocalizations. Subsequently, during toddlerhood (mean age [range] = 18.29 [17-21] months), mothers reported on their children's symptoms of psychopathology. Infants who experienced more consistent adult speech and conversational turns had lower symptoms of psychopathology in toddlerhood, independent of negative emotionality in infancy, maternal depressive symptoms, and laboratory-based measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings have implications for the measurement of environmental factors that may confer risk and resilience to emerging psychopathology.

9.
J Neurosci ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257324

RESUMO

The quantity and quality of the language input that infants receive from their caregivers affects their future language abilities; however, it is unclear how variation in this input relates to preverbal brain circuitry. The current study investigated the relation between naturalistic language input and the functional connectivity of language networks in human infancy using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). We recorded the naturalistic language environments of 5- to 8-month-old male and female infants using the Linguistic Environment Analysis (LENA) system and measured the quantity and consistency of their exposure to adult words and adult-infant conversational turns. Infants completed an rsfMRI scan during natural sleep and we examined functional connectivity among regions of interest previously implicated in language comprehension, including the auditory cortex, the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG). Consistent with theory of the ontogeny of the cortical language network (Skeide and Friederici, 2016), we identified two subnetworks posited to have distinct developmental trajectories: a posterior temporal network involving connections of the auditory cortex and bilateral STG and a frontotemporal network involving connections of the left IFG. Independent of socioeconomic status, the quantity of conversational turns was uniquely associated with functional connectivity of these networks. Infants who engaged in a larger number of conversational turns in daily life had lower connectivity in the posterior temporal language network. These results provide evidence for the role of vocal interactions with caregivers, compared to overheard adult speech, in the function of language networks in infancy.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Infants whose caregivers speak to them more develop better language skills. It is unclear, however, how real-word language input is associated with preverbal brain circuitry. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging during natural sleep can noninvasively measure patterns of brain activation in infancy. The present study finds that the quantity of vocal interactions infants engage in with their caregivers in daily life correlates with the strength of resting-state functional connectivity in regions of the brain implicated in language comprehension. These results provide evidence for the role of vocal interactions with caregivers in the function of language networks in infancy. Interventions that focus on increasing vocal interactions may be associated with infant brain function in a manner that ultimately enhances language abilities.

10.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(12): 1079-1090, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early psychosocial deprivation is associated with increased risk for psychopathology, yet few studies have examined outcomes in adolescents. METHOD: At baseline (M age 22 months), 136 children from Bucharest, Romania, living in large institutions, were randomized into foster care (FCG) or to care as usual (CAUG). Caregivers completed psychiatric interviews regarding their children (52 FCG; 51 CAUG) at age 16 years (M = 16.67 years; SD = 0.78) to assess past year diagnoses and symptom counts. In addition, never-institutionalized community comparison children (n = 47) were included. RESULTS: Ever-institutionalized children had higher rates of meeting criteria for any psychiatric disorder and higher symptom counts of internalizing, externalizing, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and substance use disorders compared to never-institutionalized children (ps < .05). Using intent-to-treat analyses, we found that children in the CAUG had more than twice the rate of psychiatric disorders than children in the FCG (OR = 2.48, 95% CI [1.12, 5.48]). Furthermore, children in foster care who remained in their original placement did not significantly differ in their rates of psychiatric disorders compared to never-institutionalized children. CONCLUSIONS: There are many ways children can be separated from parents, including placement into institutional care. The current findings indicate that such placements are associated with significant risks for psychopathology. Moreover, we provide causal evidence for the long-lasting positive effect of foster care in reducing the risk of psychopathology in adolescence, especially among those in stable placements. These results provide strong evidence that early and stable placements into quality foster care may mitigate risk for psychopathology following severe early psychosocial deprivation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Psicopatologia , Carência Psicossocial , Romênia/epidemiologia
11.
J Neurodev Disord ; 12(1): 36, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of early caregiving experiences is a known contributor to the quality of the language experiences young children receive. What is unknown is whether, and if so, how psychosocial deprivation early in life is associated with long-lasting receptive language outcomes. METHODS: Two prospective longitudinal studies examining early psychosocial deprivation/neglect in different contexts (i.e., deprivation due to institutional care or deprivation experienced by children residing within US families) and receptive language as assessed via the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) were used to assess the magnitude of these associations. First, 129 participants from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of foster care as an alternative to institutional care in Romania, completed a receptive language assessment at age 18 years. Second, from the USA, 3342 participants from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study were assessed from infancy until middle childhood. RESULTS: Children exposed to early institutional care, on average, had lower receptive language scores than their never institutionalized counterparts in late adolescence. While randomization to an early foster care intervention had no long-lasting association with PPVT scores, the duration of childhood exposure to institutional care was negatively associated with receptive language. Psychosocial deprivation in US families was also negatively associated with receptive language longitudinally, and this association remained statistically significant even after accounting for measures of socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Experiences of psychosocial deprivation may have long-lasting consequences for receptive language ability, extending to age 18 years. Psychosocial deprivation is an important prospective predictor of poorer receptive language. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Bucharest Early Intervention Project ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00747396.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence has been proposed to be a period of heightened sensitivity to environmental influence. If true, adolescence may present a window of opportunity for recovery for children exposed to early-life adversity. Recent evidence supports adolescent recalibration of stress response systems following early-life adversity. However, it is unknown whether similar recovery occurs in other domains of functioning in adolescence. METHODS: We use data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project - a randomized controlled trial of foster care for children raised in psychosocially depriving institutions - to examine the associations of the caregiving environment with reward processing, executive functioning, and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology at ages 8, 12, and 16 years, and evaluate whether these associations change across development. RESULTS: Higher quality caregiving in adolescence was associated with greater reward responsivity and lower levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, after covarying for the early-life caregiving environment. The associations of caregiving with executive function and internalizing and externalizing symptoms varied by age and were strongest at age 16 relative to ages 8 and 12 years. This heightened sensitivity to caregiving in adolescence was observed in both children with and without exposure to early psychosocial neglect. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescence may be a period of heightened sensitivity to the caregiving environment, at least for some domains of functioning. For children who experience early psychosocial deprivation, this developmental period may be a window of opportunity for recovery of some functions. Albeit correlational, these findings suggest that it may be possible to reverse or remediate some of the lasting effects of early-life adversity with interventions that target caregiving during adolescence.

13.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 46: 100877, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220629

RESUMO

Stressful experiences are linked to neurodevelopment. There is growing interest in the role of stress in the connectivity between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a circuit that subserves automatic emotion regulation. However, the specific timing and mechanisms that underlie the association between stress and amygdala-mPFC connectivity are unclear. Many factors, including variations in fetal exposure to maternal stress, appear to affect early developing brain circuitry. However, few studies have examined the associations of stress and amygdala-mPFC connectivity in early life, when the brain is most plastic and sensitive to environmental influence. In this longitudinal pilot study, we characterized the association between prenatal stress and amygdala-mPFC connectivity in young infants (approximately age 5 weeks). A final sample of 33 women who provided data on preconception and prenatal stress during their pregnancy returned with their offspring for a magnetic resonance imaging scan session, which enabled us to characterize amygdala-mPFC structural and functional connectivity as a function of prenatal stress. Increased prenatal stress was associated with decreased functional connectivity and increased structural connectivity between the amygdala and mPFC. These results provide insight into the influence of prenatal maternal stress on the early development of this critical regulatory circuitry.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047183

RESUMO

Attachment security may be a mechanism by which exposure to early life adversity affects subsequent generations. We used a prospective cohort design to examine this possibility in a convenience sample of 124 women (age = 23-45 years, M = 32.32 [SD = 4.83] years; 57.3% White, 22.6% Asian) who provided self-reports of attachment style during pregnancy using the Attachment Style Questionnaire, of whom 96 (age = 28-50 years, M = 36.67 [SD = 4.90] years; 60.4% White, 19.8% Asian) were reassessed when their child was preschool-age (M = 4.38 [SD = 1.29] years). Women self-reported on their own childhood maltreatment severity and their child's current emotional and behavioral problems using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5-5, respectively. Maternal childhood maltreatment severity was associated with less secure, and more avoidant and anxious attachment. Mediation analyses revealed further that less secure maternal attachment, but not avoidant or anxious attachment, mediated the associations between maternal childhood maltreatment and offspring emotional and behavioral problems. These findings suggest that improving maternal attachment security, which can be identified even prior to the child's birth, is an important target to consider for intervention efforts aimed at minimizing adverse intergenerational effects of early life adversity.

15.
Infant Ment Health J ; 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978996

RESUMO

Knowledge and understanding about the impact of cumulative adverse experiences on the health and wellbeing of children, adolescents, and adults has rapidly expanded over the past 30 years. Despite the invaluable attention and support this proliferation has drawn to the importance of early childhood experiences, we believe that it is time to move beyond broad indices of risk and toward more specific and individualized understanding of how risk exposures are linked to clinical outcomes in young children. Within infant and early childhood mental health, there is a need for greater specificity in linking adverse caregiving experiences in early life to psychopathology in children. We highlight a framework distinguishing experiences of trauma from experiences of deprivation and use the examples of posttraumatic stress disorder and reactive attachment disorder to demonstrate how greater specificity in our understanding of early adverse caregiving can lead to more accurate and targeted diagnosis and treatment for young children. Both researchers and clinicians benefit from an approach to gain a greater appreciation of the links between specific types of experiences and outcomes in the children that we serve.

16.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 59(10): 1102-1104, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710936

RESUMO

There is considerable evidence that child maltreatment is associated with significant short- and long-term negative outcomes.1 Protecting children from maltreatment should be a clear priority, and there is substantial opportunity for making improvements in child protective services (CPS) to better serve those they are tasked with protecting. Making progress in this effort requires a closer inspection of the processes in place to identify children in danger of being harmed and of the potential effectiveness of the current system. The article by Kim and Drake2 published in the Journal examined CPS records to create US estimates for child maltreatment onset and recurrence for children from birth to age 11 years. More than one-third of children are estimated to have a screened-in report for investigation or assessment by CPS, and after an initial report is made regarding a child, the probability of a subsequent report is nearly 1 in 2. This alarming rate of maltreatment recurrence points to potential areas for improvement.

17.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 44: 100796, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479375

RESUMO

Deviations in neurodevelopment may underlie the association between lower childhood socioeconomic status and difficulties in cognitive and socioemotional domains. Most previous investigations of the association between childhood socioeconomic status and brain morphology have used cross-sectional designs with samples that span wide age ranges, occluding effects specific to adolescence. Sex differences in the association between socioeconomic status and neurodevelopment may emerge or intensify during adolescence. In a sample representative of the San Francisco Bay Area, we used whole-brain tensor-based morphometry to examine sex differences in the cross-sectional association between variation in family income-to-needs ratio (INR) and cortical and subcortical gray and white matter volume during early adolescence (ages 9-13 years; N = 147), as well as in the longitudinal association between INR and change in volume from early to later adolescence (ages 11-16 years, N = 109). Biological sex interacted with INR to explain variation in volume in several areas cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Effects were primarily in cortical gray matter areas, including regions of the association cortex and sensorimotor processing areas. Effect sizes tended to be larger in boys than in girls. Biological sex may be an important variable to consider in analyses of the effects of family income on structural neurodevelopment during adolescence.

19.
Cereb Cortex ; 30(7): 4269-4280, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215605

RESUMO

Early life stress (ELS) may accelerate frontoamygdala development related to socioemotional processing, serving as a potential source of resilience. Whether this circuit is associated with other proposed measures of accelerated development is unknown. In a sample of young adolescents, we examined the relations among ELS, frontoamygdala circuitry during viewing of emotional faces, cellular aging as measured by telomere shortening, and pubertal tempo. We found that greater cumulative severity of ELS was associated with stronger negative coupling between bilateral centromedial amygdala and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a pattern that may reflect more mature connectivity. More negative frontoamygdala coupling (for distinct amygdala subdivisions) was associated with slower telomere shortening and pubertal tempo over 2 years. These potentially protective associations of negative frontoamygdala connectivity were most pronounced in adolescents who had been exposed to higher ELS. Our findings provide support for the formulation that ELS accelerates maturation of frontoamygdala connectivity and provide novel evidence that this neural circuitry confers protection against accelerated biological aging, particularly for adolescents who have experienced higher ELS. Although negative frontoamygdala connectivity may be an adaptation to ELS, frontoamygdala connectivity, cellular aging, and pubertal tempo do not appear to be measures of the same developmental process.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While depression is typically associated with reduced levels of empathy, this association differs depending on how empathy is measured. Given the importance of empathy in the parent-child relationship, we sought to examine whether the associations between depression and dispositional empathy would also extend to empathy towards one's own child. METHODS: Within a non-clinical sample of 150 parents of young children, we examined the associations between self-reported depressive symptoms, dispositional empathic tendencies, and empathy specifically toward their own children, and how these associations might differ based on parent gender. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of cognitive and affective empathy, and higher levels of empathic distress. Over and above the association with dispositional empathy, depressive symptoms were associated with reduced levels of parents' affective empathy toward their own child. The associations between depressive symptoms and both dispositional and own-child specific empathy varied by parent gender. For fathers, depressive symptoms predicted own-child specific affective empathy, over and above dispositional affective empathy, while for mothers, depressive symptoms predicted own-child specific empathic distress, over and above dispositional empathic distress. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings provide further indication that caregivers with elevated depression may engage in patterns of thoughts and behaviors that have implications for their interactions with their children. Parents' experienced empathy toward their own child may be one mechanism by which depression impacts the early caregiving environment, and thus may be an important target for intervention in improving the early caregiving experiences for children at elevated risk due to parental depression. Differences in cognitive and affective empathy found among those with depression may be even more pronounced in the thoughts and feelings towards one's own child, making this an important clinical target.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Empatia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
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